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Full text of "Modern geography : a description of the empires, kingdoms, states, and colonies ; with the oceans, seas, and isles ; in all parts of the world : including the most recent discoveries, and political alterations, digested on a new plan"



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PREFACE. V \ 



rj^HE Importance of geography as a fcience, and the exuberant va- 
^ riety of knowledge and amufement which it exhibits, are themes 
too trivial for argument or illuftration. Eagerly attached to this ftudy 
from his early years, the author a'ways cherifhed a hope that he might 
contribute his labours to its advancement. For much remained to be 
done ; and many Uterary men have long admitted, that great advan- 
tages might be derived from a new and Improved fyftem of modern 
geography, the lateft popular works of this nature not only abounding 
with numerous and grofs miftakes, but being io imperfedt in their 
original plans, that the chief geographical topics have been facrificed 
to long details of hiftory, chronology, and commercial regulations, 
wholly extraneous to the very nature of fuch a defign. When to this 
it is added, that the mofl recent and important difcoveries are either 
omitted, imperfedly illuftrated, or fo defedlively arranged as to em- 
barrafs and baffle the refearch of the moft patient inquirer, there is no 
reafon to be furprifed at the general confeffion, that fuch compilations 
are only ufed becaufe there is no better extant. 

The fuccefhve difcoveries in the Pacific Ocean, and other parts of 
the globe, have, within thefe few years, acquired fuch a certainty and 
confiftency, that they may now be admitted and arranged, in a regular 

A 2 and 



l22r57G4 



IV 



PREFACE. 

and precile clKltibutioii of the parts of the habitable world ; while the 
recent difcoveries of La Peroufe, Vancouver, and other navigators, 
nearly complete the exadl delineation of the continental fliores. No 
period of time could be more favourable to the appearance of a new 
fyftem of geography, than the beginning of a new century, after the 
elapfe of the eighteenth, which will be memorable in all ages, from 
the gigantic progrefs of every fcience, and in particular of geographical 
information ; nor lefs from the furprifing changes which have taken 
place in moft countries of Europe, and which of themfelves render a 
\ new defcription indifpenfiible. Whole kingdoms have been annihi- 
lated ; grand provinces transferred : and fuch a general alteration has 
taken place in ftates and boundaries, that a geographical work publilhed 
five years ago may be pronounced to be already antiquated. 

After a general war of the moft eventful defcription, after revolu- 
tions of the moft aftonifhing nature, Europe at length repofes in uni- 
verfal peace. The new divifions and boundaries no longer fluifluate 
with every campaign, but are eftablifhed by folemn treaties, which pro- 
mife to be durable, as at no former period has war appeared more 
fanguinary or deftrudive, and at the fame time more fruitlefs even to 
the vidtors. Thefe treaties not only influence the defcriptions of Eu- 
ropean countries, but of many in Afia, Africa, and America. 

^ A new fyftem of geography is alfo fpecially authorized and authen- 
ticated, by the fingular advantage of feveral important books of travels 
having appeared within thefe few years, which introduce far more 
light and precifion into our knowledge of many regions. The embaf- 
fies to China, Tibet, and Ava, for example, prefent fre(h and authentic 
materials, without which recourfe muft have been had to more remote 
and doubtful information ; and the Birman empire is unknown to all 
fyftems of geography. The Refearches of the Afiatic Society, and 

other 



PREFACE. 

other late works, difFufe a new radiance over Hindoftan, and the ad- 
jacent countries. The labours of the African Society, the travels of 
Park, Browne, and Barrow, have given more precifion to our imper- 
feQ. knowledge of Africa : and the journies of Hearne and Mackenzie 
have contributed to difclofe the northern boundaries of America. In 
fhort, it may be fafely affirmed, that more important books of travels 
and other fources of geographical information, have appeared within 
thefe few years, than at any period whatever of literary hiftory. 

In this work the eflence of innumerable books of travels and voyages^ 
will be found to be extradled ; and fuch produdions have been the 
favourite amufements of the mofb diftinguifhed minds, in all periods 
and countries, as combining the variety, novelty, and adventure, of 
poetical and romantic narration, with the ftudy of man, and the benefits 
of praftical Inftrudion. It is unneceflary to repeat the names of Mon- 
taigne, Locke, Montefquieu, &c. or that of my late friend Gibbon, whofe 
colle£llon of voyages and travels formed the moft chofen part of his 
library. Why did he not write geography ! Why has a Strabo been 
denied to modern times ! j 

Nor muft the rapid advances of natural hiftory be forgotten, which 
now confer fuch fuperior precifion on the natural geography of moft 
countries. Not only have zoology and botany received the greateft 
improvements ; but geology and mineralogy have, within thefe twenty 
years, become entirely new and grand fclences ; the fubftances being 
accurately arranged, and defcrlbed with fuch clearnefs, that throughout 
the literary world they are exactly known and dlfcrimlnated.* 

• The prefent fyftem of mineralogy was firft eftablifhed by Bergmann, in I7"2 ; who was 
followed by Werner, 1789. Mr. Kirwan publifhed an excellent work, 1794, two volumes, 8vo. 
and in general, within rhefe ten years, this important ftudy, fo cfTential to national wealth and 
prosperity, has on the new principles been cultivated with furpriling ardour and fuccefs. 

Yet 



vi PREFACE. 

Yet even with fucli advantages geography is far from being perfedl ; 
and the familiar exclamation of D'Aiiville in his old age may dill be 
adopted : " Ah ! my friends, there are many errors in geography." ^'^ 
This fciencc may indeed be regarded as imperfed in its very nature, 
as no reafonable hope can be entertained that all the habitable lands 
fliall, at any period of time, pafs under a trigonometrical furvey, the 
only ftandard of complete exadtnefs. The chief defeds are the interior 
parts of Africa, and many portions even of the ihores ; Tibet, and fome 
other central regions of Afia, nay even Perfia, Arabia, and Afiatic 
Turkey ; the weftern parts of North America ; and the Spanifh fettle- 
ments in that part of the new continent ; with the central and fouthern 
parts of South America. Of New Holland little is known, except the 
fliores : and many difcoveries remain to be made in the Pacific Ocean, 
particulaily the extent and interior part of New Guinea, and other 
large lands in that quarter. Even in Europe the geography of Spain 
and Portugal is very imperfect, though not fo defedlive as that of 
European Turkey ; nor can we loudly boaft while, as Major Rennell 
informs us, there is no exad; chart of the Britifli Channel ; and the tri- 
gonometrical furvey, fo far as it has extended,has detected grofs errors in 
the maps of the counties, f We have indeed been generally more 
attentive to remote regions, than to our native country ; and could a new 
fyflem have been publifhed with more advantages, than in the kingdom 
which has given birth to the greateft modern difcoveries, and improve- 
ments in geography ? 

* " J^h ! nies amis, tly a blen des errcurs duns la geographie." 

+ It is a lamenlable circumftance that geography is at times retrogreflive in foine points, while 
it advances in others. Thus Prcilon's furvey of the Shetland Iflands reprefents them as one third 
part too large, both in length and breadth, ; nd there are grofs errors in the pofitions. The mif- 
take was detefted in the importai>t voyages ordered by the late king of France ; and remedied in 
the Danidi map, Copenhagen, 1787, but ilill more in that of Capt. Donnelly. Thefe ifles now 
appear nearly as in the maps preceding 1750. Prefton's map of tliefe remc te Britifh poffeffions 
has even occafioned fhipwrecks : and the fciencc and capacity neceffary for fuch a furvey ought to 
be the objeft of llrift previous inveftigation. Many fuch inftances might be given. 

The 



PREFACE. 

The rapid progrefs of fcience has alfo, within a like fliort period, 
greatly improved the maps and charts of mod countries, always to be 
ranked among the chief objedls of geography ; though unaccountably 
the compilers of modern fyftems feem to write without the infpeftion ' 
of any map whatever, or at leail never make any reference of that na- 
ture. This is the more furprifnig, as accurate maps and charts may be 
faid to form the very foundation of geographical knowledge. The au- 
thor of the prefent work has been fedulous to difcover the lateft and 
heft maps of all countries, in which refearch he has been liberally af- 
fifted by our beft practical geographers. The fmall maps which ac- 
company the work are drawn with great care, under the diredlions and 
revifion of Mr. Arrowfmith, who is well known by the induftry and 
attention which he employs in feleding the moft recent and accurate 
materials and improvements. The fmallnefs of the fize will of courfe 
prevent them from fupplying the place of a large and complete atlas ; 
but they will be found to conftitute an ufeful introdudion to inch a 
collection, as they are reduced from the bed large maps, and the au- 
thorities added at the bottom, while they are illuftrated with many im- 
portant features of the countries, and interefting names, derived from 
works of natural and civil hiftory, for which a large and expenfive 
atlas may be confulted in vain.* The latter had beft be formed by the 

* A mod ingenious artift, confiderably imbued with mathematical knowledge, having in- 
vented machines which give more cleavnefs and precifion to the engraving of ftraijht lines, the 
author, who had hitherto only feen this method employed in the reprefentation of matliemat cal 
inftruraents, and machinerv, was impreffed with its peculiar fitnefs for the delineation of water. 
With this idea he applied to Mr. Lowry, the inventor, and the effedl is novy before the public in 
a feries of maps, which may fafely be pronounced to be not only unrivalled, but unexampled by 
any former efforts in this department. Not to mention fuperior richnefs and neatnefs, it is not only 
fingularly adapted to theinftruftion of youth, by the inllantaneous reprefentation oftlie form and 
chief bearings of each country, but alfo facilitates confukation by the marked dillinftion between 
land and water, which enables the eye to pafs more quickly to the other objefls. The confultatiou 
of charts might be facilitated in a fimilar manner, while, in rhe ufual concraft between maps and 
charts, the fea might be preferved white, and the lands diftinguidied by ftrokes, not horizontal, 
which would rcfemble water, but vertical. In mineralogical maps the heraldic mode of en- 
graving might be adopted. 

reader 



Vll 



Vlll 



PREFACE. 

reader himfclf, for which purpofe a lift of the heft maps is given at the 
end of the fecond volume, affording materials for a felecStion of the 
great, of the middle, or of the fmall kind. To the fi.rft clafs, for ex- 
ample, may be affigned Caffini's map of France in one hundred and 
eighty-three Iheets, Ferrari's map of the Netherlands, and others of 
a fimilar extent, more appropriated to public libraries and princely col- 
•leftions. To the fecond clafs may be referred maps of kingdoms, from 
eight or fix to four fheets ; while an atlas of the fmalleft fize may 
include thofe from four to one fheet large folio ; under which a colledt- 
ed atlas can be of no utility. Yet even of the latter a wonderful de- 
feat may be obferved in the beft private libraries, where, though a good 
atlas (hould form the firft objed of enquiry and expence, as being ufeful 
in reading almoft every defcription of books, yet maps of the moft 
antiquated and erroneous kind often appear ; and even the literary in- 
veftigator is fatisfied with finding the name without exploring the fide- 
lity of the general outline, or the accuracy of the pofitions. 

With the advantages above enumerated, of new and important dlf- 
coveries, of recent and authentic intelligence, and of the particular pe- 
riod of publication, there cannot be any great claim of merit in pre- 
fenting a more complete fyftem of geography, than has yet appeared in 
any language ; for the Spaniards and Italians have been dormant in this 
fcience, the French works of La Croix and others are too brief, while 
the German compilations of Bufching, Fabri, Ebeling, &c. &c. are 
of a moft tremendous prolixity, arranged in the moft taftelefs manner, 
and exceeding in dry names, and trifling details, even the minutenefs 
of our Gazetteers*. A defcription of Europe in fourteen quarto 

* The geographical ephemeris of Zach, [Mgemetne Geographifche Ephemeriden,') a monthly 
journal in the German language, embraced aftronomy and geography, and has contributed to the 
advancement of both fciences. It is now condufted by Gafpari and Bertiicli, rnd more ftriftly 
confined to geography ; while Zach's new journal {Monatliche Correfpondenz.) relates chiefly to 
allronomy. 

6 volumes 



PREFACE. 

volumes may well be contrafted with Strabo's defcription of the world 
in one volume r and geography I'eems to be that branch of fcience in 
which the ancients have eftabliflied a more claflical reputation than the 
moderns. Every great literary monument may be iaid to be ereded 
by compilation, from the time of Herodotus to that of Gibbon, and i 
from the age of Homer to that of Shakipere ; but in the ufe of the ma- 
terials there is a wide difference between Strabo, Arrian, Ptolemy, Paufa- 
nias, Mela, Pliny, and other celebrated ancient names, and modern gene- 
ral geographers; all of whom, except d'Anville, feem under-graduates in 
literature, without the diftinguifhed talents, or reputation, which have 
accompanied almoft every other literary exertion. Yet it may fafely 
be affirmed that a produdion of real value in univerfal geography re- 
quires a Vv-ider extent of various knowledge than any other literary de- 
partment, as embracing topics of the moft multifarious defcription. 
There is however one name, that of d'Anville, peculiarly and juftly 
eminent in this fcience ; but his reputation is chiefly derived from his 
maps, and from his illuftrations of various parts of ancient geography. 
In fpecial departments Goffellin, and other foreigners, have alfo been 
recently diftinguifhed ; nor is it neceffary to remind the reader of the 
great merit of Rennell and Vincent in our own country. 

With fuch examples the author confeffes his ambitious defire that the 
prefent work may, at leaft, be regarded as more free from defeds than 
any preceding fyftem of modern geography. By the liberality of the 
publifiiers no expence has been fpared in colleding materials from all 
quarters ; and the affemblage of books and maps would amount to an ex- 
pence hardly credible. If there be any failure, the blame muft folely 
reft with the author ; who being however converfant with the fubjed, 
from his early youth, when he was accuftomed to draw maps, while 
engaged in the ftudy of hiftory, and never having negleded his devo- 
tion to this important fcience, he hopes that the ample materials 

VOL. I. a -will 



IX 



PREFACE. 

will be found not to have been entrufted to inadequate hands. He may 
affirm that the mod fedulous attention has been exerted, in the felcQion 
and arrangement of the moft interefting topics ; and he hopes that the 
novelty of the plan will not only be recommended by greater eafe and 
expedition, in ufmg this work as a book of reference ; but by a more 
ftrldl and claffical connedion, fo as to afford more clear and fatisfadlory 
information on a general perufal. The nature and caufes of the plan 
Ihall be explained in the preliminary obfervations, as being intimately 
connedled with other topics there invefligated. It may here fuffice to 
obferve, that the obje<n:s moft effentially alhed with each other, inflead 
of being difperfed as fragments, are here gathered into diftinfl heads 
or chapters, arranged in uniform progrefs, except where particular cir- 
cumftances commanded a deviation: and inftead of pretended hiftories, 
and prolix commercial documents, the chief attention is devoted to fub- 
jeQ.s ftridtly geographical, but which in preceding fyftems have often 
appeared in the form of a mere lift of names, the evanefcent fhades of 
knowledge. Meagre details of hiftory can be of no fervice even to 
youth, and are foreign to the aame and nature of geography, which, 
like chronology, only afpires to illuftrate hiftory ; and, without en- 
croaching upon other provinces, has more than fufficient difficulties to 
encounter. The States are arranged according to their comparative 
importance, as it is proper that the objeds which deferve moft atten- 
tion ftiould be treated at the greateft length, and claim the earlieft obfer- 
vation of the ftudent. 

In the Introdu£tion Profeffor Vlnce feems to have omitted nothing in 
aftronomy, or meteorology, that could in the leaft illuftrate geography; 
and has carefully availed himfelfof the lateft inventions and difcoveries. 
For the botany of the feveral countries this work is indebted to Mr. 
Arthur Aikin, a zealous and intelligent cultivator of natural hiftory. It 
may be neceflary to remind the unlearned reader, that the Latin names 

5 in 



PREFACE. xi 

in this part are unavoidable, becaufe plants not known in England mufl: 
rarely admit of Englilh appellations. 

This work will, it is hoped, fliew the progrefs of geography, in 
every part of the world, to the beginning of the nineteenth century; 
and when compared with any fyftem, publifhed at the beginning, or 
even in the middle, of the eighteenthj the advances will be found to be 
prodigious. Many of the early fyftems were not a little injured in 
truth and perfpicuity, by the mixture of ancient and modern names, 
even in the maps; an abfurdity lately attempted to be revived by feme 
French authors : while in this ftudy the modern ftate ought always to 
claim the precedence, becaufe the genuine form of the countries, the 
windings of the fliores, the courfe of the rivers, the diredtlon of the 
mountains, and all thofe parts in which natural geography receives affift- 
ance from natural hifhory, are only afcertained by recent obfervations ; 
and upon this immutable bafis ancient geography mufl: ultimately refl:. 
The modern delineations of many parts of Greece and Afia Minor 
have thrown a light upon ancient hifl:ory, which could never have been 
derived from theoretic geography, always ufelefe, becaufe it cannot alter 
the face of nature; and often blameable, as by fuppofitions of know- 
ledge, it impedes the progrefs of genuine obfervation, and patient dif- 
covery. In order to delineate the ancient fl;ate of a country, it is indif- 
penfable that the befl; modern maps be previoufly invefliigated ; by 
which procefs alone can the fites be accurately determined : and innu- 
merable conje£tures ofCluverius, Cellarius, and even d'Anville, have 
been overturned by the precificn of recent knowledge. Yet the firft 
elements of ancient geography are often inftilled into the minds of youth 
from obfolete maps, in which the mofl: important pofitlons of natural 
geography, and fometimes even the very points of the compafs, are 
perverted; and from authors whofe mofl: radical opinions have been 

a- 2. over- 



xu 



PREFACE. 

overturned half a centuiy ago '. The proper progrefs is therefore to 
begin with the ftudy of modern geography, which may afterwards be 
followed, with the greatert; advantage, by that of the ancient. The 
oppofite courfe feems almoft as ridiculous &s it would be to commence 
the ftudy of botany by the perufal of Diofcorides, and the Greek and 
Latin names of plants, without any acquaintance with their genuine 
charadteriftics and qualities. In general, genius may be cultivated by 
the ftudy of ancient authors ; but the grounds of any branch of fcience 
are to be fought in modern precifion. 

Amidft other advantages already indicated, the regular references to 
the authorities, here obferved for the firft time in any geographical 
fyftem, will be admitted to be a confiderable improvement, not only as 
imparting authenticity to the text, but as enabling the reader to recur to 
the beft original works, when he is defirous of more minute informa- 
tion *. Yet this improvement is fo fimple that the omiflion might 
feem matter of furprize, were it not that former works of this nature 
will generally be found to be blindly copied from preceding fyftems, 
with the fole claim of fuperiority in error, as muft happen in fuch 
cafes, where miftakes multiply, and an old hallucination becomes the 
father of a numerous progeny. The ftridl quotation of authorities 
might alfo be rather dangerous in erroneous details ; and the omiflion 
is as convenient, as it is to pafs in filence geographical doubts of great 
importance, which might prove perilous ordeals of fcience. Accuf- 
tomed to the labours and pleafures of learning merely for his own men- 



* It is alfo to be wiflied that writers on civil and natural hiftory, &c. would, on the mention of 
places otherwifc minute and obfcure, indicate the diftance and the quarter of the compafs from fome 
well known city, or other objefi, the bare mention of a name being often infufficient, even for 
conlultation of the largeft atlas. This defeft often confuraes much of the reader's time, which 
might be faved by the addition of two or three words, with an improvement of the fenfe, and no 
injury to the melody of the expreflion. 

tal 



PREFACE, xiii 

■till improvement, as the delight of his eafe, the relief of care, the folace 
of misfortune, the author never hefifates to avow his doubts, or his 
ignorance ; nor fcruples to facrifice the little vanity of the individual to 
his grand objed, the advancement of fcience. An emphatic Arabian ' 
proverb declares that the e}-rors of the learned are learned ; and even the 
miftakes of a patient and unbiafled inquirer may often excite difcuffion, 
and a confequent elucidation of the truth. Many blemiflies will no doubt, 
be found in a work of fuch an extenfive and multifarious nature ; but 
thofe who are chiefly enabled to detedl them will be the firft to pardon. 
The author can folenmly declare that, in the few cenfures which may 
be here found of fome miftakes in other works, he has in no inflancc 
been influenced by any motive, except the pure wifh of prefenting exadt 
information ; fuch a detection of preceding errors being indifpenfable 
in a work of inftrudion. But fuch paflages will be found extremely 
rare, as he has generally left it to the reader to dete£l the miftakes of his 
predeceflfors, many of which are grofs and radical even beyond con- 
ception, by a mere collation of their defcriptions with thofe contained 
in the prefent work. Should the public favour reward the author's en- 
deavours, he will moft feduloufly remove any blemifhes, and adopt 
fuch real improvements as may be fuggefted. In the ftyle he has chiefly 
aimed at concife perfpicuity ; and may have frequently facrificed ele- 
gance of ornament, or magnificence of period, to the fevere accuracy 
of the topic. Even the eloquence of Pliny feems opprefled by the pro- 
lix minutenefs of geography, and ftruggles in vain, like a grand ca- 
tara£t, nearly arrefted by the froft of an alpine winter. Nay the moft 
decorated and concife of the ancient geographers is conftraiued to be- 
gin with an apology. " I attempt to defcribe the ftate of the world, a work 
" full of impediments and difficulties, and which can fcarcely be enlivened 
" by one ray of elocution; for a great part will confift of the. names of 

6 " nations 



xiv PREFACE. 

" nations and places, with fome perplexity even in the order to be £oU 
" lowed ; and the materials are rather prolix than alluring. The ob- 
" jedl is neverthelefs grand, and important ; and afpires to the utmoft 
" dignity of fcience ; being, even in unlkilful hands, capable of invit- 
" ing attention, by the contemplation of its magnitude *." 

• Pompon. Mela de Situ Oibis, Lib. i. init. Prooemii., 



CONTENTS 



CONTENTS 



OF THE 



INTRODUCTION. 



"pIGUREandDimenJionsoftheEarth - . - 

Latitude and Longitude of Places upon the Earth's Surface 
Jtmofphere of the Earth ■ . - - - 

On Parallax -■-.-- 

The /Iflronomical ^adrant _ . - - 

The Tranftt Telefcope . _ , - - 

Explanation of Jljlronomical Terms - - - 

DoSrine of the Sphere - - . - - 

Some Problems ---_-• 
^ronomical Terms arifmg from different Situations of the SpeSator upon 
To find the right Afcenfion and Declination of the Heavenly Bodies 
Equation of Time . . - . - 

The Solar Ststtm - • - - - ' 

Motion of the Moon and its Phenomena . - - 

Rotation of the Sun and Planets _ _ - ~ 

Rotation of the Satellites . . . - 

Satellites of Jupiter . . . . _ 

Satellites of Saturn . . . . - 

SateUiles of the Georgian - - 

Ring of Saturn . . . . - 

Eclipses of the Sun and Moon - _ - - 

Nature and Motion of Comets - ... 

The Fixed Stars . - - - - 

The Conflellations - - _ - • 



the Earth 



Page 

i 

iv 

V 

vi 

vii 

viii 

H). 

ix 

xiv 

xvi 

ib. 

xvii 

xix 

xxiii 

xxvi 

XX vii 

ib. 

ib. 

xxviii 

ib. 

ib. 

xxxii 

xxxiil 

xxxiv 

Ancitnl 



CONTENTS OF INTRODUCTION. 



jfiicient Con/lellatkn! _ - . « . 

New Southern Conjlellations .... 

Conjlellations of Hevelius — . . - . 

The Proper Motion of ihejixed Stars .... 
The Zodiacal Li^ht - - . . - 

The Tides -._... 

To find the LoNGirvDE of Places upon the Earth's Surface 
- Longitude by a Time- keeper - _ _ 

» Longitude by an Eclipfe of the Moon, and of 'Jupiter^ s Satellites 
»- Longitude by the Moon's Diflance from the Sun, or a fixed Star 
On the [/sE of the Globes . . - _ . 

_ Terrestrial Globe, with Problems 



■-Celestijl Globe, 'with Problems 



On the Di-vj/ion of Time ....--. 

Njirui<E and Use of Maps ._,_.. 

The Mariner's Compafs ..-.--- 

Variation obfervedat London at different Times ... - - 

The Variation obfer-ved at different Hours of the fame Day, July 2 yth. 1759 
The mean Variation for each Month in the Tear, . - - - - 

Wiuss - - .'• 

Obfervations made on Derwent Lake -.-.«- 

The Barometer .-,._.--. 

Thermometer -_-..-.. 

Rain-gage _-.._... 

Hygrometer ........ 

On the Afcent of Vapours, the OrigtH of Springs, and Formation of Rain, Snow, and Hail 

Temperaivrs of different Parts of the Earth - . . _ . 

JDivifions of the Surface of the Earth _ . . - - 

The Component Parts of the Ejrtb _ . _ - - 

Measures - • - - -- 

Taslks of Longitudes and Latitvdes afcertained by Obfervation, tsfc. 



Page 
xxxiv 

XXXV 

xxxvi 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
xxxvili 
xxxix 
xt 
xlii 
xliii 
zliT 
xlv 
xlvi 
xlix 
1 
liil 
ib. 
ib. 
U 
Ivii 
Iviii 
lix 
Isiit 
ib. 
Ixiv 
Ixvi 
Ixxiii 
ib. 
Ixxx 
Ixxxvli 



INTRO- 



INTRODUCTION. 



I. VJEOGRAPHY, as k relates to the figure 
and dimenfions of the earth, and the relative fituations 
of places upon its furface, is founded upon the principles 
of Astronomy ; we (hall therefore give a full and fa- 
miliar explanation of fuch parts of the latter fcience, 
as may be neceffary for underttanding the former ; to- 
gether with fuch other matters as may be confidered a 
proper introduction to the work. 

On the Figure and Dimenfions of the Earth, 

■z. The earth is a fpherical body, and its figure is 
very nearly that of a perfeft globe, not confidering the 
little unevennefies of its furface arifing from hills and 
valleys, as they bear no more proportion to its magni- 
tude, than the fmalleft grain of fand does to a com- 
mon globe. The truth of this is manifeft from the 
following circumftances : ift, When yon ftand upon 
the fhore, the fpherical form of the fea is manifell to 
the eye. 2dly, When a fhip leaves the fhore, and goes 
out to fea, you firft lofe fight of the hull, and then of 
the maft, gradually from the bottom to the top : And 
when a (hip approaches the fliore, you fir(l fee the top 
of the maft, and then the lower parts gradually appear, 
till at laft you fee the whole (hip. Now thefe appear- 
ances would not take place, if the fea were a plane ; for 
then every part of the fhip would dlfappear together, 
after leaving the fhore, and appear all at once when it 
approaches the (here ; or rather, the hull would difap- 
pear lall, or appear firlt, tliat being the moll con- 
fpicuous part of the (hip, which is contrary to matter 
of faft. But thf appearances are exaftly what they 
ought to be, upon fiippoiltion that the fea is fpherical, 
in which cafe the convexity of the water would produce 
the phenomena which ate obferved. 3dly, From the 
voyages of the navigators Magellan, Sir Francis 
Drake, Lord Anson, Cook, and many others who 
have failed round the earth, having fet off in one direc- 
tion, and continuing their courfc, have come .home in 
the oppofite direflion ; that is, they have let oft eaft 
and come home wcit, or fet off well and come home 
eaft ; this could not have happened if the earth had 

VOL. I. 



not been of a globular (igurtf. 4thly, Another proof 
of the fpherical form of the earth, arifes from the form 
of the boundary of its (hadow upon the moon in a lunar 
eclipfe, that boundary being always fpherical, and no- 
thing but a fpherical body can, in all fituations, pro- 
duce a circular fhadow. 5thly, If you travel towards 
the north, many new ftars will appear above the horizon 
in the northern parts, and thofe in the fouthern parts 
near the horizon will difappear. This can only arlfe 
from the fpherical form of the earth. In (hort, all the 
appearances both upon the earth and in the heavens, arc 
juft what they ought to be upon fuppofition that the 
earth is globular ; but they will none of them anfwer to 
that of a plane furface. 

3. The globular figure of the earth being thus efta« 
blilhed, we proceed next to (how that the apparent 
diurnal rotation of all the heavenly bodies arifes front 
the rotation of the earth about one of its diameters* 
called Its axis. The apparent diurnal motion of all the 
heavenly bodies may arife from the rotation of the 
earth about its axis ; or it may be accounted for by 
fuppofing the earth to be at reft, and all the bodies 
daily to perform their revolutions about it. Now, if 
we fuppofe the earth to be at reft, all the fixed ftarj 
muft: make a complete revolution every day in parallel 
circles. But aftronomers have very fatlsfadlorily proved* 
that the neareft of the fi.xed (tars is not lefs than 
400,000 times further from us than the fuii is, and that 
the fun's diftance from us is not lefs than 93 millions of 
miles. Alfo, from the difcoveries which are every day- 
making by the vaft improvement of telefcopes, it ap- 
pears that the heavens are filled with an almoft infinite 
number of ftars, whofe diftances are, probably, incom- 
parably greater than what we have ftated above. But 
that an almoft infinite number of bodies, moft of them 
invifible except by the bell telefcopes, at almoft infinite 
diftances from us and from each other, fhould "have their 
motions fo exaftly adjufted as to revolve in the fame 
time, and in parallel circles, and all thid without their 
having any central body, which (as Sir I. Nev.'tow 
has proved) is a phyfical impoiiibility, is an hypothefis 
not to be admitted, when we confider that all the phe- 
nomena may be folved fi'nply by the rotation of the 
b eattb 



II 



INTRODUCTION. 



earth about one sf its diameters. If, therefore, we had 
no other evidence, we might reft fatisficd that the ap- 
parent diurnal motions ot all the heavenly bodies are 
produced by the earth's rotation. But we have other 
reafons for tliis fuppofition. Experiments prove that 
all the parts of the earth have a gravitation towards 
each other. Such a body thcrefoie, the greater part 
of whofe furface is a fluid, mvift, from the i.qual gravi- 
tation of its parts only, form itlelf into a fphere. But 
it appears from menfuration, that the earth is not a per- 
fcdt fphere but a fphcroid, having its equatorial longer 
than its polar diameter. Now if we fuppofe the earth 
to revolve, the parts moft dillant from its axis mull, 
from their greater velocity, have a greater tendency to 
fly off from the axis, and therefore that diameter which. 
is perpendicular to the axis mull be iucreafcd. That 
ibis muil be the confequence appears from this experi- 
ment, that if you take a thin iron hoop, and make it 
revolve fwiftly about one of its diameters, that diameter 
will be Jiminiflied, and the diameter whicii h perpen- 
dicular to it will be increafed. The figure of the earth 
therefore, which is that of a fpheroid flattened a litle 
at the poles, muft have arifen from its rotation. 
Another reafon forthe earth's rotation, is from analogy. 
The planets are opaque and fpherical bodies, like to 
our earth ; now all the planets, on which fufficient ob- 
fervations have been made to determine the matter, are 
found to revolve about an axis, and the equatorial dia- 
jneters of fome of them are vifibly greater than tlie 
polar. When thefe reafons, all upon different prin.. 
oiples, are confidered, they amount to a proof of the 
earth's rotation about its axis, which is as fatisfaftoiy 
to the mind as the moft direil demonilration could be. 
Thefe, however, are not all the proofs that might be 
offered ; the fituations and motions of the bodies in our 
fyftem, neceflTarily require this motion of the earth. It 
is no objeftion to the earth's rotation that we do not 
perceive it ; for we know by experience, that when we 
are in the cabin of a fliip on fm.ooth water, if the fliip 
turn round we do not perceive its motion, and all the 
fixed bodies on the fliorc appear to turn in a direction 
contraiy to that of tlie fliip. And in like manner, the 
earth turning about its axis from weft to eaft, all the 
heavenly bodies appear to move from caft to weft. It 
lias alfo been objefted to the earth's rotation, that in 
fuch a cafe, if a ball were thrown perpendicularly up- 
wards, it ought to fall weftward of the place from which 
it was projected. But it is to be obfervcd, that when 
you projeft the ball upwards, it partakes of the earth's 
motion, and is carried on with it all the time it is riling, 
fo as to continue direftly over the place from which it 
was projected. This may be exemplified by letting 
fall aflone from the top of the maft of a fliip in motion, 
for the ball falls as near to the foot of the maft, as it 
rould do if the fhip were at reft. Or when you are 
riding in a carriage, if a ball be let fall from the top, it 
meets the floor at the point which is direftly under that 
from whence it fell. 

4. The magnitude of the earth comes next to be con- 



fidered ; and as the figure of the earth is very neaiTy that 
of a perfe£l fphere, we may, for our prefent piirpofe, 
confider it as fuch. And here we mufl premife, that if 
a ri)here be cut through by a plane, the fetlion will be 
a circ/e ; if the plane pafs tlirough the center of the 
fphere, the feftion is called a grnii circle ; if it do not 
pafs through the center, it is called ay;««// circle. Alfo, 
that point of the heavens which is dlrcftly over the head 
of tlie fpedtator, is called his Zriiith ; and the oppolite 
point, or that dlredly under his feet, is called^ hi* 
Nadir. 




Let PJpE reprefent the earth, C its center, PCpr^ 
the axis about which it turns ; then the extremi- 
ties P,p, are called Poles; one, as F, tiie north pole^ 
and the other, ^, the foulh pole; and all the great cir- 
cles, as PJpE, paffing through the poles, are called 
Mtndians, Now all circles are fuppofed to be divided 
into 360 equal parts, called degrees; every degree into. 
60 equal parts, called minutes ; and every minute into 6a 
equal parts, called fecoiids ; and degrees, minutes, and 
feeonds, are denoted by thefe charafters, °, ', "; thus 
37°. 18'. 25". means, 37 degrees, 18 minutes, 25 fe- 
eonds. And the angles at the center of the circle cor- 
refpoui'ing to the arcs, are called angles of fb many de- 
grees, minutes,, and feeonds. From C draw the right 
line Cas to a ftar at s ; then the ilar s Is in the zenith of 
a Ipeftator at a ; take ab zz i", and draw Cbt to the 
heavens at /, then t is the zenith to a fpeilator at b ; 
alfo, the angle aCb, or sCt, is 1° ; join bs.; then becaufe. 
the radius Cb of the earth bears no fenlible proportion 
to the diflance Cs of the fixed ftars, the angle sbt will. 
not fenfibly differ from the angle sCt, or from l" ; there- 
fore to a fpeftator at i, the ftar j will be one degree 
from his zenith /. Let an obferver therefore move from 
a to b, till he finds, from obfervatiou, that the ftar j is. 
l" from his zenith, and then he knows that he has- 
moved 1° upon the furface of the earth. Let the dif-, 
tance ab be meafured, and then you get the length of aa 
arc of I" ; and if you multiply that by 360, the pro-. 

4 du£t 



INTRODUCTION. 



m 



•Suft will give you the circumference of the eaith. An 
arc ai of aiiv inimber of degrees may be taken, and 
then its length being mcafured, the length of i degree 
may be found bv proportion. Or, iiiilead of fuppofing 
the liar to have been in the zenith of the fpeftator at a, 
we might have taken a liar at v, and the dlffercnee be- 
tween the zenith diftanccs of the liar -u at thi; places a 
and i, would have been the lame as that of the liar j- ; 
fo that when the obfervcr had moved over an arc a^ of 
1°, the zenith diilance of the liar v would have altered 
I". In this manner the length of a degree of a great 
circle upon the earth's furtace has been determined, 
and thence, its circumference. Possidonius, who 
Jived in the time of PoMPEY the ^ni7/, attempted thus 
to meafure the circumference of the earth ; he knew that 
the liar called Catiopus was in the horizon at Rhodes, 
and that at yllexandria its altitude on the meridian was 
77*^; and the diilance between the two places (they 
being nearly in the fame meridian) \v,\s ^ooo Jladla ; 
whence he concluded the circumference of the earth to 
be 240,000 jladiii. 11 ut as the exaft value of the 
J}ad\a is not now known, we cannot fay how accurate 
lliis conclullon is. Our countryman Mr. Norwood, 
in the year 1635, was the firll who determined the value 
of a degree to a confiderable accuracy. He took the 
height of the pole liar at London and at York ; and by 
meafuring their diilance, he determined the length of a 
degree to be 697 miles and 14 poles. After that time, 
the French academy meafured a degree. Caffini mea- 
fured one in 'France ; and afterwards Cla'iraul, Mauper- 
tu'is, and feveral other eminent mathematicianL;, mea- 
fured a degree in Lapland. The fame meafurements 
have been alfo frequently repeated in various parts of 
the earth, and the refult of the whole is this, that the 
length of a degree, as you go from the equator to the 
poles, increafcs in length. Now the longer a degree is, 
the greater mull be the circle of which it is a part ; and 
the greater the circle is, the lefs is its curvature. It 
appears therefore from aflual menfuraiion, that the 
earth is flatter, or of lefs curvature, at the poles, than 
at the equator, agreeable to what we before lliowcd 
mull neeeflarily be the confequenee of the earth's rota- 
tion. The length of a degree in latitude 45° is 69,2 
Englifli miles, and this we may confrder as a mean 
length; hence, 69,2 X 360 =24912 miles, the cir- 
cumference ()f the earth ; and as the circumference of 
every circle is to its radius as 6,28^18 to I, we 
liave, 6,28318: i:: 24912: 3965 miles, the i-adius 
of the earth. Dr. Long eftimated the proportion of 
land to water upon tlie luiface of the earth, fo far as 
difcoveries had then been made, in the following manner. 
He took the paper off a terrellrial globe, and then cut out 
the land from the fea, and weighed the two parts ; by this 
means he found the proportion of the land to the fea 
as 124 : 349. The conclufion would be more accurate, 
if the land were cut from the fea b^ore the paper was 
put upon the globe. After all the modern "difcoveries, 
this method would pi-obably give the proportion of land 
to water, to a confiderable degree of accuracy. 



5. We have already ohfervcd, that the earth is not a 
pcrfe<5l fphere but a Ipiieroid, having the poLir diameter 
Ihorter than the equatorial ; and the ratio of thefe dia- 
meters has been determined by did'erent methods. If 
the length of a degi-ee at two pl.iccs be found by mcnfu- 
rncion, that (latum is fiifficitnt to find the i-atio ; but the 
ratio thus determined, by takjng diffei-ent meafurements, 
dilftr confiderably. Mr. Visct, in his Complete Syjlan of 
yljlrojwmy, vol. ii. page (,9, Ins determined the ratio 
irom a great many comparifons ; and it will be found 
that they differ conilderably ; but the mean of the whole 
gives the ratio of 177 ■; 178 for the propction of the 
polar to the equatorial diameter of the earth. Sir I. 
Newton, from the principles of gravitation, makes tlic 
ratio 229 : 230 ; and fome authors have deduced a mean 
ratio from menluratiou, which agrees very nearly with 
this. The length of a pendulum vibrating feconds, in- 
creafes as you carry it towards the poles ; and this ought 
to take place in confequenee of the fpheroiJical figure 
of the earth, as before determined, and affords another 
proof of that figm-e. And if the length of a pendulum 
vibrating feconds in two latitudes could be accurately 
afcertaiucd, we might find the ratio of the diameters of 
the earth, the denlity of the earth being fuppofed uni- 
form. But the ratios thus deduced from different obfer- 
vations, differ conilderably ; owing, probably, to th« 
irregularity of the denfity of the interior paits of the 
earth. M. Clairaut obferves, that the vai-iations of 
the lengths of pendulums make the ratio of the diame- 
ter s nearer that of equality than 229 : 230, indicating 
a greater denfity towards the center. It has been alio 
propofed to find the ratio of the diameters of the earth, 
from folar eclipfes, as the computation of the parallax, 
of the moon, and confequently the times of the begin- 
ning and end of fuch eclipfes, will vary, according as 
the ratio of the diameters of the eai-th vary. M. dc la 
Lande from hence makes the difference of the diame- 
ters to be y^.g of the whole. From a confideration of 
all the circuinllances, it is probable that the difference 
of the polar and equatorial diameters is lefs than that 
which is determined by Sir I. Newt'on. If we take 
the ratio of the diameters as determined by him, the 
equatorial diameter will be found to exceed the polar, 
by about 34 miles. 

6. It appears by calculation, that when the ere of a 
fpeftator is 6 feet above the furface of the fea,' he can 
fee 3 miles ; and at any other altitude of the eve, the 
diilance at which you can fee, varies as the fquaie root of 
the altitude ; if therefore a be the altitude of the eye iii 
feet, and d the dillancejn miles, which you can fee at 
that altitude, then y/ 6 ; ^~ -,■ ^ -. d = 3 

/— _ — ^^"^ 

^, " ,T,''?^''-/ ^ v/'' ; hence, we have this 
rule : Multiply the fquare root of the he'ight of the eye In 
feel, by 1 ,2247, and the produR is the di^/lanee to ii'hi'ch yon 
can fee ui miles. For example ; if "the height of the 
eye be 25 feet, then the fquare root of 25 is 5, and 
ifyou muhlply 1,2247 t)' 5> the produA is 6,'l23j 
miles, the diilance to which the eve can fee. 

b2 ' U„ 



IV 



INTRODUCTION. 



On the LtUittuk and Longitude of Places upon 
the Earth's Surface. 




7. Let PAp^ reprefent the earth, PCp its axis, P 
the north pole, p the fouth pole ; and let AE^Ji be a 
circle pafling through the center C, perpendicular to the 
axis Pp, then that circle is called the equator. This 
circle divides the earth into two equal parts, AP^ cal- 
led the northern, and ,4^^called the fouthern hemifphere. 
Let K, G, I, be the fituations of three places upon the 
furface, and through them draw the great circles PKp, 
PGp, Pip, called meridians, intcrfefting the equator in 
n, a, m, refpeftively. Now as every circle is fuppofed 
to be divided into 360 degrees, from the pole to the 
equator muft be 90 degrees. The latitude of a place, 
is an arc of its meridian intercepted between the place and 
the equator, meafured in degrees. Hence, the latitude of 
A" is meafured by the degrees of the arc nK ; and the 
latitudes of G and / are meafured by the degrees of the 
arcs aG, ml, relpedtively, and thefe are called north 
latitudes, the places lying in the northern hemilphere ; 
and the latitude of W is meafured by the degrees of the 
arc a IV, and is called fouth latitude, the place lying in 
the fouthern hemifphere. Let the fmall circle cGvde be 
parallel to the equator, then this circle is called s. paral- 
iel of latitude, becaiife every point of it has the lame la- 
titude, all the arcs mv, aG, intercepted between it and 
the equator, being equal, on account ot the circles being 
parallel. The longitude of a place is meafured upon the 
equator, and is the arc intercepted between the point 
from wlilch you begin to reckon, and the point where 
the meridian of the place cuts the equator, cflimated in 
degrees. Hence, all places in the fu7ie meridian have 
Xhefame longitude ; the longitude of G is the fame as 
the longitude of Z^. Geographers of different coun- 
tries begin to reckon from different points, each begin- 
ning from that point where the meridian of its capital 



city cuts the equator; and if the city have a national 
obfen atory in or very near to it, that meridian is taken 
which pafl'es through tlie obfervatory. This is called 
the fifi meridian. We may therefore define the ion^i- 
lude of a place to be an arc of the equator intercepted bc' 
ttveen the firji meridian and the meridian pajfing through the 
place. \\\ England therefore we begin from that meri- 
dian which pail'es through the obfervatory at Greenivich ;. 
in France, they begin from that meridian which palfes 
through the obfervatory at Paris. Let therefore G 
reprefent the royal obfervatory at Greenwich, and a is 
the point of the equator from which we begin to reckoit 
the longitude. Hence, the degrees of the arc am is the 
longitude of the place /; and the longitude of the 
place K is meafured by the degrees of the arc an. Now 
the direftion am from a is call, and the dircftion an \i 
weft ; it is therefore ufual to call am eafl longitude, and 
an wt/7 longitude, each till you come to the point oppo- 
lite to a, or till the longitude each way becomes 180 
degrees. But fometimes the longitude is reckoned all 
the way round in the fame direftion ; that is, the point 
m, wherever it may be, is called eaft longitude from a. 

8. If the latitude and longitude of a place be given, 
the place itfelf may be found ; for if tlie longitude be 
known, fet off the arc am equal to it, if it be eaft longi- 
tude, and draw the meridian Pmp ; then if the latitude 
be north, fet off m/ equal to it, and / is the place re- 
quired; but if the latitude be fouth, fet off m^ equal 
to it, and V is the place. Ii the longitude be weft, fet 
off an equal to it, and take aG, or alV equal to the la- 
titude, according as it is north or fouth, and G, or 11/', 
will be the place. Thus, all the places upon the furface 
of the earth, whofe latitudes and longitudes are known,, 
may be laid down accurately upon a globe ; and the 
boundaries of the different countrii-s may be traced out> 
and each exhibited in its proper fituation and figure. 
By means of a globe therefore you may get a perfeft. 
idea of the relative magnitudes, figures, and fituations 
of all the countries of the earth, and of the fituavions 
of all the principal places in them ; but a map, being 
a plane furiace, cannot correctly reprefent their propor- 
tions, boundaries, and pofitions of tiie places. The de- 
termination of the latitude and longitude is therefore 
effential to geography, and confequently to navigation 4 
the methods by which thefe are found, we (hall after- 
wards fully explain. 

9. The arc Gi) contains the fame number of degrees, 
as the arc am ; the degrees of longitude therefore be- 
tween any two places, when meatured upon a fmall- 
circle parallel to the equator, diminifli as that circle ap- 
proaches the pole. The arc am contains the fame num- 
ber of degrees as the angle aPm ; hence, the angle 
formed by the meridians pafling through any two places, 
is the mtafure of the difference of the longitudes of 
thofe places.. 

i^. The following Table contains the length of a 
degree of longitude in Englifli miles for every degree of 
latitude. 

Lat. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Lat. 


Deg. of Long. 


Lat. 


0" 


69,2000 


18° 


I 


69,1896 


19 


2 


69,1578 


20 


3 


69,1052 


21 


4 


6;,03I2 


22 


S 


68,936^ 


23 


6 


68,820s 


24 


7 


68,6845 


25 


8 


68,5267 


26 


9 


68,3481 


27 


10 


6,^,1489 


28 


1 1 


67,9288 


29 


12 


67,6880 


30 


M 


67,426+ 


31 


•4 


67,1448 


32 


»5 


66,8424 


33 


i6 


66,5192 


34 


'7 


66,1760 


35 



Lat. Deg. of Long. Lat 



65,8134 
65,43-0 
65,0265 
64,6037 
64,1609 
63,6986 
63,2177 
62,7167 
62,1963 
61,6579 
6 1,1001 
60,5237 

59.9293 
59,3162 

58,6851 
58,0360 
57,3696 
56,6852 



36° 

1 37 

i38 

39 

,40 

! 42 
43 
44 
45 
46 

47 

48 

, 49 

', 50 

! 52 
1 53 



Deg. of Long, 



55,9842 
55,2659 
54-5303 
53.77'8 
53,0100 
52,2259 

5''4253 

50,6094 

49.7783 
48.9313 
48,0705 

47. '944- 
46,3038 

45.3994 
44.48 1 1 
43.5489 
42,6037 
41,6453 



Lat. 



54' 

55 

56 

57 
5^ 
59 
60 
61 
62 

63 
64 

65 
66 

67 
68 
69 

70 
71 



Deg. of Long, 



40,6751 
39,6917 
38.6959 

37,6891 
36,6705 

35'Ho8 

34,6000 

33.5489 

32,4873 
31,4161 

30.3352 
29,2453 
28,1464 
27,0385 
25,9230 
24,7992 
23,6678 
22,5294 



Lat. 'Deg. of Long. 



73 
74 

75 
76 
77 
78 

79 

80 

81 
82 
83 
84 

85 

86 

87 
88 
89 



21,3842 
20,2320 
19,0743 
17,9103 
16,7409 
15,5665 
14,3874 
13,2041 
12,0166 
10,8250 
9,6306 

8,4334 
7.2335 
6,03 1 5 

4.8274 
3,6219 
2,4151 
1,2075 



On the Atraofphere of the Earth. 

II. The earth is furrounded with a thin, invilible, 
elaflic fluid, called air, the whole body of which forms 
what is calkd the atmofphere. It being an elaftic fluid, 
is capable of comprefiion ; on which account, the lower 
parts of the atniofphere are denfer than the upper parts, 
and the denfity gradually diminiflie^, the higher you go, 
from the continual diminution of comprefiion ; for the 
air being found to have weight, as you afcend, the 
weight of the incumbent air will be tiiminifhed. The 
denfity of the air is not always the fame, it being fub- 
je£i to be expanded by heat and co: traded by cold. Jn 
its mean ftate it is f /und to be about 850 times lighter 
than water. But iiotwithRanding the air is fo extreme- 
ly rare, it is capable of producing very confiderable ef- 
fefts upon the rays of light as they pafs through it, 
both by refleftion and nfraflion. By refleftion, the 
rays coming from the fun falling on the particles of air, 
land upon the vapours and exhalations contained in 
the atmofphere, are thrown in all direilions, and thus 
the whole heavens become illuminated ; by which our 
eyes are afFcfled fo ftrongly, a.^ to render the fainter 
light of the ftars infcnfible. Whereas, if there were no 
atmofphere, we fhuuld receive only thofe rays which 
come direftly to us, and the other parts of the heavens 
would appear dark, and the ftars would all be vifible as 
at night. From the fame caufe we receive a confider- 
able quantity of light ror feme time before the fun rifes, 
and after he fcts ; this is called t-wiligL! ; and were it 
not for this, we ihould be involved in total darknefs, the 
inftant after the fun is fct ; and there would be a fudden 
tranfition from darknefs to light, at the rifing of the 
fun, which would be extremely prejudicial to the eyes. 
From the time at which twilight begins and ends, the 
beginning and end are found to be when the fun is 
about 18* fadoiv the horizon. Itlalls. Lowcver till the 



fun is further below the horizon In th'e evening, than 
he is in the morning when it begins ; it alfo lafls longer 
in fummer than in winter. In the former cafe, the 
heat of the day has ralfed the vapours and exhalations ; 
and in the Lilfrr, they will be more elevated from the 
heat of the feafon ; and therefore the twilight ought 
to be longer in the evening than in the morning ; and 
longer in winter than in fummer. 

12. Another property of the atmofphere is that of 
refraftir.g the rays of light, by which means t'lie hea- 
venly bodies appear out of their true place.";. It is a 
principle of optics, that when a ray of light paffes out 
of a denfer into a rarer medium, it is bent towards the 
perpendicular to the furface of the medium at the point 
where it enters. A ray of light therefore coming fronr 
any of the heavenly bodies, when it enters the top of 
the atmofphere will be bent from its reftilinear courfe, 
towards a radius-drawn to the earth's center, becaufe 
the radius is perpendicular to the' furface of the atmoi- 
pherc ; and as, in approaching the eartb.'s furface, the 
dei.fity of the atmofphere continually incrcafes, the rays 
of light, as they defcend, are conftantly entering a den- 
fer medium, and therefoix; the courfe of the ray will 
continually deviate from a right line towards a radius 
drawn to the earth's center, and defcribe a curve ; 
hence, at the furface of the earth the rays of light enter 
the eye of the fpectator in a different diveflion from 
what they would liave entered, if there liad been no at- 
mofphere ; therefore the apparent place of the body I 
from which the light comes mull be difTerent from the 
trtii place ; and as the courie of the ray has bcc^i con- 
tinually approaching to a radius drawn to the center of 
the earth, its direction, when it comes to the furfice of 
the earth, mufl be inclined from its orirjiiud direction, 
towards the zenith ; therefore the apparent plp.ce of the 
body is hightr than it^ Inw place. The ancients weie 
not unacquainted with this effctt : Ploiuny mentions a 

differencs 



VI 



INTRODUCTION. 



(lifFei-ciice in the riling and fctting of the flars in dif- 
feicnt Ihites of tlie atiiiofphere ; but he made no allow- 
ance for it In his computations. Alhazen, an Arabian 
optician, in the l ith century, obftrved the effedl upon 
the circumpolar liars; but Tycho wa? the firll pcrfon 
who coullrufted a table for the refractions at different 
altitudes, for the refraftion decreafes from the hori- 
zon to the zenith, where it is nothing. In the mean 
Ihite of our air, the lefraftion in the horizon is 33'. 

I 3. Another property of the refraftion of the air 13 
this, that it caufes all the lieavenly bodies to appear in 
the morning above the horizon, when thfy are aftualiy 
below it ; and in the evening they appear above, a little 
after they are aftually fet ; for the diameter of the fnii 
being about 32 , the refraftion in the horizon elevating 
it 33', will caufe it to appear above the horizon when 
the whole body is below. In climates nearer the equa- 
tor, the refraction Is lefs than it is here ; and in colder 
regions it is much greater, and this is a happy provifion 
for lengthening the appearance of the light at thofe 
parts. Gassendus relates, that fome Hollanders who 
wintered in Nova Zcmlla, in falitude 75*^, were agree- 
ably furprifed with a fight of the fun 1 7 days before they 
expefted him. To the fame caufe we muft attribute 
another phsenomenon, mentioned by Pliny, that the 
moon had been vifibly eclipfed when flie was in the weft, 
at the fame time that the fun appeared above the hori. 
zon in tlie eaft. M^^stlinus, in Kepler, relates an- 
other inftance of the fame kind which fell under his 
own obfervation. Alfo, the decreafe of refraftion as 
the altitude above the horizon increafes, makes the fun 
and moon appear of an oval form, more particularly in 
the horizon. For fuppofe the diameter of the fun to 
be 32', and the lower limb to touch the horizon, then 
the mean refraftion of that limb is 33'; but the alti- 
tude of the upper limb being then 32', its refraftion is 
only 28' 6', differing 4' 54" from the refraftion of the 
lower limb ; by this quantity therefore the vertical dia- 
meter is fhortened, the lower limb being fo much more 
elevated than the upper. The hke is true at any other 
altitude, only in a fmaller degiee. 



On Parallax. 

14. When you refer an objeft to fometliing behind 
it, it will not appear in the fame fituation to two fpec- 
tators fituated at different places, unlefs the objeft be at 
an almoft indefinitely great diftance when compared with 
the diftance of the two fpeftators ; and the diftance of 
thefe apparent places is called l\\e parallax of that ob ■ 
jeft. From the immenfe diftance of the fixed ifars 
therefore in refpeft to the diameter of the earth's orbit, 
they never appear to change their relative fituations ; on 
which account we may confider them as a back-ground 
to which we may refer all tlie bodies in ourfyfteni ; and 
we may confider them as place<i in the concave furface 
of a fphere, of which the earth is the center. If there- 
fore a planet, when it as in the fame part of its orbit, 



be viewed from the two extremities of a diameter of tire 
earth's orbit, it will appear in two different places 
amongll the fixed ftars ; and the diftance between thefe 
two places is called the ammal parallax. In like man- 
mer, if a planet, or any of the bodies in our fyftem, 
were obleived from the earth's center and furface, they 
woidd be referred to different places amongll the fixed 
liars, and the diftance of thole places is called the ^iw>-- 
m;/ parallax, and this is what we have now occafion to 
confider. 




Let Cbe the center of the earth SV, S the place oF 
a fpeflator, Z his zenith ; and conceive the circle ZT 
to reprefent the fphere of the fixed ftars, and let HSR 
be a plane touching the earth at S, then that plane is 
called \.\\e finjille horizon; it dividing the vifible part 
HZR of the heavens from the invilible part HTR. If 
a plane LClVhe drawn through the center of the earth, 
parallel to HZR, it is called the rational horizon. Now 
the arc /?/Kamongfl the fixed ftars fubtends no feniible 
angle at the earth, ar.d hence we may fuppofe the two 
horizons there to coincide. Let P be a planet ; and 
draw CPn, SPm ; then the planet feen from j" appears 
at m, and from C it would appear at h, and nm is called 
the diurnal parallax ; beeaule at different parts of the 
day, when the planet is at different altitudes, the arc 
inn will be different. If the planet be in the horizon 
at/i, and we draw Cpa, then Ra is the lio\izontal paral- 
lax, which is the grcatell of all ; and from the horizon 
to the zenith it gradually decreafes, and is nothing in 
the zenith. Alfo, the nearer a planet is to the eaith, 
the greater is its parallax ; for the nearer P is to C, 
the greater is the angle CfS, or nPm, which is the pa- 
rallax, as that angle is meafured by the arc mn. Now 
aftronomers refer all their obfervations to the center of 
the earth, and confider the place as feen from thence, to 
be the true phce ; therefore the apparent place m feen 

from 



INTRODUCTION. 



Vll 



fVoni the furface is belotu the Inie place n Hence, 
after an altitude is taken upon the furface of the cartli, 
we muil iidd the parallax correfpondlug to that altitude, 
in order to obtain the true altitude, or the altitude feen 
from the center of the earth, a'.ove the rational horizon. 
If we know the parallax of a body, wc know its dif- 
tance ; for fuppofc we know the hotizontal parallax 
SpC, then by plane trigonometry, lin. SpC : radius:; 
bC : Cp : thus we get the diilance Cp in terms of the 
radius of the earth. 

15. It follows therefore from what we have obferved 
(art. 12. 14) that after the altllade of an heavenly 
body is found by oblervation, it will want two correc- 
tions, one for refraftion, and the other for parallax ; 
the former to be fubtrafted, and the latter to be added. 
Thus you reduce the obferved to tlie true altitude. As 
the fixed ftars have no parallax, the only corrediion. there 
necelTary is that for retraftion. 

16. As the altitudes of ttie heavenly bodies are de- 
termined by an inllrument called a quadranli it may be 
here proper to give a general defcription of it. 

On the JJlronomisal ^ladrant. 




17. Let C reprefent the center of the quadrant, CA, 
CB two radii perpendicular to each other, thereby inclu- 
ding an arc JB of 90 degrees ; TL is a Teltfcope 
jnoveable about the center C ; m the principal focus 



yofthcobjcdl glafs, there are fixed two fine wires at 
right angles to each other, interfefting each other in the 
center of the teltfcope ; one of thefe wires is adjulled 
parallel to the horizon, and confequently the other will 
be perpendicular to it ; the line joining the interfeilion 
of thcie wires, and the center of the objett glafs, is cal- 
led the axis of the telefcope, and fometimes the line of 
coUhnalion. Tiie telefcope moves againll the limb of the 
quadtant, and carries wiih it a fmall graduated piece of 
brafs rv, called a •vernier, having a mark at pointing to 
the divifions of the limb. This point is fo adjulled, 
that when it is fet to point to on tiie limb, the axis of 
the telefcope is horizontal, and therefore an object in 
the horizon will appear upon the horizontal wire. When 
therefore the telefcope is put into any other fituation, 
and an objett brought upon the horizontal wire, the 
point of the vernier will be diredted to a point of the 
limb which (hows how many degrees high the objeft is 
above the horizon. The limb is generally divided into ■ 
degrees, and each degree into three equal parts, by 
which the whole limb is divided into every 20 minutes. 
The vernier has alfo a certain number of divifions upon 
it, fo that by obferving which two divifions of the 
vernier and limb coincide, you can tell to what minute 
of the limb the mark of the vernier is direfted, and 
therefore know the altitude of the objeft above the 
horizon, in degrees and minutes. If no two divifions 
fhould coincide, there is another apparatus prefixed 
to the telefcope at the limb of the quadrant, by which' 
you can tell to a fecond, the point of the limb againil 
which on the vernier Hands : and thus you can afcer-_ 
tain the altitude of an objedl to a fecond. For a full 
explanation of thefe matters, we refer the reader to Mr. 
Vince's Treatfe on Pradlcal AJlronomy. This inftru- 
ment is fometimes fixed to a perpendicular axis, and can ■ 
be placed in any fituation, fo that the altitudes of any 
of the heavenly bodies, can be determined by it. Some- 
times it is fixed againll a very fiim Rone wall, having 
its plane exaftly in the meridian, fo that only meri- 
dian altitudes can be taken by it. This is called a 
mural quadrant ; and all very large quadrants are thus 
fixed up ; for the mod accurate obftrvations which 
ailronomers want, are thofe upon the meridian, by 
which (as will be afterwards (hown) the declinations ui 
the heavenly bodies may be found. After an altitude 
is taken, it muft (art. 15) be corrected by fubtrafting 
the refraftion and adding the parallax, by which we 
get the ti-ue altitude of the object above the rational > 
horizon correfponding to the place of the obferver. 



On- 



\m 



INTRODUCTION. 



On the Tranfit 'Tele/cope. 




Explanation of Terms. 

19. Having mentioned the declination and tight afcen- 
Jinn of tlie heavenly bodies, wc will, before we proceed, 
explain thde and fome other terms, which we fliall have 
occafion to make ufe of. We have already explained 
the equator of the earth ; and if the plane of this circle 
be extended as far as the fixed ftars, it will there mark 
out a circle which is called the celejlial equator ; and if 
the axis of the earth be extended to the heavens, the 
two points marked out by it are called the poles of the 
celejlial equator. Thus the heavens are divided into 
no/7^fr« andyb!//^£'/-nhemifpheres, correfponding to thofe 
on the earth. Now in the courfe of a year, the fun 
appears to defcribe a great circle in the fphere of the 
fixed flars, called the ecliptic ; this apparei.t motion of 
the fun arifes from the real motion of the earth about 
the fun in the fpace of a year ; it is therefore, in faft, 
the earth that defcribes the ecliptic. The equator and 
the ecliptic do not coincide, but are inclined to each 
other at an angle of about 23°. 28', cutting each other at 
two oppofite points, called the equinoxes ; and this 
angle is called the obliquity of the eclipic. 



18. A tranfit Telefcope Is a tclefcope moveable about 
an horizontal axis, and fo adjufled, that its axis may 
move txaftly in the plane of the meridian. The annex- 
ed figure reprefents this inllrument ; TL reprefents the 
telefcope, AB the axis about which it turns, each end 
of which is made cylindrical ; thefe ends are each laid 
in an angular notch cut in a piece of bi afs ; and each of 
thefe pieces of brafs are moveable in a brafs frame fixed 
in firm ftone pillars ; each piece ir. moved by a fcrew ; 
that at one end afls again 11 the under fide of one of 
the brafs pieces, and gives that end of the axis AB of 
the telefcope, a motion perpendicular to the horizon ; 
and the other fcrew afts againft one of the fides of the 
other brafs piece, and gives the axis AB a moUo\i paral- 
lel lo the horizon ; by means of thefe two fcrews there- 
fore the telefcope can be brought into any pofition. In 
the focus/ of the objeft glafs there are fixed two fine 
wires perpendicular to each other, and the line joining 
their interfettion and the center of the objeft glafs, is 
called tlie axis of the tube TL, or the line of colUmation 
of the telefcope. One of thefe wires is adjufted per- 
pendicularly to the horizon, and of courfe the other 
will then be parallel to it. After all the adjuftnients of 
thisinftrunientaremadcifthcinib-umentbe turned about 
the axis AB, the perpendicular wire moves exaAly in 
the plane of the meridian ; fo that when any objeft 
comes to this wire, by means of a clock properly regu- 
lated, you get the time of its paffage over the meridian. 
Sometimes there are fixed one or two more perpendicu- 
lar wires, equidiftant from this middle perpendicular 
>vire. For an explanation of the methods of making thefe 
adjullments, we muil refer to the work before-mention- 
td. This inllrument is ufed to find the right afcenfwns 
-0.1 the heavenly bodies, as we fhall afterwards explain. 
»5 




Let AEL^ reprcfent the celeftial tqustor, j4CLP 
the ecliptic, inclined to, and cutting each other in op- 
pofite points A, L, for all great circles divide each 
other into two equal parts. The ecliptic is divided into 
12 equal parts, calledy/^«j ; aries T 1 taurus y , gemini 
H, cancer %, leo Sit firgo "J, liira >>, fcorpio n^, fc' 
gittarius J , capricormis V^, aquarius 'j: ,fifces '^. The 
order of thefe is according to the apparent motion of 
the fun. The firil point of aries coincides with one 
of the equinoxes, as A, and confequently the firft 
point of libra coincides with the other equinox L. The 
firft fix figns are called northern, lying on the north fide 
of the equator ; and the lalt fix are called ybu//(i^rn, lying 
on the fouth fide. WIkti the motion of the heavenly 
bodies is according to the order of the figns, it is called 
dircil, and when the motion is in a contrary diredtion, it 
is called retrograde. The real motion of ail the planets 
is according to the order of the figns, but their apparent 
motion is fometlmes in a contrary direftion, for reafons 

which 



/^ 



INTRODUCTION, 



f* 



which will afterwards nppcar. The equfnodlial points 
A, L, are not fixed, but have a retrograde motion of 
about jo" in a year ; this is called the preceffion of the 
equinoxes. The module is a fpace extending 8° on each 
fide of the ecliptic, within which the moiions of all the 
planets arc performed. 

20. If s be the place of a ftar, and sm be a great circle 
perpendicular to the equator, then ^Im is called the 
right ajcenjion of the liar, and sm is called its ikclwathm. 

If sn be a great circle perpendicular to the ecliptic, 
then An is called the longituile of the ftar, and sn is called 
its latitude. If therefore we know the right afceniion 
yim, and declination ms of an heavenly body, we know 
its place J ; or if we know its longitude An, and lati- 
tude ns, its place is known. If half the ecliptic AGP 
be bifefted in C, and the other half in P, then C and 
P are the beginnings of cancer and Capricorn, and thefe 
are called tropical points. Two fmall circles drawn 
through thefe two points, parallel to the equator, are 
called tropics ; that palTlng through C is called the tropic 
of cancer, and that through P, the tropic of Capricorn. 

21. A body 13 in conjundion with the lun, when it 
has the fame longitude ; and in oppojhiou, when the dif- 
ference of their longitudes is 180°. 

2Z. The elongation of a hody is its angular diftance 
from the fun, when feeu from the earth. 

23. The uniipoiln to a fpeftator upon the earth's fur- 
face, is that point upon the furface which is diametrical- 
ly oppofite to him. 

24. If a body in the heavens be leferred to the hori- 
zon by a vertical circle, by drawing a vertical circle 
throagh it, the diftance of that point of the horizon 
from the north or fouth points, is called its azimuth ; 
and the diftance from tlie eaft or weft points, is called 
its amplitude. Thefe four points are called the cardinal 
points. 

25. The primary planets are thofe which revolve 
about the lun ; and ihe fcconJ.iry planets are thofe which 
revolve about the primary, and thele are alfo called yi;/f/- 
lites, or moons. 

26. The nodes are the points where the orbits of the 
primary planets cut the ecliptic; and where the oibits 
of the iecondary planets cut the orbits of their prima- 
ries. That node is called tifrending, where the planet 
pafTes from the foiith to the north ilde of the ecliptic, 
and is marked thus, Q ; the other node is called de- 

fcending, and is muked thut, IS . 

■if. The aphelion is that point in the orbit of a planet 
which is furtheft from the fun ;' and iia perihelion is 
that point which is neareft to the fun. 

28. The apogee is that point of the earth's orbit 
which is furtheit from the fun, or that point of the 
moon's orbit which ir fnrthcft from the earth ; and the 
perigee is that point of each orbit which is neareft to the 
fun, or earth. 

29. The al)f:s of an orbit is either its apogee or 
perigee, aphelion or perihelion. 

30. Afidireal day is the interval between two fuc- 

VOL. J. 



ctftive palTages of the fame fixed ftar, over the meridian^ 
Thefe days are all equal. 

31. A/olar day is the interval between two fucceflive 
palTages of the fun ovtr the meridian. Thtfe day:> arc 
unequal, on account of the unequal motion of the fun in 
right afcenfion. If therefore we compare a clock v.'ith 
the fun, and adjull it to go 24 hours from the time the 
fun leaves the meridian on any day, till it returns to it the 
next day, the clock will not continue to agree with the 
fun, that is, it will not continue to fliow 12 when the fun 
comes to the meridian ; as will afterwards more fully 
appear. 

32. Apparent noon is the time when the fyn comes to 
the meridian ; trur, or mean noon is r 2 o'clock, by a 
watch adjufted to go 24 hours in a mean folar day. And 
the difference between apparent and mean noon is the 
equation of time. 

33. A ftar isfaid to life orfet cofpiically, when it rifes 
and fets at fun rifing ; and when it rifes or fets at fun 
fettiiig, it is faid to rife or ftt achrsn-c'ally. 

34. A ftar is laid to iikheliacal/y, when, after having 
been io near to the fun as not to be viliUe, it emerges out 
of the fun's rayi, and jull appears in the morning; and 
it is faid to fet h.Ttacalty, when the fun approaches fo 
near to it, that it is about to immcige into the fun's 
rays, and to become invilible in the evL-iiiiig. 

35. A digit is a twelfth part of the diameter of the 
fun or moon. 

36. A conflellation is a collcftion of ftars contained 
within fome aiTuRied figure, as a ram, a dragon, an Her. 
ctdes, Sic. The whole heavens is. thus divided into con- 
ftcUations. 

37. If an eye be in the plane of a circle, that circle 
appears a. ftraight line ; therefore in the reprefentation 
of the circles of a fphere upon a plane furface, thofe 
circles, whofe planes pafs through the eye, are repre- 
feuted by ftraight lines. 

38. Characters ufed for the fu 
planets, 

the Sun 



and 



© 

5 

? 



the Moon 

Mercury 

Venus 



S Mars 

It Jupiter 

Tj Saturn 

9 Georgian, 



Q the Earth 
Charafters ufed fur the days of the week. 



O Sunday 

D Monday 

S Tuefday 

g Wednelday 



H- Tijurlday 
? Fi iday 
Tj Saturday. 



0« the BoSirine of the Sphere. 

39. A fpectator upon the furface of the earth, con- 
ceives himfelt to be placed in t!ie center of a concave 
fphere, in which all the heavenly bodies are iiiuated ; 
and by coriftantly obfcrving them,' he perceives that far 
the greater number of them never change their relative 
filuatious, each r>fing and letting at the fame interval 
c of 



INTRODUCTION. 



of time, and at the fame points of the horizon, and are 
therefore calltd fxed ftars ; but he finds tliat a feu- 
others, called planets, together witli the fun and moon, 
are conllantly clianging tlicir fituations, CKch conti- 
nually riling and fetting at different points of the 
horizon, and at different intervals of time. Now the 
determination of the times of the rifnig and fetting of 
the heavenly bodies ; the finding of their pofition at any 
given time, or the time from their pofition ; the caufes 
of the different lengths of days and nights ; the changes 
of feafons ; and the like, conftitute what is called the 
doBrine of the fphere. 



J 


/ \ 


v\\ 


1. / 


/ N 


V 




^ 




Y 


\ 


V 


>4 




V 


/ 



R 



40. hetpcp'q reprefent the earth", i the place of the 
fpeftator, BZRN the fphere of the fixed ilars ; and al- 
though tiie fixed flars do not lie in the concave furface 
of a fphere, of which the center of the earth is the cen- 
ter, yet on account of the immtnfe diftancc, even of the 
neaiell of them, their relative fituations are not at all 
affefted by the motion of the earth, and therefore the 
place of a body in our fyllem may be referred to them, 
in the fame manner as if they were placed as is here 
fnppofcd. Now the circle phep'q is the meridian of the 
fpeftator at b, and let thii circle be e^ tended tu the hea- 
vens and there mark out the circle PZEP'^, and it 
will be the celeftial meridian of the place ; whenever 
therefore a body in the heavens comes to this circle, it 
is in the meridian of the fpeftator b ; and this circle di- 
vides the heavens into two hemifpheres, the eaflern and 
the lueflern. Let aho be a plane touching the earth at 
the place b of the fpedator, then this plane will be his 
fenfibk horizon, becaufe it divides the vifible part aZo 
of the heavens, from the invifible part a1>So ; and if a 
plane HR be drawn through the center of the earth, 
parallel to alo, it is called the rational horizon ; and as 
the arc Ro fubtends no fcnfible angle at the earth, thtfe 



planes, in refpedl to the fphere of the fixed flars, may 
be confidcred as coinciding. Now as the earth revolves 
daily about its axis, the heavenly bodies mull fucceflive- 
ly rife and fct in that time, and appear to defcribe cir- 
cles which are peipendicular to the earth's axis, and 
confequently paiallel to each other. Let pp' be the 
axis of the earth, p the north pole, p' the fouth pole; 
and let evqi be the equator ; then if the plane of the 
equator be extended up to the heavens, it will there 
mark out a circle EV^ called the cekflial equator; 
and if ^' be produced to the heavens to P, P', thefe 
points are called the poles of the celeftial equator ; and 
the ftar nearell to thefe is called the pole ftar. Now, 
although the earth in its orbit continually changes its 
place, yet as the axis always continues parallel to itfelf*, 
the points P, P', will not, from the immenfe diflance of 
the fixed flars, be fenllbly altered. Let « be the antipo- 
des to b, then if the diameter i?; be produced to Z and iV, 
Z is the zenith of the fpeftator, and N the nadir. Thus 
we may conceive the great circles, and any places upon 
the earth's furface, to be transferred to the heavens. 
Now the latitude of the place b upon the earth's fur- 
face is meafured by the degrees of the arc be ; but the 
arc ZE contains the fame number of degrees as the arc 
be, therefore the arc ZE in the heavens meafures the 
latitude of ^ the fpedlator ; and the degrees of the arc bp, 
which meafures the diflance of the fpeftator from the pole, 
contains the fame number of degrees as the arc ZP. 
Hence, as the equator, zenith, poles, and horizon in the 
heavens, may be confidered as correfponding to the 
equator, place of the fpedlator, poles, and horizon of 
the earth, and the angular diflances of the former are 
rcfpedlively equal to thofe of the latter, we may, for 
our prefent purpofe, leave out the confideration of the 
earth, and only confider the equator, zenith, poles, and 
horizon of the heavens. 




41. Let therefore PZEHFN^R reprefent the ce- 
leftial meridian to the place of a fpedlator upon the 



• TSij is not aecorately tru<, the earth's axis vaiying a little from its parallelifm from the attraaion of the moon. This is called the 
avTd.'iti of the earth's axis, aod W.IS liifcoveied by Dr. Cracley. . 

earth 



INTRODUCTION. 



xt 



earth whofe zenith is Z, the fpeftator being fuppofed 
in north latitude ; and let the figure reprefent either the 
eaftern or weftern hemifphcre of the heavens ; we muil 
therefore conceive this figure to reprefent half a globe, 
and all the lines upon it to reprefent circles ; and as, if we 
conceive the eye to be vertical to the middle point O of 
the figure, all the circles which pafs through that point 
will appear right lines, therefore the right lines ZON, 
POP', EO^, HOP. muftbe confidered as femicircles, 
HOP reprefenting the horizon, ^O^the equator, ZON 
a vertical circle pafling through, the zenith and nadir, 
peipendicular to the horizon, and this is called l\\e prime 
•vertical, cutting the horizen in the eaft or weft point 
of the horizon, according as the figure reprefeuts the 
eaftern or weftern hemifphere. For the fpeftator being 
fuppofed to be at Z, and looking along the meridian 
ZPP towards the north pole P, P muft be the north 
point of the horizon, and conlequently the oppofite 
point /f will be the fouth point ; and as the point bi- 
fefts the points //, P, it mull reprefent the eaft or weft 
point. All thefe circles are great circles, their planes 
pafling through the center of the fpherc. Draw the 
imall cii'cles •wH, mt, ae, Rv parallel to the equator. 
Now the femicircle FOP' biftfts the femicircle £0^ 
in 0, and therefore it bifefts the femicirclea ae, ml, in 
f and r. Now the ecliptic, or that circle which the fun 
appears to defcribe in a year, cuts the equator at an 
angle of 23°. 28' ; let therefore the circle COL cut the 
circle EO^ in that angle, and COL will reprefent the 
ecliptic. 

42. Nov7 as all the heavenly bodies, in their apparent 
diurnal motion, defcribe either the equator, or fmall 
circles parallel to the equator, according as the body is 
in or out of the equator, if we conceive the figuie to 
reprefent the eaftern hemifphere, SIE, ae, ml, may repre- 
fent their apparent paths as they move from the meridian 
under the horizon till they come to the meridian above 
the horizon, and the points 0, b, s, are the points of the 
horizon where they rife. Now ae, ^E, mt, are bifefted 
in c, 0, r ; therefore eb, the part above the horizon is 
greater than ab the part belovi- ; EO the part above is 
equal to O^the part below ; and Is the part above is lefs 
than sm the part below ; and as Z reprefeuts the place 
of the fpeftator, it follows, that thole heavenly bodies 
which are on the fame fide of the equator as the fpefta- 
tor, will be longer above the horizon than bulow ; thofe 
bodies which are in the equator, are as hjiig above the 
horizon as below ; and ihufe bodies which are on the 
oppoftte fide of the equator to that of the fpc6tator, will 
be ?ijhrjrter time above the horizon than below. Alio, 
the bodies defcrlbing ae, ^E, mt, rife at b, 0, s ; that 
is, a body which is on the fame fide of the equator with 
the fpeclator, rifes at b, from the eaft point towards 
the north point P of the horizon ; a body which Is in 
the equator, lifes at m the eaft ; and thofe bodies 
which ate on the oppnfite fide of the equator to the fpec- 
tator, rife at s, from the call point towards the fouth 
poiut H. When the bodies co-.ie to 0, tl or n, they 



are in the prime vertical, or in the eaft ; Tience, a body 
on the yaOTi" fide of the equator with the fpeftator, come* 
to the eaft after it is rifen ; a body on the contrary fide, 
before it rifes ; and a body in the equator, when it rifeS. 
As this figure may reprefent the v^'eftern hemifphere, 
the fame circles ea, E^, Ini, will reprefent the motion 
of the heavenly bodies as they defcend from the meri- 
dian above the horizon to the meridian below. Hence, 
a body is at its greateft altitude when it is upon the 
meridian ; and at equal altitudes at equal diftances on 
each fide of the meridian , if the body have not changed 
its declination. Now as all the fxed Jlars conftantly 
retain their fame fituations, each muft always rife and 
fet at the fame point of the horizon, and continue for 
the fame length of time above the horizon ; in thefc 
bodies, therefore, there will be no variety of appearance. 
But theyi/n, moon, ^n A planets are continually changing 
their fituatlon, and are fometimes on one fide of the 
equator and fometimes on the other. We will therefore 
next defcribe the phenomena attending thefe bodies. 

43. The femicircle COL reprcfents one half of the 
ecliptic, or one half of the fun's apparent yearly motion; 
and let C be the firft point of Capricorn, and L the fiift 
point of cancer. If we therefore fuppofe thtfun to be 
at any point p, en the contrary fide of the equator to 
that of the fpedlator, on that day, by the diurnal rota- 
tion of the earth, he appears to defcribe the circle mpn 
rst ; when he is at in, it is midnight ; when he comes to s, 
he rifes ; and when he comes to /, it is noon ; and from 
noon to midnight he will dtfcribe the path tsrnpm in the 
weftern hemifphere. Now as ms is greater than st, the fun 
will be longer below the horizon than above, and there- 
fore the nights will be longer than the days ; and the 
fun lifcs at .r from the eaft towards the fouth, and fets 
as far from the weft towards the fouth. When the fun 
is in the equator at 0, his diurnal motion is then ^E ; 
and as ^O^^OE, he is as long below as above the hori- 
zon, and the days and nights are equal ; and he rifes in 
the eaft at 0, and fets in the weft. When the fun is at 
any point q, on the fame fide of the equator with the 
fpeftatcr, on that day he defcribes, by his diurnal mo- 
tion, the circle abcdqe, and as ab is lefu than be, he is 
longer above the horizon than below it, and the days 
are longer than the nights ) and he rifes at b from the 
eaft O towards the north, and fets from the weft to- 
wards the north. It is manifeil therefore, that the 
length of the days incrcafes from the time the fun leaves 
C, the firft point of capricorn, till he comes to L, the 
firft point of cancer ; and then they gradually deoreafe 
again from the time the fun leave-; L till he comes to C. 
If ae, mt, be equidillani from E^, then will be.^nis, 
and abzz.st ; hence, when the fun is at equal diftances 
from the equator, and on oppofite fides, the length of 
of the day at one time is equal to the length of the 
night at the other, and the length of the night at the 
former is equal to the length of the day at the latter 
time. At every place therefore, the fun. In the couiie 
of a year, Is half a year above the horizon and half a 
£ 2 year 



XII 



INTRODUCTION. 



year below.* Hence, tlie difFerent Icngtlis of days and 
niglits, and the variety of fenfoiis, ariie from til's fun 
fating fomelimcs on one fide cf the equator, and fome- 
tinies on the other, or from the echptic CL being in- 
clined to the equator, or from the axis of the earth vvliieh 
coincides with PP', being inclined to the ecliptic CL, 
the path of the earth. 

44. As the fun illuminates one half of the earth, or 
90^ all round about that place to wliich he is vertical, 
when he is in the equator, he will jnll illuminate as far 
as each pole ; when he is on the north fide of the equa- 
tor, the north pole will be within the illuminated part, 
and the foutk pole will be in the dark part ; and when 
the fun is on the foutli iide of the equator, the fouth 
pole will be within the IHumlnated part, and the north 
pole in the dark part. When the fun is got to 23". 28', 
(his greated diftance from the equator,) he then illumi- 
nates the earth to 23°. 28' on the other fide of the pole ; 
and if two circles be dtfcribed about the poles at that 
diftance, that about the north pole is called the arctic 
circle, and that about the fouth pole is called the nntnrc- 
tjc circle. Thefe are alfo called fio/^r circles. If two 
circles be defcribed upon the earth, parallel to the equa- 
tor, at the diftance of 23". 28' from it, they are called 
tropica/ circles, or the tropics. 

45. Let Hiv, Rv, xy, be fmall circles parallel to 
£0^ Now It is maniftft, that a body which defcribes 
the circle Rv, or any circle xy nearer to P, never fets ; and 
fuch circles are called circles o( perpetual apparition j and 
the ilars which defcribe them are called circumpo'ar liars. 
The body which defcribes the circle a///, jult becomes 
vifible at ff, and then it inllantly d^fcends below the 
horizon ; but the bodies which are nearer to P' are 
never vifible. Such are the phsenomena of the diurnal 
motions of the heavenly bodies, when the fpeftator is 
fuuated any where between the equator and the poles ; 
and this Is called an oW;V/;.v fphere, becaufe all the bodies 
rife and fet obliquely to the horizon. 




4^1. If the fpeclator be at the equator, then E coin- 
cidts with Z, bccaufc Z anf>vevs to the place of the 
fpeftator on tiie earth, and iifS^coincidts with ZON, 
confequently P'Oi* coincides with HOR. Fleiice, as the 
equator EOSiji, perpendicular to the h.ori/.on, the circles 
ace, mrt, parallel to £0^, are alfo perpendicular to the 
horizon, and therefore the horizon bifecls them. To a 
fpeftator tl^'reforc at the equator, all the heavenly 
bodies In their diurnal motion are ss long above the hori- 
zon as below ; and they rife and fet at right angles to it, 
on which account, this is called a ;;|j/i/ Iphrre Her.cc, 
at the equator the days and nights are each always j2 
hours long. There will however be lome variety^ of 
feafons, as the fun will recede to L and C, 23". 28' or» 
each fide of the fpefta'or. When the fun is in the 
equator, he will be vertical to the fptftator at noon ; 
for one half of the year he will come to liu meridian to 
the north of the zenith, and the other half of the 
year, to the fouth of the zenith. 




P'.^ 



47. If the fpeftator be at the pofe, then P coincides 
with Z, and PP' coincides with ZN ; confequently 
isOi?^concides with NOR. Hence, the circles ea, tm, 
parallel to the equator, are alfo parallel to the horizon ; 
therefore as a body in Its diurnal motion defcribes a circle 
parallel to the horizon, all the fixed ftars wliich are at 
any time above the horizon, mull continue above the 
horizon, and tliofe which are below, muft continue be- 
low ; and the fpeCfator always fees the fame face of the 
heavens, becaufe none of the bodies, by their diurnal 
motion, can either rife or fet. This is called a parallel 
fpheve, becaufe the diurnal motion of all the heavenly- 
bodies is parallel to the horizon. But as the fun de- 
fcribes the ecliptic COL, and CO=lOL, and the part 
CO Is never brought above the horizon, by the diurnal 
motion, and the part OL is never carried below, the fun 
mull be half a year below the horizon, and half a year 
above, fo that there is half a year day, and half a year 
night. 

48. All thofe things will be very evident by means 
of a celeftlal globe. Place the axis obliquely to the 



* This is not accurately true, becaufe tiie fun's motion in the eciirt.c Is not uniform, on which account he is not exaflly as long on one 
fide of the equator as on the other ; thi fummer half year, or the time from the fun's leaving [he hrft point of aries till he camej to the firft 
Kointotlibra, 15 about 8 days longer than the winter halt year. 



ho: 



rizon,. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XIll 



liori/on, and you will fee that all the circka paialkl to 
the equator arc cut into- two uiiequ il parts; and the 
more you elevate the pole, or the r;e;;rer you biiu^ the 
fpeftator to the pole, the greater will be the diirL-rcnce 
of thole parts ; that is, as the fpoftator approaches the 
pole, the length ot the days will be inereafed. and that 
of the nights decreafed, when the fun is on the 
l.inu fide of the equator as the fpeiflator ; and the length 
..of the days wiU be decreafed and that of the night in- 
ereafed, when tlicfun is on the ctw/rarj' fide. If you bring 
the poles dow-u to the horizon, you will fee that all the 
parallels to the equator are cut into two equal parts, fo 
tiiat there is always equal day and night to a fpeftator 
at the equator. If you bring the pole to the zenith, or 
if the fpeftator be at the pole, and you torn the globe 
about, one half of the ecliptic will cont.nue above the 
lioiizon and the other half below, fo th;\t the fun will 
be half a year above the horizon, and half a yeai below. 
Th\i3 it appears, that as you travel from the equator 
to the poles, for one half of the year*the length oi the 
day will increafe from 12 hours to half a year; and for 
the otlier half of the year, the length of the night will 
increafe from 12 hours to half a year. 

49. The greater degree of heat in fummcr than in 
winter, arifes from three caufes. I. The fun is a long- 
er time a1)ove the horizon in fummer than in winter. 2. 
The fun rifing higher above the horizon in fummer than 
in winter, more rays will fall upon the earth in the 
former than in the latter feafon. 3. The higher the 
fun is above the horizon, the greater is the force of the 
rays. Moreover, the parts which are heated, retain their 
heat for fome time, which, with the additional heat ac- 
quired, make it continue to increafe after the middle of 
the fummer ; and this is the reafon why July is general- 
ly hotter than June. And for the fame reaion, we fre- 
quently find it hotter at 2 o'clock in the afternoon than 
it is at noon. Likewife, bodies retain their cold for 
fome time, and thus it happens, that January is gene- 
rally colder than December. 

50. The orbits of all the planets, and of the moon, 
are inclined to the equator, and therefore their motions 
amongll the fixed ftars mult be in circles inclined to the 
equator : hence, fimilar phasnomena to thofe of the fun 
will take place in the times of their refpeftive revolu- 
tions. All the different appearances muft therefore take 
place in the moon, in the courfe of a month. It is evi- 
dent alfo, that thefe variations muft be greater or Icfs, 



as the orbits are more or lefa inclined to the equator ; 
hence, they mult; be greater in the moon than in the 
fun, the moon's orbit being more inclined to the equa- 
tor than the fun's. 

51. The altitude of the pole of the heavens above 
the horizon, is equal to the latitude of the place. For 
the arc ZE (fig. 2d. page x) k the meafure of the lati- 
tude of the place ; but PE-=iZR, each being. 90°; take 
away Zi' which is common to both, and ]i2,-:z.PK' 
Hence, PZ is the complement of latitude. 

52. If there were a liar esaftly in the point P, then 
by taking its altitude PR above the horizon by a qua- 
drant, and correfting it for refraftion, you would get 
the latitude of the place ; but as there is hot a ftar in 
that place, the latitude may be found by obferving the 
greatell and»leall altitude of a circurnpolaV ftar, apply- 
ing the correction for refraction, and half the fum will 
be the altitude of the pole. For if j.v be tl^c circle de- 
fcribed bv a circumpoJar ftar, then ;4S V'.v ~-Py, \Ve have 
xR-PR^Px-PR) ry, and yk—l'R-Py; add 
thcfe equations togethei*, and we have xR-\-yR:z^ 
2 PR, therefore "4 (xR -\^yR):-PR the latitude. 

53. The angle which the ecpiator makes with the 
horizon, is equal to the complement* of the latitude of 
the place. For HE is the n\ealure of the angle HOE ; 
and as H'L^^go", HE is the complement of ZE, and 
ZE is the htitude. 

54. Hence, the latitude of a pl.>.ce may be found thus. 
. Let sOe (fig. page Y.iw) be the ecliptic, and then when the 

fun comes to e it is at itsgreateil northdeclination,at which 
time the days are longeft, and at t its fouth declination 
is the grfrateft, at v.'hich time the days arc fliorteft ; 
alfo, eHls, the meridian altitude of the fun on the long- 
eft day, and iH is the meridian altitude on the ftiorteft 
day. Now as tE—Ee,wt l\five eH-:^EH-\- Ec, and 
tH—EH — Et=:EH ~Ee\ add ihefe equations toge- 
ther, and we get eH+tHizz EH, therefore ; (eH-\- 
/iZ/f^^// the coraplemeiit of the latitude. The com- 
plement of latitude is therefore equal to half the fum of 
the true meridian altitudes of the fun on the longeft 
and Ihortcil days. 

^^. Half the difference of the meridian altitudes of 
the lun on the longeft and (Irortcft days, is equal to the 
inclination of the equator to the ecliptic. For the dif- 
ference between cH and tH is ct, ai.d the half of et is Ee, . 
which meafures the angle EOs, the inclination of the 
equator to the ecliptic. 



* The m/K/s/irmtnf of an arc, or angle, iswli»t It wants of 90" i »ni (bt fapphr.ent is whjtsn arc, or anjle; wants of ISC'". /i'~ 
titude means the coiDflement of. the altitude,, an J the lams for otiicr i^uantUies. 



5(5. Let 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION. 




e,f>. Let Ilk be a circle parallel to the horizon HOR, 
and 1 8° below it ; and let aybcihc be any circle parallel 
to the equator, delcribed by an heavenly body in the 
eaftern hemifphere ; and draw the circles Py, Pb, PtI, 
Px, and Zy, Zb, Zc, Zx. Now (as has been already 
explained) when the fun comes to y, twilight begins ; 
when any body comes to b, it rifes ; when it comes to c, 
it is at the middle point between a and e ; when it comes 
to d, it is due call ; and let x be the place at any other 
time. Now let us fuppofe this body to be the fun, 
and not to change its declination in its palTage from a 
tof ; and let us f\ippofe a clock to be adjufted to go 
24. hours in one apparent diurnal revolution of the fun, 
or from the time it leave? any meridian till it returns to 
ft again ; then the fun will always approach the meri- 
dian at the rate of 15° in an hour ; alfo, the angle 
which the fun defcribes about the pole, varies at the 
fame rate, becaufe any arc xe, which the fun has to de- 
fcribe before it conies to the meridian, meafures the 
angle xPe, called the hour angle. If theiefore we fup- 
pofe the clock to fliovv 12 when the fun is on the meri- 
dian at a and e, it will be 6 o'clock when he is at c And 
as the fun defcribes angles about the pole P at the rate 
of 15° in an hour, the angle between any circle Px, 
paffing through the fun at x, and the meridian PE, con- 
verted into time at the rate of 15° for an hour, will give 
the time from apparent noon, or when the fun comes to 
the meridian. Alio, when the fun is at any point x, 
the angle xZP is his azimuth from the north ; xZ is 
the complement of his altitude; and xP is the comple- 
ment of his declination. This being premifed, we fliall 
proceed to give the folution of a few problems which 
will be found very ufeful in practical ailrouoniy and na- 
vigation. 

57. The declination of a body, is the difference be- 
tween its meridian altitude, and the complement of the 



latitude. For the declination Ee^iHe—HE, where BE 
is the meridian altitude, and HE is the complement of 
latitude, by art. 53. Alfo, the declination EtzuHE — 
Ht, and Bt is the meridian altitude. 

5S. Given the latilude of the place, and the dee.Jinai'wn nf 
the fun, to find the time of his rifing, and his azimuth at that 
time. 

Let ae be the parallel of declination defcribed by the 
fun on the given day ; then when the fun comes to b. 
he rifes. Now in the fpherical triangle bZP, ^Zrrcjo*' 
(the zenith being 9^° from the horizon), iPizthe com- 
plement of the fun's declination, and PZ :^ the comple- 
ment of latitude ; and by fpherical trigonometry, 
radius : cotan. i/* :: cotan. ZP: cof. Z/i, or, radius : 
tan. decl : : tan. lat. : cof. ZPi, the hour angle from ap- 
parent noon ', which converted into time at the rate of 
15° for an hour, and fubtradled from 12 o'clock, gives 
the apparent time of rifing, or the hour at which the 
fun rifes, fuppofing it be i 2 o'clock when he comes to 
the meridian. 

Alfo, fin. ZP: radius: : cof. bP: fin, PZb, or, cof. 
lat. : radius : : fin. decl. : cof. of the azimuth from the 
north. 

Ex. Given the latitude of Cambridge ^1°. 12'. 35", 
to find the time of the fun's rifing on the longed day, 
and his azimuth at that time ; affuming the fun's great- 
eft declination 23°. 28'. 



By logarithms the operation will ftand thus : 

rad. 

tan. 23° 28'. o" 

tan. 52. 12. 35 



10,0000000 

9,6376106 

10,1 104699 



cof. I2.|. 2. 47' 



9,7480805 



Convert this into time, and it gives 8h. 19'. 6", which 
fubtrafted from 12, there remains 3h. 40'. 54", the ap- 
parent time at which the fun rifes. Alfo, 

cof. 52°. 12'. 35" - 0,2127004 ar. CO. 
radius - - 10,0000000 

fill. 23. 28 • 9,6001181 



cof. 49. 28. 9 



9,8128185 



Hence, on the longefl day, the fun rifes 49°. 28'. 9" 
from the north. 

59. To find the fun's altitude at 6 o'clock, on the fame 
day. 

At 6 o'clock the fun is at c, and ZPc is a right 
angle ; hence, radius : cof. ZP:: cof. Pc : cof. Zc, 
or, radius : fin. lat. : : fin. dec. : fin. of the altitude. 



• This log. 5,7480805 is found in the t.ibles to be the log. cofine of 55". 57'. 1 3", but as ihe angle is manifeftly greater than 90°, we 
muft take its fupplement. In llie (olution of fpherical triangles, ambiguous cales will trfquently aiife, for the determination of which, the 
reader is referred to Du. Maskelyne's excellent Iniroduflion to Taylor's Logaiiihitis ; or io MX' Vmcz'i Trcatif on flam and fphe- 
rical Trigiimmctrj, containing an e.xplanaiion of the CinftruUm and Ufi cf Logarithms, 

4 By 



INTRODUCTION. 



XV 



By logarithms the operation is thus : 
radius . - _ io,oooooco 
fin. 52°. 12' 35" - 9.8977695 
fill. 23. 28. o - 9,6001 i8i 

fin. 18. 20. 32 t\\c altitude 9,4978876 



60. Tojiiul the time when the Sun eomes chte enji, and 
his altitude at tijett time, on the fame day. 

The full is dueeail when lie comes to the prime verti- 
cal at d, and dZP is a right angle ; hence, cof. ZP : 
radius : : cof. dP : cof. Zd, or, fin. lat. : radius : ; fin. 
dec. ; fin. of the altitude. 

Alfo, radius: cotan. Pd:: tan. PZ : cof. ZPd, or, 
radius : tan. dec. : : cotan. lat. : cof. ZPd the hour 
angle, which converted into time, gives the time from 
apparent noon.. 

By logarithms, the operation is thus r 

0.1022305 ar. CO. 

lO.OOOOCOO 

9,6001181 



Px—Gf. 

ZP=:S5- 
Zs^Sl- 


37'- 

5- 

0. 


3" 


21 


Sum 175. 


42. 


24 


1 Sum 87. 
Z*=S3. 


51- 
0. 


12 
21 


Dif. 34- 


50. 


51 



29. 47. 44=1 ZPx 



ar. CO. fin. 0,034019 
ar. CO. fin. 0,086193 



fin. 9,999694 

fin. 9,756932 

2)19,876838 

cof. 9,938419 



fin. 52°. 12'. 35" 

radius 

fin. 23. 28. o - 



fin. 30. 15. 31 the altitude 9,7023486 



radius 

tan. 23°. 28'. o' 

cot. 52. 12. 35 



lOjOOCCOOO 

9,6376106 
9,8895301 



cof. 70. 19. 44=:Z/'^ - 9,527 1 4'-7 

This angle 70°. 19'. 44" converted into time, giv«s 
4h. 41 . 19" the time ixoxa apparent noon. 

61. Given the latitude of the place, the Sun's declination 
and his altitude, tojind the hour. 

Let X be the fun's place ; then in the triangle xZP, 
xZ is the complement of the altitude, xP is the com- 
plement of declination, and PZ is the complement of 
the latitude, all which are given ; hence, by fphcrioal 
trigonometry, fin. xfxfin. ZP : rad. :: fin. \(Px 
-fPZ + Zs)xfin. i (Fx + PZ—Zx) : c"of. \ ZPx,"- 
therefore the hour angle ZPx is known, which convert- 
ed into time, gives the time from apparent noon. 

Ex. Given the latitude 34°. ^^' N. the fun's declina- 
tion 22°. 22'. 57" N. and his true altitude 36°. 59'. 39", 
to find the apparent time. 

Here, ZP-^f. 5', Z.r=53°. o'. 21", Px-(,f. 
37'. 3" jN^d the operation by logarithms is thus : 



Hence, ZPx^sg". 35'- 28", which converted into 
time, gives 3h. 58'. 22". the time from apparent noon. 

This problem is ufed in finding the longitude by the 
lonar method. 

62. Given the latitude of the place, and the Sun^s decl'tna' 
tion, tojind the time when the tiuilight begins. 

Twilight begins when the fun comes to j, t8° belo>v 
the horizon ; hence, Zj;=ic8° ; alfo, Py is the comple- 
ment of declination, and ZP is th e co mplement of lati- 
tude ; hence, fin. yPx(m. ZP : 1^*:: fin. | CPZ-+ 
Pj;--flo8°;xfin. i {PZ + Py—ioS°): cof. J: yPZ,* 
therefore yPZ is known, which converted into time, 
gives the time from apparent noon, when twilight begins. 

This rule being the fame as the laft, the method of 
calculation is the fame. 

6^. Tojind Tohere the longejl day is 24 hours. 

Let ^R (fee fig. 2d on page x)=:23''. 28', then the 
fun on the longeft day defcribes the circle Rv, and this 
circle juft touching the horizon at R, it will wholly be 
above the horizon, therefore the fun continues above 
the horizon for its whole apparent diurnal motion, that 
is, for 24 hours. Now ^^RzzEH:^ the complement of 
latitude, by article 53 ; hence, the latitude is 66°. 32' ; 
therefore the fpeftator is at the arftic circle, as appears 
by art. 44. 

64. To a fpeftator at the fame place, on the fhorteft 
day the fun is at the diftance EH on the other fide of 
the equator, and at that time he defcribes the circle 
•wH in his diurnal motion, and therefore he continues 
24 hours below the horizon ; tlierefore the longell night 
is 24 hours. Now we have already obferved (art. 48.), 
that as a fpeftator moves from the equator to the poles, 
the length of the day increafes from 12 hours to half a 
year ; hence, the longeft day is more than 24 hours 
within the polar circle, and lels than 24, on every other 
part of the earth. 

65. To Jnd at what time of the year the twilight lajls 
jvjl all night. 

Let 



XVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



Let ae te the parallel defcn'bcd by the fun at that 
time, then Ra mull be 18°, for at that diftance below 
the horizon, twilight begins; hence, 18^ + dec. ^=: 
ii^=:£^=comp. of latitude, by art. 53. ; therefore, 
by trarfpofition, fun's dec. rzcomp. of lat — iS''. But 
if the fun be on the other fide of the equator at m, 
tlien Rm—\^°, and iS°— declin. ^n—R^^EH— 
comp. of lat. therefore, fun's dec. 1=1 8° — comp. of 
lat tude. Look therefore into the Nautical Almanac, and 
fee on what day the fun has this declination, and you 
have the time required. 

Ex. Let the latitude be 52". 12' N. then its com- 
plement is 37^. 48' ; hence, the declination is 37"". 48' 
— iS^mg". 48' N. which anfwcrs to about May 19, 
and July 24, at which times there is twilight juft all 
night. Therefore from May 19 to July 24 there will 
be twilight all night. 

66. The greattft value of ^ is 23°.- 28', therefore 
when aR is 18°, the greateft value of ^ is 41°. 28' ; if 
therefore ^R. be greater than 41°. 28', then Ka mull 
always be greater than i8°, and tiierefore ihere will be 
no twilight when the fun is at « ; hence, when the com- 
plement of latitude is greater than 41". 28', or when the 
latitude is Icfs than 48°. 32', there never can be twilight 
all night. 

4jlronomical 'Terms, ar'tfing from different 
Situations of the SfeSiator upon the Earth. 

67. By means of the two tropics and two polar circle^ 
upon the earth, the whole furface is divided into five 
parts, called zones : that which is included between the 
tropics, is called the torrid zone : the two parts lying 
between the tropics and the polar circles, are called the 
temperate zones : the two parts within the polar circles, 
are called the frigid zones. The inliabitants of thefe 
zones aredittinguilhcd by the different direftions of their 
fliadows arifmg from the fun. They who live between 
the tropics, or in the torrid zone, have the fun vertical 
to them at noon twice in the year ; thus, an inhabitant 
in 10° noith latitude has the fun vertical to him when 
its declination is 10° north. And, in general, this will 
happen when the latitude of the inhabitant is equal to the 
declination of the fun, and botli of the fame kind, that 
is, both north, or both fouth. At all other times, when 
the fun comes to the meridian, the fliadow is either to 
the north or the fouth of the zenith. The inliabitants 
of this zone .ire called j4wphijcii, that is, having both 
kinds of meridian fliadows. 

68. Thev who live in the temperate zones, have their 
lliadOws at noon always the fame way, and are therefore 
called Heterofcii, that is, having only one kind of meri- 
dian fhadow. 

69. They who live in the frigid zones, have, when 
the days are more than 24 hours long, the fun moving 
all round them, and therefore their iliadows are call all 
round them and hence they are called Perifcii, 

JO. The inhabitants of the earth have alfo been dif- 
tinguifhed into three Idnds, in refped to thfir relative 



fituations. They who live at oppofite points of the 
fame parallel to the equator, are called, in refpedl to each 
other, Pcrieeci. Thefe have the fame iealons of the 
year ; but it is midnight to one when it is noon, or mid- 
day, to the other. 

71. They who live under the fame meridian and in 
oppofite parallels, that is, in two parallels to the equa- 
tor, and equidillant from it, are called Antceci. Thefe 
have day and night at the fame time, but different fea- 
fons, it being fummcr with one when it is winter with 
the other. 

72. They who live under oppofite meridians and op- 
pofite parallels, are called Antipodes. Thefe have their 
davs and nights, and alfo their feafons, oppoiitc, that is, 
il is day with one when it is night with the other, and 
fummer with one when it is winter with the other. 

To find the Right Afcenficn and Declination of 
the Heavenly Bodies. 

73. The foundation of all aftronomy is to determine 
the places of the fixed liars, in order to find, by a re- 
ference to them as fixed objedls, the places of the other 
bodies at any given times, by which means you can trace 
out their paths in the heavens. The pofitions of the 
fixed liars are found from obfervation, by finding their 
right afcenfions and declinations, for it is manifcil, that 
if we know the right afcenfion ytm, and declination ms, 
we know the point s (fee fig. page viii). Now the 
declination is found thus. Find the latitude of the place 
by the 52d or 54th articles, and then we know EH the 
complement of latitude (fee the lall figure). By the 
aftronomical quadrant, delcribed in art. 17, find the 
true meridian altitude He of the body ; then the diffe- 
rence between EH and He is Ee, the declination required. 

74. To find the ri^ljt ajceiifion of a body. As the 
earth revolves uniformly about its axis^ the apparent 
daily motion of all the heavenly bodies, arifing from 
this motion of the eaith, mull be uniform ; and as this 
motion is parallel to the equator, the interval of the 
times in which any two liars pals over the meridian, is 
in proportion to the correfponding arc of the equator 
which paffes over the meridian in the fame interval. Now 
let a clock be adjulled to go 24 hours in the time the 
earth makes a rotation about its axis, then it delcribes 
about its axis an angle of 15° every hour, and every 
point of the equator, and all the circles which are parallel 
to it, dcla-ihe 15° in an hour ; and all the ilars appear to 
revolve at the fame rate ; fo' that if two ilars flioiild dif- 
fer 15° in righ.t :>fcenfion, one of them would pafs over 
the mericL'an an hour after the other. And, in general, 
if you take tlie interval of the times in which any two 
flars pafs the meridian, and convert that interval of time ■ 
into degrees, at the rate of ij-' for an hour, you will 
have the difference of the riglit afcenfions of thole two 
liars ; if therefore you know the tight afcenfion of one 
of the liars, you will know the right afcenfion of the 
oiher. Thus, by knowing the right afcenfion of one 
liar, and comparing all the other heavenly bodies with 



INTRODUCTION. 



XVll 



It, )'0u will get tlieir right afcenfions. For tlie method 
of finding the right alcenfion of fome one flar, we refer 
the reader to Mr. Vince's Complete Syftan of AJlronomy. 
The time when any body comes to the meridian is 
known by its pafiTage over the middle perpendicular 
wire of the tranfit tclefcopc, as defcribed in art. i8. 
The right alcenfion is reckoned both by time and by 
degrees; tluis, we fay a ftar has 15^, 30°, 45°. &c. 
right alcenfion, or its right acenfion is I hour, 2 hours, 
3 hours, &c. 

75. But a more ready and praftical method of finding 
the right afcenlion of a body, is thus : Let a clock be 
adjulled to go 24 hours in the time in whicli the earth 
revolves about its axis, in- which time all the fixed liars 
appear to have made one revolution ; and a clock thus 
adjulled is faid to be adjulled lofidereal time. Now let 
the clock begin its motion from oh. o'. o". at the inllant 
the firll point of aries is upon the meridian, from which 
point we begin to reckon the right afcenfion ; then, when 
any ftar comes to the meridian, the clock would ihow 
the apparent right afcenlion, of the liar, provided it was 
fubjeft to no error, becaufe it would then Ihow, at any 
time, how far the firft point of aries was from the meri- 
dian, reckoning 15" for every hour. But as every clock 
is fubjeft to err, we niuft be able at any time to find its 
error. To do this, we muft, when a ftar, whofc apparent 
right afcenfion is known, palfcs the meridian, compare 
its right afcenfion with the right afcenlion fhown by the 
clock, and the difference will (how the error of the 
clock. For inftance, let the apparent right afcenfion of 
alJebaran be 4h. 23'. 50". when it paffes over the meri- 
dian, and at that time fuppofe the clock to lliow 4h. 
23'. 56", then the clock is at that time 6" too faft ; and 
by thus continually comparing the clock with liars 
•whofe right afcenfions are known, you will always have 
the error of the clock ; and you will alio fee at what 
rate it gains or lofes, called the rate of ils going. The 
error of the clock, and the rate of its going being thus 
afcerfained, if the time of the tranfit of any body be ob- 
ferved, and the error of the clock be applied, you will 
have the right afcenfion of the body. 

76. Thus we determine the declination ms, and right 
afcenfion Am, of any heavenly body s ; and from thtfe 
we can, by fpherical trigonometry, find the latitude us 
and the longitude yln (fee fig. page 8) ; and it is ma- 
rifeft, that if we know thefe two quantities, we ftiall 
alio know the place s of the body ; and it is frequently 
more ufeful to make ule of the latitude and longitude, 
than it is the declination and right afcenfion, for finding 
the place of a body ; it is nectlfary tlierefore, in fuch 
cafes, to coRfiputc the latitude and longitude from the 
right afcenfion and dechuution ; for the method of doing 



which we refer the reader to tlie aborc-mentioned 
work. 

77. Being thus able to find the fituation of a body in 
the lieavens, wc can every day determine the place of 
all the heavenly bodies which have any motions, an.l 
thus we find out the paths which they dcfcribe, and 
how faft they move. 



On the Equation of Time. 



78. The beft meafure of time which wo have, is 2 
clock regulated by tiie, vibration of a pendulum. Buc 
with whatever accuracy a clock may be made, it muft 
be fubjecl to go ii regularly, partly from the imperfec- 
tion of the workman Ihip, and partly from the expanfion 
and contra'ilion of the materials by heat and cold, by 
which the length of the pendulum, and confequently 
the time of a vibration, will vary. As no clock therefore 
can be depended upon for keeping time accurately, it ij 
neceffary that we fliould be able at any time to afcertain 
how much it is too fall or too flow, and at what rate it 
gains or lofes. For this purpofe, it muft be compared 
with fome motion which is uniform, or of which, if it 
be not uniform, you can find the variation. The mo- 
tions of the heavenly bodies have therefore been confi. 
dered as moll proper for this purpofe. Now as the 
earth revolves uniformly about its axis, the apparent 
diurnal motion of all the heavenly bodies about the axie 
muft be uniform." If a clock therefore be adjulled to go 
24 hours from the palfage of any fixed ftar over the me- 
ridian till it returns to it again, its rate of going may be 
determined by comparing it with the tranfit of any- 
fixed ftar, and obfcrving whether the interval continues 
to be 24 hours ; if not, the diflerence ihows how much 
it gains or lofes in that time. A clock thus adjufted is 
faid to be adjulled to y7,/i'/-f/i/ time ; and all the fidereal 
days art equal. But all the folar days are not equal, 
that is, the intervals from the fun's leaving the meridian 
till it returns to it, are not all equal, fo that if a clock be 
adjulled to go 24 hours in one interval, another interval 
will be performed in more or kfs than 24 hours, and thus 
the fun and the clock will not agree, that is, the clock 
will not continue to II10VV12 when the fun comes to the 
meridian. 

79. For let P reprefent the pole of the earth, vwya 
its equator, and fuppoie the earth to revolve about ita 
axis, in the order ot die letters vzuyz ; and let TDLK 
be the ceicllial equator, and TCL the ecliptic, in whick 
the fun moves according to that diredlion. 



VOL. I. 



Let 



XYllI 



INTRODUCTION. 




Let s be the place of a fpeaator, and draw the meri- 
dian Psvji, and let us fuppofe the fun to be at a on the 
meridian. Then when the earth has made one revolu- 
tion about its axis, the fpedator at j will come again 
into the fame fituation, and be again on the fame meri- 
dian Psvae ; but the fun is not now again on the meri- 
dian, becaufe he has moved forward in the ecliptic to- 
wards L ; if therefore m be the point where the fun is 
when he nest comes to the meridian, or rather when the 
meridian overtakes him, and you draw the mcridmn 
Prmp, then ihe earth, after it has made a revohiti'on 
about its axis, has defcribed the angle vPr before the 
fpeftator at s be brought again into the meridian Pmp 
of the fun. Now the angle vpr is meafured by the arc 
pc, which is the increafe of the fun's right afcenfion in 
the time he moves from a to rn, or in a true folar day ; 
hence, the length of a trne folar day is equal lo the time of 
ihe earth's rotation about its axis, together nvith the time of 
defcribing an angle equal to the increafe of the fun's right af- 
cenfion in a true folar day. Now if the fun moved uni- 
formly, and alfo in the equator TDLE, this increafe 
ep would be always the fame in the fame time, and 
therefore the folar days would be all equal; but the fun 
moves in the ecliptic' 7'CL, and therefore //"its motion 
were uniform, equal arcs (am) upon the ecliptic would 
hot give equal arcs [ep) upon the equator. But the motion 
of the fun in the ecliptic is no/ uniform, and hence alfo 
am, defc'.ibed in a given time, is fubjeft to a variation, 
and confequently tp is fubjcft to a variation. Hence, 
the increafe ep of the fun's right afcenfion in a true folar 
day, varies from two caufes ; lit. Becaufe the echptic, 
in which the fun moves, is inclined to the equator ; 2d. 
Becaufe his motion in the ecliptic is not uniform ; there- 
fore the length of a true folar day is fubjeft to a conti- 
nual variation ; confequently a clock which is adjufted 
to go 24 hours for any one true folar day, will not conti- 
nue to fhow 12 when the fun comes to the m.eridian ; 



becaufe the intervals by the clock will continue equal 
(the clock being fuppofed neither to gain or lofe), but 
the intervals of the fun's pafiage over the meridian are 
not equal. 

80. As the fun moves through 360° of right afcenfion 
in 365^ days, therefore 365 J days: i day:: 360°: 
59'. 8", 2 the increafe of right afcenfion in i day, if 
the increafe were uniform, or it would be the increafe ia 
a mean folar day, tliat is, if the folar days were all equal ; 
for they would be all equal, if the fun's right afcenfion 
increafcd uniformly, as appears by the lall article* li 
therefore a clock be adjufted to go 24. hours in a mean 
folar day, it will not continue to coincide with the fun, 
that is, to {how 12 when the fun comes to the meridian, 
becaufe the true folar days differ in length from a mean 
folar day, but the fun will pafs the meridian, fometimes 
before 12, and fometimes after 12, and this difference is 
called the equation of time. A clock thus adjufted, is 
faid to be adjufted to mean folar time. The time fiiown 
by the clock is called true or mean time ; and that ftiowii 
by the fun is called apparent time ; tlius, when the fun 
comes to the meridian, it is faid to be 12 o'clock, appa- 
rent time. Hence, the time ftiown by a fun-dial is ap- 
parent time, and therefore a dial will differ from a clock, 
by how much the equation of time is on that day. 
When therefore you fet a watch by the dial, you muil 
fee what the equation of time is upon that day, and 
allow for it ; for inftance, if the equation be 3 minutes, 
and the watch be fafter than the fun, then you mufb 
fet your watch 3 minutes before the time fhown by the 
dial. Now altionomers, when they compute tables of 
the equation of time for every day of the year, fet the 
fun and clock together, when the fun is at his apogee, 
and then they calculate what is the difference between 
the fun and the clock, for every day at noon, and infert 
them in a table, ftating how much the clock is before or 
after the fun. For the methods of making thefe calcu- 
lations, we muft refer the reader to the Tieatife before- 
mentioned. The inclination of the equator to the eclip- 
tic, upon which the equation of time partly depends, 
and the place of the fun's apogee, when the clock and 
fun fet off together, being both fubjeft to vary, the equ- 
ation of time for the fame days of the year, will every 
year vary, and therefore it muft be calculated every 
year. Befides the time when the fun is in his apogee, 
there are three other times of the year when the clock 
and fun agree, or when mean and apparent times are the 
fame. 

81. Whenever it is required to make any calculations 
from aftronomical tables, and the time given is apparent 
time, the equation of time muft be applied in order to 
convert it into mean time, and for that time the compu- 
tations muft be made, becaufe all tables are conftrufted 
for mean motions. Thus, if it were required to find 



* As Ihe e-rth dcfcilles an angle cf 5f o\ 59'. S",a about its axis in a wtan folar day of 24 hours, and an angle of jfo" in zfiJereal day, 
therefore 360^ 59'. S",2 : jC'o" : : 24h. : ijh. 56'. VjCjS the length of a fidereal day in mean fclar time, or the liras trom the palfage 
ttansed ft^r c\tr tue mctid.an till 1; lemrns to it again. 

the 



INTRODUCTION. 



XIX 



the fun's place on any day at apparenf noon, tlie equa- 
tion of time mud be applied to 12 o'clock, and then the 
fini's place muft be computed from the tables for that 
time. All the articles in the Kaiilkal Almanac, anfwer- 
ing to noon, are computed in this manner. 

On the Solar Syfiem. 

82. The fun is placed in the center of the fyftem, 
about which the planets revolve in the following order, 
reckoning from the fun : mercury, •veiuis, the earlh, 
wars, Jupiter, fafurn, and the genrgiati ; thefe are fome- 
times called prhnnry planets. Some of thefe planets 
have bodies revolving about them ; the earth has one ; 
Jupiter has four ; faturn has feven ; and the georgian 
has fix ; thefe are called fecomlary planets, fatellites, or 
wooiis. There are alfo otlicr bodies which revolve about 
tlie fun, called Comets, which move in orbits veiy ellip- 



tical, and extend to a very great diflancc beyond the 
orbits of the primary planets. The fun, the primai-y 
planets, the fecondary plnnete, and the comets, compofe 
what is called the Sotar Syjlem. The two planets 
which are nearer to the fun than the earth is, are called 
inferior planets ; and the other five which are further 
from the fun than the earth is, are called yi/jfrcW/jr planets.. 
All the other bodies in the heavens are fixed ftars, and 
at fuch immenfe dillances beyond the folar fyftem, that 
their appirent relative fituations are not at all altered by 
the motion of the earth in its orbit ; we may therefore 
coufider them as placed in the concave furface of a 
fphere, having the earth for its center ; and to thefe. 
we refer the motions of the bodies in our fyftem. The 
orbits of the primary planets arc ellipfes, having the fun 
in one of the foci ; but they are fo very nearly circles, 
that, for our prefent purpofe, we may confider them as 
circles having the fun in the center. 




82. Let 5 be the fun, E the earth, alcJef the orbit 
of one of the inferior planets, venut or mercury ; XT the 
fphere of the fixed ftars ; draw EaSeP, Ebd^, and let 
EcR, EfS be tangents to tlie orbit of the planet, and let 
a, h, c, d, e,f, be fo many different fituations of the 
planet ; then as the planets are opaque bodies, that half 
which is next to the fun is enliglitencd, and the other 
half is dark, as reprefented in the figure. The fituation 
a is called inferior conjunftion, and the fituation e is 
called yi/^mor conjunftion. Now it is manifeft, that at a, 
the dark part only of the planet Is towards the earth, 
and therefore the planet is then invifible ; at ^ a part 
of the enlightened face is towards the earth, and there- 



fore part of the planet tcill be vifible, and will look like 
the moon before it comes to its firft quarter ; at c, one 
half of the enlightened part of the planet will be turned 
towards the earth, and it will look like the moon at its 
firft quarter; at d, more than half the enlightened part 
of the planet will be towards the earth, and it will look 
like the moon between its fecond quarter and full ; at e, 
the whole enlightened part of the 2)lanet will be next 
the earth, and the planet will appear to lliiue wi:h a full 
face, like the moon at Its full ; and from e through ^to 
a, the appearances will be the fame in the contrary or- 
der. Tlicfe are the/>iirnoOTraa wliich ?ji inferior planet 
muft have ; and as, by viewing veiius and mercury with a 
d 2 telefcope, 



XX 



INTRODUCTION, 



telcfcope, thej are found to have all thefe phaenomena, 
we conclude that they mud be iiiferior planets. Now 
the angle cES is the gieateft (Hllance at which thefe 
planets appear from the fun, or the greatell elongation ; 
and as this angle is found to be greater for rniiis than it 
is for mercury, we know that mercury is nearer to the f:m 
than Venus. 

84. When the planet is at a, it appears in the heavens 
amongft the fixed ftars at P ; when it is at b, it appears 
at ^; when it is at c it appears at R ; when it is at 
</, it appears at ^; when it is at e, it appears at F ; 
when it is aty, it appears at S ; and when it i-eturns to 
a, it appears at P ; at which place alfo the fun appears. 
It is manileft therefore, that an inferior planet appears 
to move backwards and forwards in the heavens, 
from S to R, and fiom R to S ; and therefore there 
nnift be two points where the planet appears ftation- 
ary ; for if a planet firfc appear to move one way and 
then back again in a contrary dircflion, the motion mutl 
firft ceafe in one direftion before it takes place in a con- 
trary direftion. We have here fuppofed the earth to 
be at reft at E, but all the fame phenomena will take 
place if we fnppofe the earth to be in motion ; for an 
inferior planet moves fafter about the fun than the 
earth does, and therefore when it comes into inferior 
conjunftion at a, it will immediately leave the earth be- 
hind it, and liave the fame relative fituations in refpeft 
to the earth and fun, as we have dcfcribed above. If the 
earth were at reft, the two ftationary points would be at 
R and S, when the planet was on each fide at its greatell 
elongation from the fun (appearing at P) ; but as the 
eaith is in motion, thefe will not be the ftationary 
points. The true ftationary points (which call P and ^ ) 
arc determined, by finding when a line joining the earth 
and planet continues parallel to itfelf for a veryimall time. 

85. The earth and all the planets revolve about the 
fun in the direftion XT ; that direftion is therefore 
direS, and the contrary direflion TX is retrograde (fee 
art. 19.). Hence, an inferior planet appears to move 
direft, from the ftationary point R before it comes to 
the fuperior conjunftion, till it comes to the ftationary 
point 5 after; and it appears to move retrograde, from 
the ftationary point .S before it conies to the inferior cou- 
junflion, till it comes to the ftationary point R after; 
therefore whilft an inferior planet is palling through its 
inferior conjunttion, it is retrograde ; and whilft it is 
pafiing through its fuperior conjunftion, its motion is 
fiireft. As the arc cef is greater than the arc fac, the 
planet is longer direct than it is retrograde. It appears 
airo from hence, that the two interior planets will con- 
stantly attend the fun, receding to a certain diftance on 
each fide, and then returning to again to him. As the 
01 bits of the planets are not circles, but ellipfes, the 
greateft elongations of veiius and mercury are not always 
the fame ; the greateft elongations of x'entis are from 
44". 57' to 47'. 48' ; and of mercury from 17". 36' to 
28^. 20'. As mercury recedes but to a fmall diftance 
tVinn the fun, it is not often that ii can be feen, as it 
mull be in the nioft favourable fiCu.-.tion for that pur- 



pofe, and the atmofphere muft alfo be very clear at the 
fame time. 

86. When -veiuis Is at the diftance of 39". 44' from the 
fun, between its inferior conjundtion and its greateft elon- 
gation, ftie tlien gives the,gteateft quantity of light to the 
earth ; and at that time hei brlghtnels i;i fo great as to 
caufe a fliadow. And if at that time ilie be at her 
greateft north latitude, litr brightnefs is fo great that 
Ihe is fecu by the naked eye at any time of the day 
when file is above the horizon ; for when her north la- 
titude is the greateft, file rifes higheft above the hori- 
zon, and her rays coming through lefs of the atmof- 
phere, fhe is more ealily feen. This happens once in 
about 8 years, vcnus and the earth returning very nearly 
to the fame p;'.rts of their orbits after that interval of 
time. 

87. Venus is a morning flar from inferior to fuperior 
conjiindtion, and an evening flar from fuperior to infe- 
rior conjuuclion. Tiie earth turns abuut her axis ac- 
cording to the order of the letters mnviv ; when the 
fpeilaLor is at n, it is then night to him ; and as, by 
tlie earth's rotation, he is carritd towards v, it is niani. 
feft that the part ace of the orbit of venus will come 
into view before the fun 5 does ; hence, if venus be any 
where in that part of her orbit, ihe will appear in the 
morning before fun-rife, and therefore flie is then a 
morning ftar. As the fpeftator pafFes through viuni, it 
is day, and at m the fun will fet ; but the part efa of 
the orbit of venus will ftill be above his horizon, and 
therefore ifvtnus be in that part, fhe will be vifible 
after fun-fet, and will then be an evening {[m. 

8H. The orbits of venus and mercuryzre inclined to 
the orbit of the earth, and cut it at two oppofite points, 
called the nodes, fo that if we conceive the orbit of the 
earth to lie in the plane of the paper, the orbits 
of venus and mercury wiU lie, one half above 
the paper, and the other half below. It is upon this 
account that venus and mercury, when they come into 
their inferior conjunction, at a, do not always appear to 
pafs over the fun's difc, or make a tranfic over it. If 
the nodes happen to lie in conjundtion and oppofition, 
then, when the planet comes into cojijunftion at a, it is 
in a line joining the earth and fun, and it will appear to 
pals over the difc of the fun, like a fmall, round, black 
fpot. But if the nodes be at a certain diftance from 
conjunftion and oppofition, when the planet comes into 
conjunction, it may be fo far above or below the line 
joining the earth and fun, as not to pafs over the fun. 
ITie tranfits of i^cHUj do not happen fo often as thofe 
of mercury. The laft tranfit of venus happened in 1769, 
and the next will be in 1874. The laft tranfit of mer- 
cury happened in 1799, and the next will be in 1802. 

89. When Dr. Halle y was at St. Helena, whither 
he went for the purpofe of making a catalogue of the 
fouthern ftars, he obferved a tranfit of mercury over the 
fun's difc, and this fuggefled to him a method of finding 
the fun's parallax from fuch obfervations, from the dif- 
ference of the times of tranfit over the fun, at diffeient 
jilactc upon the earth's furface. But the difference of 

the 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXX 



the times being lefs for mercury than for venus, 
the coiicUi lions will be more accurate for vcnus than 
for mtrciiry. The Doclor therefore propufed to deter- 
mine the parallax of the lun from the tranfit of venus ; 
and as it was not probable that he himfclt (hoiild live to 
obferve the two next traniits, which happened in 1761 
and 1769) he vei"y earnellly recommended the attention 
of them to the allronomers who might then be alive. 
Altronomers wCre therefore fent from Hn^/iirui 'dnd France 
to the mod proper parts of the earth, to obferve both 
thefe tranfits ; from which obfervations it appears, that 
the horizontal parallax of the fun at his mean dillance, 
is S^"; hence, by article 14, fin H^" : rad. :: rad. 
of earth : mean diftance of the fun from the earth ; now 
fm. 8|": rad. :: j : 23575 ; therefore the mean dilbuice 
of the fun from tlie earth is equal to 23575 fcmidiame- 
ters of the earth ; and as we have determined (fee art. 
4) the radius of the earth to be 3965 miles, the mean 
dillance of the earth from the fun^23575 x 3965=: 
93474875 miles. For the method of finding the hori- 
zontal parallax, we refer the reader to the Treatife of 
Ailrononiy which we have before mentioned. 

90. Having defcribed the phsenomena attending the 
inferior planets, we procild to defcribe thofe which at- 
tend the luperior. 



P Q 


R 


—4 


r 


"Tj 


p 


'eL- 


Jc 


"^ 




N 




K 


am 



91. Let S\iQ the fun, E the earth, EvKw tlie orbit 
of the earth, IxVy the orbit of a fuperior planet, XT 



the fphere of the fixed ftars ; draw VKSEI^, CaP, 
FbR, ritbP ; then when the p'anet is at /, it is in oppo- 
Ju'ion to the fun, and at K, it is in conjunttwn. Now the 
earth moves falter than a fuperior planet ; whilll the 
earth therefore moves from C to E, and from E to F, 
let the planet defcribe the fmaller arcs al, lb. Then it 
is maniteft, that when the earth is at 6^, the planet at a 
appears in the heavens at P ; wlien tlie earth is at E, 
the planet at / appears at ^; and when the earth is at 
F, the planet at b appears at R ; uhiHt therefore the 
earth moves from C to /'', the planet appears to move 
from /' to R, contraiy to its real motion ; hence, a fu- 
perior planet is relragrade whilll it pafles through opjpo- 
Jit'ton. Suppofe now that when the earth is at K the 
planet is at / in conjunftion with the fun, and let the 
earth m.ove from A' to m whilll the planet moves from / 
to ^, then it will appear in the heavens to have moved 
from .^to P, or according to its real motion. Hence, 
a fuperior planet is JirtH when it pafles through conjunct 
tion. As therefore a fuperior planet appears to move, 
fometimes diredl and fometimes retrograde, it mull ap- 
pear ilationary at the two points where the motion 
changes from one to the other. 

92. When the planet is in oppofition at /, or in con- 
junftion at K, the earth being at E, it is manifeft 
that the fame face of the planet which is towards 
the fun, is alio towards the earth, and therefore the 
planet appears full orbed ; but if nopq be the poli- 
tion of the planet, then the fpeiflator on the earth 
at E win have a little of the dark part of the planet 
beyond n turned towards him, and therefore it will 
not be full orbed to the earth, but will appear hke 
the moon a little before or after its full. But if the 
planet be at a very great dillance from the fun, when 
compared with the earth's dillance, there will be fo little 
of the dark part turned towards the earth, that it will, 
as to fenfe, appear full orbed. Now this is the cafe with 
all the fuperior planets, except mars, \\hiiSh between 
conjunftion and oppofition is obferved to appear not 
full orbed ; but all the reft do, on account of their great 
diilances. 

93. It is found by obfervatlon, that the places of the 
aphelia of the orbits of the planets, and the places of 
their nodes, have a motion, and that the inclinations of 
their orbits to the ecliptic are fubjeft to a variation^ 
Thefe circumftances arile from the mutual attratViors of 
the planets. 

94. It appears, from what we have already obferved, 
that mercury, iiem/s, and mars are opaque bodies, as they 
do not always (hine with full faces, that part towards 
the earth which is not towards the fun, being dark. 
Jupiter and fiilurn call fhadows, and eclipfe their fatel- 
lites, and therefore they muft be opaque bodies. The 
georgian has never been feen to eclipfe its fatellites, as the 
fatellites have not, fince the difcovery of the planet, 
been in a fituation to be eclipfed by the planet ; but it 
beinjr a body revolving about the fun, like the other 
planets, and having alfo fatellites revolving about it, we 
may conclude by analogy, that it is an opaque body. 

95. Kefler made three very important difcoverieg 

I'k rcfpefting 



xxu 



INTRODUCTION. 



vcfpecliiig the motions' of die planets, and which are in- 
deed the foiuidatioii of all ailronomy. 

I ft. That the primary planets revolve about the fun 
in ellipfvs, having- the fun in one of tlie foci. 2dly. 
Tliat the fqnaves of the periodic times of all the planets, 
have the fame proportion to each other as the cubes of 
their refpcftivo mean dillaiices. 3d!y. That if a line be 
drawn from" llic fun to a planet, and move as the planet 
moves, it will delcribc about the fun, equal areas in equal 
times. Thefe principles which Kepli-r deduced fiom 
obfervation. Sir I. Newton proved to be true from 
the conmioa principles of motion, and his theory of 
gravity. 

g6. The periodic time of the earth, or the time in which 
llie earth makes a complete revolution in her orbit, 
called a^fArra/ revolution, it 365d. 6h. 9'. m",5. _ The 
time from the earth's leaving the firit point of arits till 
(lie returns to it, is 365d. 5h. 48'. 48", and this is called 
a tropical revolulion ; and this being lefs than her perio- 
dic time, it follows that the equinottial points move back- 
wards ; and this motion is called the prccefflon of the 
equinoxes. The time from the earth's leaving her apo- 
gee till file returns to it, is 365d. 6h. 14'. 2" ; and this 
being greater than lier periodic time, it foUov/s that her 
apogee moves forv.ard; this is called her anomalifiic 
year, 

97. The following table contains the relative jnean 
diitances of the planets from the fun, affuming the 
mean diftauce of the.eartjito be unity ; together with 
their periodic times. 



99. A table of the places of the nfcending noi\es of 
the tH-bits of the planets for 1 750, with their motions 
in longitude for 100 years. 



Planets \ 


Mean DIft. 


1 


Periodic T 


imes 


Mercury | 


0,38710 


1 


87d. 2311. 


.5'.43".6 
49. 10,6 


Venus 


0,72333 


1 


2 24d. i6h. 


Eaith 1 


1 ,00000 


1 

1 0: 
|iiy 


365d. 6h. 


9. 11,6 


Mars 1 


1,52369 


32id. 23h. 
"3 I5d7'i4h ' 


30:_35'6 
2 7.. 10,8 


Jupiter 1 
Saturn 


5.?o2 79 


9,54072 


1 29y 


I74d. ih. 


51. 11,2 


Georgian | 


19,18352 


ISjy 


i5od. l8h. 





98. A table of the places of the aphelia of the orbits 
for the beginning of 1750, with thcirmotions in longi- 
tude in 100 years. 



I^lanets 


Place of 


Apheha 


IVIot. in 1 00 years 


Mercury j 


«... 13°. 


33'- 5»" 


'°- 33'- 45' 


Venus 1 


10. 7. 


46. 42 


1. 21. 


Eaith 1 


3. 8. 


37. It. 


I- 43- 35 


Mars 


5. I. 


28. 14 


1 I. 51. 40 


Jupiter 
Saturn | 


6. 10. 


21. 4 


1 I- 34- 33 
I. 50. 7 


8. 28. 


9- 7 


Georg;ian 


11. 16. 


19, 30 


1. 1. 2g. 2 



Planets 


Place of the 


Node 


Mot. of Nude 


Mercury 


IS. 15°. 20' 


• 43" 


i". 12'. 10" 


Venus 


2. 14. 26. 


. '8 


0. 51. 40 


Mars 


I. 17. 38. 


38 


0. 46. 40 


Jupiter 


3- 7- 55- 


^2 


0. 59. 30 


Saturn 


3. 21. 32. 


22 ) 


0. 55. t;o 



M. DE LA Place found the place of the node of the 
Georgian planet in 1788, to be 2°. 1 2'. 47" ; but its mo- 
tion is not yet determined. 

100. A table of the inclinations of the orbits of the 
planets to the ecliptic for the year 1788; with the varia- 
tion for 100 years. 



Planets 


Inclination | 


Variation 


Mercury 


7°. o'. 


0' 1 


+ 20", 43 


Venus 


3- 23- 


35 


-+4m7 


Mars 


I. iji. 


1 


+ 3.45 


Jupiter 


1 I. .18. 


56 1 


—27,19 


Saturn 


1. 2, 29. 


50 1 


—23,11 


Georgian 


1 0. 46. 


20 





The variation is that arifing from theory, as deter- 
mined l)y M. DE LA Grange. The fign +, lliovvs 
that the inclination increafes, and the fign — , that it 
decieats. 

loi. If two planets revolve in circularorbits, to find the 
time from conjunftion to coniundlion. Let /'=:the perio- 
dictimeofa fHperiorplanet,/i::=the pei iodic time of an iu- 
feriorplauet;/=:thetime required. Then P: iday :■ 360°: 
360'J the angle defcribed by the fuperior planet in I day ; 

P 
for the fame reafon, ;fi"° is the angle defcribed by the infe- 

rior planet in i day ; therefore 36°° — 5^' is the daily 

P - P 

ann'ular velocity of the inferior planqt yro/n the fuperior, 
or^how much the former recedes iVom the latter, every 
day. Now if they fet out from conjunttion, they will 
return into conjundtion again, after the inferior planet 
has gained one revolution, or 360°; therefore ibo" — 

P 

56.0" • 360°;; I day: trr Pp . The rule therefore to 

~F . .P— p 

find the required time, is, to multiply theperwSc times to- 
gether, and divitle by their difference. This will alfo give 
the time between two oppofitions, or between any two 
fimilar iltuations. The time from conjundtion to con- 
jundion is called afynodic revolution. 



On 



INTRODUCTION. 



x>:m 



On the Motion of the Moon^ and its 
Phanomena. 

102. The moon bting the neareft, and, next to the 
fun, the mod remarkable body in our fyllcni, and alfo 
virei"ul for the divifion of time, it is no wonder that the 
ancient aftronomers were attentive to difcover its mo- 
tions, and the orbit which it dtfcrlbes. The motion of 
the moon in its oibit about the earth, is from wcilto eall, 
and its orbit is found to be inclined to the ecliptic. The 
motion of the moon is alfo obfen-ed not to be uniform, 
and its diftance from the earth is found to vary, which 
fliows that it does not revolve in a circle about the earth 
in its center ; but its motion is found to be in an ellipfe, 
having the earth in one of the foci. The pofition of the 
ellipfe is obferved to be continually changing, the major 
axis not being fixed, but moving fom.etimcs direct and 
fometimes retrograde ; but, upon the whole, the motion 
is direft ; and it makes a complete revolution in a little 
more than S-J years. The excentriclty of the ellipfe is alfo 
found to change, that is, the ellipfe is fometimes nearer 
to a circle than it is at other times. The inclination of its 
orbit is found likewife fubjeft to a variation from 5' to 
5°. 18'. All thefe irregularities arife from the fun dif- 
turbing the moon's motion by its attraflion. 

103. As the ellipfe which the moon defcribes about 
the fun, isfubjeft to a variation, the periodic time of the 
moon about the earth will alfo vary ; in winter, the 
moon's orbit is dilated, and the periodic time is in- 
creafed; and in fummer, her orbit is contrafted, and her 
periodic time is diminifhcd. The periodic time of the 
moon increafes whilfl the fun is moving from his apo- 
gee to his perigee, and decreafes whilft he moves from 
his perigee to his apogee ; and the grtateft difference of 
the periodic times is foimd to be about 2z\ minutes. 

104. T\\<tmean periodic time of the moon is ayd. 7I1. 
43'. li",J ; this is called her fidereal revolution, being 
the inean time from her leaving any fixed ftar, till her 
return to it again. Now it is found by obfcrvation, that 
the mean time from her leaving her apogee till fhe returns 
to it, is zyd. 1311. 18'. 4"; hence, the moon is longer in 
returning to her apogee than fine is in making a revolu- 
tion in her orbit, and therefore her apogee mull move 
forward. The mean time from her leaving her node till 
fire returns to it again, is 2 7d. ^\\. 5'. 35",6, and this 
being lefs than her mean periodic time, it follows that the 
returns to her node before (he has completed Iier revolu- 
tion, and therefore her nodes rauft have a retrograde 
motion. 

105. The time between two wfaw conjuftions of the 
fun and moon, or from new moon to new moon, fuppof- 
ing their motions had both been uniform, is found by 
the rule in article loi ; taking therefore the mean peri- 
odic time of the moon and fun as already ilated, we get 
the mtan time from conjuncUori to conjunction to be 
29d. izh. 44'. 2",8, and this is called \\i\- J'ynodtc revolu- 
tion. The true time from new to new moon will be 
fometimes greater and fometimes lefs tlian this. The 
caufes of all ihefe irregularites we will briefly explain. 



106. The apparent diameter of the moon is found con- 
tinually to vary ; now the apparent diameter of any very 
dillant body, varies inverftly as its dillance. Hence, as 
the apparent diameter of the moon incrtafes, flie muft 
approach the earth ; and when it decreafes, fhe muft; 
recede from the earth. This variation of her apparent 
diameter agrees exaftly with wliat ought to be the cafe, 
if the moon moved in an ellipfe about the earth in one 
of its foci ; we conclude therefore that the moon moves 
in an ellipfe about tlse earth fituated in one of its foci, 
as no other fuppofition will agree with the obferved va- 
riation of the moon's diameter. From the variation of 
the fun's diameter, it appears in like manner, that the 
earth muft revolve in an cUipfe about the fun, having the 
fun In one of the foci. 

107. The earth moving In an ellipfe about the fun In 
Its focus, the nearer the earth comes to the fun, the 
more it is attracted by him, and this attra&ion incieafes 
in the fame ratio as the fquare of the diftance diminifties ; 
and on the contrary, it decreafes as the fquare of the 
diftance increafes. As therefore the earth approaches 
the fun all the time It moves from the aphelion to the 
perihelion, the attraftion increafes, and coulpirlng part- 
ly with the earth's motion. It accelerates the motion of 
the earth ; and when the earth moves from perihelion 
to aphelion, the attiaftion afts partly againft the earth's 
motion, and diminiilics its motion. Tlius, the velocity 
of the earth increafes whilll It moves from the aphelion 
to perihelion, and decreafes as much whilft it moves 
fiom perihelion to aphelion. As the moon moves in an 
ellipfe about the earth in Its focus, (he muft, in like 
manner by the earth's attradlon, have iier velocity in - 
creafed from her apogee to perigee, and decreafed as 
much from her perigee to apogee. Thefe arc the prin- 
cipal caufes of the variation ot the velocities of the earth 
and moon. But as the fun attracts the moon, as well as 
the earth attrafts it, the attraction of the lini will caufe 
another variation of the moon's velocity. Thus the 
moon being attradled both by the fun and earth, they 
will caufe great irregularities in her motion ; and hence 
it Is very difficult to compute the place of the irioon. 
After finding the mean place of the moon, that is, the 
place where ihe would have been if her motion had been 
uniform, It requires not lefs than 20 con-ettlons, in order 
to get the true place to a fufficient degree of accuracy. 
Sui I. Newton was the firll perfon who pointed out 
the fources of thefe irregulai Ities ; but they are of a 
nature too difficult to admit of a popular illullration. 

loS. When v.'c view the moon with a tclclcope, we 
find that her furface Is very rough with mountains and ca- 
vities ; this appears from the very jagged boundary ot the 
light and dark parts. Alio, certain parts are found to 
projedt fliadows always oppofite to the fun ; and when 
the fun beconies vertical to any of tliein, they are ob-^ 
ferved to have no (liadow ; thefe therciore mull be moun- 
tains. Other parts are always dark on that iidc next the 
fun, and illunilnated on the oppofite fide ; thefe there- 
fore muft be cavities. Kence, the appearance of the 
moon couftantly varies, from its altering it.s fituation in 
rci'peft tj the iun. The tops of the ni-ouutains on tiie 

dark 



Xxir 



INTRODUCTION. 



dark part oftlie moon, arc frequently fcen enlightened 
at a diftance from tliC confines of the illuminated part. 
The dark parts have, by fome, been thought feas ; and 
by othcis, to be only a great number of caverns and 
pits, the dark fides of which next to tlie fun, would 
caufe thofe places to appear darker than tlie reft. The 
great irregularity of the line bounding the light and dark 
parts, on eveiy part of the furface, proves that there can 
be no vtry large tracts of water, as fuch a regular furface 
would neceftariiy produce a line, terminating the bright 
part, pcrfedly free from all irregularity. Alfo, if there 
was much water upon its furface, and an atmofphere, as 
conjeftured by fome aflronomers, the clouds and vapours 
might eafily be diicovered by our telefcopes ; but no 
luch phsaomena have ever been obferved. 

109. On April 9, 1787, Dr. Herschel difcovered 
tliree volcanoes in the dark part of the moon ; two of 
them feemed to be almoft extinft, but the third fhowed 
an aftual eruption of lire, or luminous matter, refembling 
a Imall piece of burning charcoal covered by a thin coat 
of white aflies ; it had a degree of brightnefs about it, as 
llrong as that with which Inch a coal would be feen to 
glow in faint day light. The adjacent parts of the volcaaic 
mountain lecmed faintly illuminated by the eruption. 
A fimilar eruption appeared on May 4, 1783. On 
March 7, 1794, a few minutes before 8 o'clock in the 
cveningj Mr. Wilkins of Norwich, an eminent archi- 
tect, obferved, with the naked eye, a very bright Ipot 
upon the dark part of the moon ; it was there when he 
firft looked at the moon; and the whole time he faw it, 
which was about 5 minutes, it was a fixed, fteady light, 
except the moment before it difappeared, when its 
brightnefs increaled. The fame phenomenon was alfo 
oblerved by Mr. T. Stretton, in St. John's-fquare, 
Cleikenwell, London. On April 13, 1793, M. PiAZZi, 
Allronomer-Royal, at Palermo, obferved a bright fpot 
on the dark part of tlie moon ; and feveral other aftrono- 
niers have obferved the fame phasnomenon. 

1 10. It has been a doubt amongit aftronomcrs, 
whether the moon has any atmofphere ; fome fufpeCling 
that at an occultation of a fixed ftar by the moon, the 
ftar did not vanilh fuddenly, but loil its light gradually, 
and thence concluded, that the moon has an atmof- 
phere. M. ScHROETER o^ Lilt ant han, in the Dii/chy of 
Bremen, has endeavoured to eftablilh the exiilence of an 
atmofphere, from the following obfervations. I. He 
obfeived the moon when z-r days old, in tlie evening 
foon after fun ftt, before the dark part was viiible ; and 
continued to obfervc it till it became vifible. Two cufps 
appeared tapering in a very fhaip, faint, prolongation, 
each exhibiting its farthell extremity faintly illuminated 
by the lolar lays, before any part of the dark hemifpherc 
was vifible ; foon after, the whole dark hmb appeared il- 
luminated. This prolongation of the cufps beyond the 
femicircle, he thinks muit arife from the iun's rays being 
refrafted by the moon's atmofphere. He computes alfo 
the height of the atmofphere, which refracls light enough 
into the dark hemifpherc to produce a twilight, more 
luminous than the light reflected from the earth when 
the moon is about 32° from the new, to be 1356 Paris 



feet ; and that the greatefl height capable of refi-aftingf 
the folar rays is 5376 feet. 2dly. At an occultation of 
Jupiter's fatcllitcs, the third difappeared, after having 
been i" or i' of time indilb'nft ; the fourth became in- 
dilcernible near the limb ; this was not obferved of the 
other two. See the Phil. Tranf. 1 792. 

111. Many aftronomers have given maps of the 
moon ; but the moft celebrated are thofe of Hevelius 
in his SeUnrgraphia ; in which he lias reprtfentcd the 
appearance of the moon in its different ftates from the 
new to the full, and from the full to the new ; thcfe 
figures M.WEK prefers. Langrenus and RicciOLus 
denoted the fpots upon the furface, by the names of 
philofophers, mathematicians, and other celebrated men; 
giving the names of the moft celebrated charafters, to 
the largcft fpots. Hevelius marked them with the 
geograplrical names of places upon the earth. The former 
diftinCtion is nnw generally ufed. 

112. Very nearly the fame face of the moon is always 
turned towards the earth, it being fubjetl to only a fmajl 
change within certain limits, thofe fpots which lie near 
the edge appearing and difappearing by turns ; this is 
called its Lihration. The moon turns about its axis in 
the fame direftion in which it revolves in its orbit. Now 
the angular velocity about its axis is uniform, and it 
turns about its axis in the fame time in which it makes a 
complete revolution in its orbit ; if therefore the angu- 
lar motion about the earth were alfo uniform, the fame 
face of the moon would always be turned towards the 
earth. For if the moon had no rotation on her axis, 
when (Tie is on oppofite fides of the earth fhe would fliow 
different faces ; but if, after fhe has made half a revolu- 
tion in her orbit, flie has alio turned half round her 
axis, then the face, which would otherwife have been 
(hown, will be turned behind, and the fame face will ap- 
pear. And thus If the moon's angular velocity about 
her axis were always equal to her angular velocity in her 
orbit about the earth, the fame fide of the moon would 
be always towards the earth. But as the moon's angu- 
lar velocity about her axis is uniform, and her angular 
velocity in her orbit is not uniform, their angular veloci- 
ties cannot continue aUvays equal, and therefore the 
moon will fomctimes fhow a little more of her eafl- 
ern parts, and fomctimes a little more of her weflern 
parts ; this is called a libration in lotigiluJe. Alfo, the 
moon's axis is not perpendicular to the plane of her or- 
bit, and therefore at oppofite points of her orbit, her 
oppofite poles are turned towards tlie earth ; therefore 
her poles appear, and difappear, by turns ; this called a 
libration in huiliuie. 

113. Hence, nearly one half of the moon is never 
vifible at the earth, and therefore nearly one half of its 
inhabitants (if it have any) never faw the earth, and 
nearly the other half never lofe fight of it. Alfo, the 
t me cf it^ lotation about its axis being a month, the 
length of the lunar days and nights will be about a 
fortnight each. 

114. it is a very extraordinarj^ circuniftance, that 
the time of the moon's levolution about her ;',.sis ihould 
be equal to that In her orbit. Sir. I. Newton, from 

the 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXV 



tht altitude of the tides upon tlie earth, has computed the 
altitude of the tides on the moon's fuiface to be 93 feet, 
and therefore tlie diameter of the moon pcipcndicular to 
a line joining the earth and mooji, is lefs than the dia- 
meter diretled to the earth, by iS6 feet. Hence, fays 
he, the fame face muR always be towards the earth, ex- 
cept a fmall ofcillation ; for if the longed diameter 
fliould get a little out of that dirtftion, it would be 
brought into it again, by the earth's attraclion. The 
fuppofjtion of D. DE Mairan is, that tiie hemlfpiiere 
of the moon next the earth is more denfe than the op- 
pofite one, and hence, the fame face would be kept to- 
vards the earth, upon the fame principle as before. 

1 15. When the moon is in conjunction with the fun, 
flie is then faid to be neiu, and her dark fide being next 
to the earth, file is then invillble. As (he recedes from 
the fu,n, we fiill difcover fome of her bright part, and 
flie appears /jorneti liW (lie gets 90° from the fun, when 
fne appears half enlightened, or liichotoriifi-J ; from 
thence, till (lie comes into oppofition, (lie appca'-s above 
half enlightened, or g'dbous ; and at oppofition flie ap- 
pears full orbed, the fame face being then turned to- 
wards the earth which i-; towards the fun, and (lie is then 
faid to be at her full. And from oppofition to conjunc- 
tion, her apparent bright part decreafes as it before in- 
crealcd. 

1 16. When the moon is about three days from the new, 
the dark part is very vifible, by the light refle£led from 
the earth, wliich is moon-light to the lunarians, confi- 
dering our earth as a moon to them ; and in the mod 
favourable Hate, fome of the fpots may be then feen. 
But when the moon gets into quadratures, its great light 
preventsthe dark part from being feeu. According to Dr. 
Smith, the (Irength of moon-light at the full moon, is 
90 thoufand times lefs than the liglit of the fun ; but 
from experiments made by M. Bouguer, he concluded 
it to be 300 thoufand times lefs. The light of the 
moon, condcnfed by the bell mirrors, produces no ien- 
fible effeft upon the thermometer. Our earth, in the 
courfe of a month, fliows the fame phafes to the lunari- 
ans, as the moon does to us ; the earth is at the full, at 
the time of the new moon, and at new, at the time of 
the full moon. The furface of the earth being about 13 
times greater than that of the moon, it affords 13 times 
more Ught to the moon, than the moon does to us. 

117; Dr. Herschul has meafured the height of a 
great many of the lunar mountains, and'fiiids that, a few 
excepted, they generally do not much exceed half a 
inile. Before he meafured them, they were reckoned 
much higher, being generally overrated. He obfcrves, 
that it fliould be examined whether the mountain (lands 
on level ground, which is neceffary, that tlie mcafure- 
-ment may be exad. 

1 18. As the fpeclator is carried by the earth's rota- 
tion, his horizon will continually change its fituation, 
and therefore it will continually cut the moon's orbit at 
different points till it has gone through the whole oibit; 
and the inclination of the orbit to the horizon will be 
continually chaiig-ed. Now the diffeieuce between the 

VOL I, 



times of the rifing of the moon on two fucceflive 
nights, will depend upon the angle which the moon's 
orbit makes with the horizon ; the lefs the angle is, 
the lefs the moon will have deicended below the ho- 
rizon, at the time when the horizon is brought into 
the fame fituation it was 24 hours before ; there- 
fore when the angle which the moon's orbit makes 
with the horizon is the leall, there will be the lead dif- 
ference of the times of!. cr riling. Now, that angle is the 
lead, wlien the fird point of aries riles, at which lime, in 
the latitude oi London, there is only about 1 7 minutes dif- 
ference of the moon's rifing on two fuccelFive nights. 
Now, about the 22d of September, the firll point of 
arits riles at the time the moon rifes, if the moon b« 
then at the full, becaufc it will then be at the beginning 
of aries. In this cafe, therefore, the moon will rife about 
the full for feveral nights, with but a fmall difference of 
the times of her rifing. This happening in the time of 
liarved, it is called the harvejl moon. As the full moon 
may not happen on the 22d of September, that which 
happens nearell to it, is called theharved moon. The fair^c 
fmall difference of the times of rifing of the moon, hap- 
pens every month, but it not happening at the full 
moon, and at that time of the year, it is not taken no- 
tice of. The greated difference of the times of the 
moon's rifing at London on two fuccefiive nights, is 
about 1 hour and 17 minutes; and this happens when 
the moon is in the firll point of libra, and therefore it 
happens at the vernal full moons. 

1 19. There is a phajnomenon called the horiz,on/al 
moon, which is this, that it appears larger in the horizon 
than in the meridian ; whereas, from its being farther from 
us in the former cafe than in the latter, it fubtends a lefs 
angle when in the horizon. It is perhaps not eafy to 
give a fatisfaiflory anfwer to this deception. Gassen- 
uvs thought that, as the moon was kfs bright in the 
hori/on than in the meridian, we looked at it, in the 
former fituation, with a greater pupil of the eye, and 
therefore it appeaitd larger. But this is not agreeable 
to the principles of optics, fince the magnitude of the 
image upon the retina of the eye, does not depend upo« 
the fize of the jiupil. Dis Cartes thought that the 
moon appeared brged in the horizon, becaufe, whea 
comparing its diftance with the intei mediate objefts, it 
appeared then farthell ofi; and as we judge itsdidancc 
greater in that fituation, we, of courfe, think it larger, 
fuppofing that it fubtends the fame angle. Dr. BfRK- 
Liv accounts for it thus : Faintnefs fuggeds the ide» 
of greater dillance : the moon appearing fainted in the 
horizon, iuggeds the idea of greater dillance ; and, fup- 
pofing the angle the fame, that mull fugged the idea of 
a greater tangible object. He does not fuppofe the 
•vij'ible extenfion to be greater, but that the idea of a 
gi eater tangible extenfion is fuggefled, by the alteration 
of the vifible extenfion. He fays, — id. That whicW 
fuggeds the idea of greater magnitude, mull be fome- 
thuig perceived ; for that which is not perceived can 
produce no effecl. 2dly, It mull be fomething which 
is variable, becaufe the moon does not always appear of 

e the 



XXVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



the fame magnitude in the horizon, sdly, It cannot 
lie in the intermediate objefts, they reinainiiig the fame ; 
alio, when thel'e objei's are excluded from light, it 
makes no alteration. 4thly, It canrot be the viable 
magnitude, becaufe that is kail in the horizon. The 
caiile therefore muft lie in the vifible appearance, which 
proceeds from the greater paucity of rays coming to the 
eye, producing/ijj«//.'f/r. RIr. Rowning fuppofesthat 
the moon appears failhefl from us in the horizon, be- 
caufe the portion of the flcy which \vc fee, appears not 
an entire hemifpliere, but only a portion of one ; and 
hence wejudge the moon to be further from us in the 
Iiorizon, and therefore larger. Dr.. Smith, in his Op- 
tics, gives the fame reai'un. The fame circumllances 
take place in the fun. Alfo, if we take two liars near 
each other in the horizon, and two other liars near the 
zenith at the fame angular dillance, the two former will 
appear at a much greater dillance from each other, than 
the two latter. On this account, pe(;ple are, in general, 
much deceived in ellimating the altitudes of the heaven- 
ly bodies above the horizon, judging them to be much 
greater than they are. The lower part of a rainbow alfo 
appears much wider than the upper part ; and this may 
be confidtred as an argument that the phenomenon can - 
not depend entirely upon the greater degree of faintnefs 
of the objeft when in the horizon, becaufe the lower 
part of thebowfrequently appearsbrighter than the upper 
part, at the fame time that it appears broader. Alfo, 
faintnefs can have no effetl upon the angular dillance of 
the liars ; and as the difference of the apparent dillance 
of the two llais, whofe angular dillance is the fame in 
the horizon and the zenith, Icems to be fully fufBcient to 
account for the apparent variation of the moon's diame- 
ter in thefe filuations, it may be doubtful whether the 
faintnefs of the objedl enters into any part of the caufe. 

. 120. The mean dillance of the moon from the earth is 
about 239thoufand miles; and her femidiameter is near- 
ly -rV of the radius of the earth, or about 1081 miles. 
And as the magnitudes of fpherical bodies are as the 
cubes of their radii, the magnitude of the moon : mag- 
nitude of the earth : : 3 ' : 11^:: l : 49 nearly. 

Oh the Rotation of the Sun and Planets. 

121. The times of rotation of the fun and planets are 
determined by the fpots which are obferved upon their 
furfaces ; either by finding the arc which is defcribed 
in a given time by a fpot, or by obferving how long it 
is ia paffmg over the whole difc. 

On the Rotation of the Sun. 

122. It is doubtful by whom the fpots on the fun 
weieiirft dilcovered. Scheinlr obferved them in May, 
1611, andpubiifhed an account of them in 1612. Ga- 
lileo, in a publication in 1613, fays, that being at 
Rome, in April 161 1, he then fhowcd the fpots on the 
fun to fcveral people, and that he had fpoken of them 
fome months btfoie, to liis friends at Florence. He ima- 



gined them to adhere to the fun. Keplfr fays, they 
were obferved by a fon of D.wiD Tabkicius, whopub- 
lilhed an account of them in 1611. In the papers 
of Harriot, not yet puhlidied, it is faid that fpots 
upon the fun were obferved in December, 16 10. From 
obferving the motion of the fpots, the time of the fun's 
rotation is determined to be 25(1. I4h. 8', 

123. Befides the dark fpots upon the fun, there are 
alfo parts of the fun, called faculie, lucUi, kc. which 
are brighter than the general furface ; thefe abound moll 
in the neighbourhood of fpots, or where fpots have 
lately been. Moll of the fpots appear within 30^ of the 
fun's equator. On April 19, 1779. Dr- HtRscHEL 
faw a fpot whofe diameter was 1'. 8", which is equal in 
length to more than 31 thoufand'j-'iles ; this was vilible 
to the na!^ed eye. 

On the Rotation of the Planets. 

124. The georglan is at fo great a dillance, that allro- 
nomers have not been able to determine, whether it has 
any rotation about its axis. 

125. Saturn was fufpedled by Cassini and Fato, in 
1683, to have a revolution about its axis ; for they one 
day faw a bright llreak, which difappeared the next, 
when another came into view near its difc. Thefe 
llreaks are called belts. In 1719, when the ring difap- 
peared, Cassin'i faw its fliadow upon the planet, and 
a belt on each fide, parallel to the ihadow. Dr. Hfr- 
schel found that the arrangement of the belts always 
followed that of the ring. And during his obferva- 
tions on June 19, 20, and 21, 1780, he faw the fame 
fpot in three different fuuations ; from all which he con- 
cluded that faturn revolved about an axis which is per- 
pendicular to the plane of the ring. Another argument 
in fupport of its rotation, is, that the planet is an oblate 
fpheroid, having the diameter in the dire6lion of the 
ling, to the diameter perpendicular to it, as 1 1 to 10, 
according to the Dotlor. The truth of this conjefture 
he afterwards verified, having determined that faturn 
revolves about its axis in loh. 16'. 

126. Jupiter is obferved to have belts, and alfo fpots, 
bv which the time of its rotation has been determined. 
From a fpot which Cassini obferved in 1665, he found 
the time of rotation to be 9h. 56'. From other fpols 
in 06loberi69i, he found -the time 9h. 51'; and from 
other fpots he determined the time to be 9h. 50' ; and, 
in general, he found that the nearer the fpots were to 
the equator, the quicker they revolved ; from whence 
it is probable that the fpots are not upon the body of 
Jupiter, but in its atmofphere. Dr. Herschel alfo 
found the time of rotation to vary, from different fpots ; 
and that the time of revolution of the fame fpot dimi- 
nilhed ; and obferves, that fuch a circnmllance is agree- 
able to the theory of equinodtial winds, as it may be 
fome time before the fpot can acquire the velocity of the 
wind. Dr. Pound made the polar to the equatorial 
diameter as 12 : 13. Dr. Bradley made them as 
12,5: I3i5« Sic, Isaac Newton made them as g j : 

io| by 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXV u 



«o'- by llwory. The belts of Jupiter are generally pa- 
rallel to his equator, and are fubject to great variations, 
both in refpetl to their number and figure ; from which 
it Ts probable that the)'' exilt in the atmofphere. 

127. Galileo difcovered the phafes oi mars ; after 
which fome Ital'mns faw a Ipot in 1636. But in 1666, 
Dr. Hook and M. Cassini difcovered fome well de- 
lined fpots, and the latter determined the time of rota- 
tion to be 2^\. 40'. Maraldi made it 2411. 39' ; and 
difcovered a very bright part near the fouthern pole ; 
but tlie brightnefs is fubjeft to fome change. Some- 
thing like this has been feen about the north pole. Dr. 
Herscuel makes the time of rotation to be 24h. 39'. 
2 [",67. He alfo concludes, that mars has a confidcr- 
uble atmofphere. 

128. Galileo firft difcovered the phafes of venus, 
ini6ii. In 1666, Cassini, at the time when vtnus was 
dichotomifed, difcovered a bright fpot upon it, at its 
flraight edge, and by obferving its motion, he found the 
time of rotation to be 23h. 16'. M. Shroeter has 
endeavoured to fhow that venus has an atmofphere, 
from obferving that the illuminated limb, when homed, 
exceeds a femicircle, as in the cafe of the moon ; the 
cufps fometimes ran 15". 19' into the dark hemifphere. 
He makes the time of rotation 23h. 21'; and concludes 
from his obfervations, that there are very high moan- 
tains upon the lurface. 

129. The phafes of mercury are eafily diilinguidied, 
but no fpots have yet been difcovered, by which it can 
be afcertained w^hether it has any rotation. 

On the Rotation of the Satellites. 

T30. The_/y}/?i fatellite of y?i/«rn was obferved by M. 
Cassini for feveral years as it went through the eall- 
ern part of its orbit, to appear lefs and le^s till it be- 
ome invifible ; and in the wcftern part, to increafe 
again. Thefc pha:nomena can hardly be accounted for, 



but by fuppofing fome parts of the furface to be inca. 
pable of rcflcdiug light, and therefore when fuch parts 
are turned towards the earth, they appear to growr lefs, 
or to difappear. And as the fame circumllances al- 
ways returned again when the fatellite returned to the 
fame part of its orbit, it affords a ilrong argument that 
the time of the rotation about its axis, is equal to the 
time of its revolution about its primary, a circumftance 
fimildr to the cafe of the moon. Dr. HiRSCHELhas 
difcovered that all the fatellites oi jupiler have a rota- 
tion about their axes, of the fame duration as their rc- 
fpeftive periodic times about their primaiy. 

On the Satellites of Jupiter. 

131. On Januai-y 8, 1610, Galileo difcovered the 
four fatellites of jupiter, and called them Medkean ftars, 
in honour of the family of the Mcdkt, his parrons. This 
was a difcovery of great importance, as it furnillied a 
ready method of finding the longitude of places upon 
the earth's furface, by means of their cclipfes. The 
eclipfes led M. Roemer to the difcovery of the pro- 
grclTive motion of light ; and hence Dr. Bradley was 
enabled to folvc an apparent motion of the fixed liars, 
which could not otlierwife have been accounted for. 

132. The fatellites of jupiter in going from weft to 
eaft are eclipfed by the (hadow of jupiter, and as they 
go from ealt to weft, they are obferved to pais over its 
difc. Hence, they revolve about jupiter. The three 
firft * fatellites are always eclipfed when they are in op- 
pofition to the fun, and the length of their echpfes is 
found to vary ; but fometimes the fourth fatellite paftes 
through oppofition without being eclipfed. Hence it 
appears, that the planes of their orbits do not coincide 
with the plane of Jupiter's orbit; for in that cafe, they 
would always pafs through the center of his Ihadow, and 
be always equally eclipfed at every oppofition. The 
periodic times are as follows : 





Firft 1 Second | Third | Fourth 




id. i8h. 27'. 33" 1 3d. i3h. 13'. 42" 1 7d. 3h. 42'. 33" | i6d. i6h. 32' 8" 


'33- 


The diftances of the fatellites from jupiter, in terms of the femidiameter of jupiter, are as follows ; 


Firft 1 Second | Third | Fourth 


5,965 1 9,:,94 1 15,141 1 26,63 



134. The periodic times and diftances of thefe fatel- of jupiter without entering into its fiiadow ; and this 
lites obferve the fame law as thofe of the primaries re- is called an occultation. 

fpefting the fun ; that is, the fquares of the periodic 

times have the fame proportion to each other, as the Qn the Satellites of Sutum. 

cubes of their refpedlive diftances. 

135. A fatellite is fometimes hidden behind the body 136. In the year 1665, Huygens difcovtred the 



T^e liiil fatelli-.e is that iieareft to the planet, and ihe ethers in their order from it. 



C2 



fourth 



x;cviu 



INTRODUCTION. 



fourth fatelllte of fatuni. In 1671, Cassini difcovered 
the fifth; in 1672, lie diTcovercd the third; and in 
1684, he difcovercd the full and fecond. Dr. HtR- 
SCHEL has difcovcred a fixth and feventh fatelh'tc, 
which lie within the orbits of the other five. The planes 



of the Dibits of them all, except the fifth in order from 
the plsnct, coincide very nearly with the plane of the 
ring of the planet. Dr. Halley found that the orbrt 
of the fourth (at that time difcovered) was elliptical. 
The periodic times are as follows : 



Firlt 



I Second | 



Third 



Founli 



I 



Fifth 



I 



Sixth 



Seventh 



[iili. -!?'. Z3". I III. 8I1. 53 . 9 '. I id. 2ih. lii'. zy". \ ^^\.^^\\.^.^' .i--' I 4.(1. i ih. 15'. ii". | I5d. iili. 41 '. 11 " | 79a yh. 49' 



137. Their diftances from faturn,in terms of minutes and fecondsof a degree, are as follows ; 



Firft 

28",7 


1 Second | 


Third 


1 Fourth 1 


Fifth 1 


Sixth 


1 Seventh 


1 3^>",8 1 


43".5 


1 56" 1 


I'. 18" 


3'- 0' 


1 8'. 42",5 



138. The periodic times and diftances obferve the 
fame law as thofe of jupiter; fee art. 134. 

0)1 the Satellites of the Georgian. 

139. In 1787, Dr. Herschel, the difcoverer of the 
georpan, difcovered two iatellitcs belonging to it ; and 
he determined the fynodic revolution of one of them to 
be 8d. !7h. 1'. I0j"3, and of the other 13d. iih. 5'. 
l",5 ; alfo, the diliance of the former from the planet 
in minutes and feconds of a degree, was found to be 
33",09, and of the latter 44",23. And fince thcfe difco- 
veries were made, the Doftor has difcovered four more 
fatellites ; and found that the motions of them all are 
retrograde. Their orbits are nearly perpendicular to 
the plane of the ecliptic. 

« 

On the Ring of Saturn. 

1^0. Galileo was the firft perfon who obferved any 
thing extraordinary in Saturn. That planet appeared to 
him like » large globe between two fmall ones. In 
1610 he announced this difcovery ; and continued his 
obfervatioiis till 1612, when he was furprifed to find 
only the middle globe. But afterwards he again dif- 
covered the globes en each fide, which, in procefs of 
time, appeared to change their form. Upon this, 
HuYGENsfet about improving the art of grinding objeft 
glalles ; and made telefcopes which magnified two or 
three times more than any which had been before made, 
with which he difcovered the ring of faturn ; and having 
obferved it for fome time, he publilhed the difcovery in 
1656. The ring is broad and flat, at a diftance from 
the planet, and edge-ways towards it. In 675, Cas- 
sini obferved a dark hne upon the ring, dividing it, as 
It were, into two rings, the inner of which appeared 
brighter than the outer. He alfo obferved a dark belt 
upon the planet, parallel to the major axis of the ring ; 
for though the ring is circular, yet, been feen obh'qucly, 
it appears an ellipfe. Dr. HtRSCKEL obferves, that 
the black mark on the ring, is not in the middle of its 
breivdth. The ring is no lefs folid than the planet, and 



It Is generally brighter than the planet. He takes no- 
tice of the extreme thinnefs of the ring, as he favv a 
fatcUite on the edge, hanging over on each fide. 

141. The ring is inviiible when Its plane pafles 
through the earth, the fun, or between them. In the 
firft cafe, the fun (hines only on its edge, which is too 
thin to refleft light enough to render it vifible ; in the 
fecond cafe, the edge only being expofed to us, it is In- 
vifible for the fame rcafon ; in the third cafe, the dark 
fide is towards US. Dr. Herschel fufpec^s that the 
ring is divided into two rmgs, for the following rcafons : 
I ft, The black divifions on the two fides, are exaftly in 
the fame fituations. 2dly, The divifion on the ring, 
and the open fpace between the ring and the body, ap- 
pear equally dark, and of the fame colour as the heavens 
about the planet. Hence, he concludes, that faturn has 
two concentric rings, fituated in one plane, the dimen- 
fions of which are in the following proportions : 



Infide diameter of the fmaller ring 

Outfide diameter - _ - 

Infide diameter of the larger ring 

Outfide diameter 

Breadth of the inner ring 

Breadth of the outer ring 

Ireadthof the fpace between the rings 



Parts 

5900 

7510 

7740 

8300 

805 

280 

•55 



From the mean of a great many meafures of the out- 
fide diameter of the larger ring, Dr. Hersckfl makes- 
it 46", 677 at the mean diftance of faturn ; and hence, he 
finds the diameter of the ring to be 204883 miles ; and 
the diftance of the two rings 2839 miles. 

On Edipfes of the Sun and Moon. 

142. Aneclipfeofthemooniscaufedby Its entering^ into 
the earth's fhadow, and confequently it mull happen at 
the/uz/moon, or when (he is in oppofition to the lun, as 
the (hadow of the earth muft lie oppofite to the fun. 
An cclipfe of the fun is caufed by he interpofition of 

th* 



INTRODUCTION. 



xx\x 



the moan between the earth and fun> and therefore it 
rn.ull happen when the moon is iu conjunftion with the 
fun, or at the new moon. 

tij. If the plane of the moon's orbit coincided with 
the plane of the ecliptic, there would be an eclipfe at 
every conjuniftion aiii oppolltion ; but the plane of the 
moon's orbit being iiich'neJ to the plane of the ecliptic, 
there can be no etfliple at conjuntlion or oppofitiun, uii- 
lefs at that time the moon be at, or near the node. 




FoT let S, S' reprefcnt the fun in two different fitua- 



tions, £ the earth, and let the plane of the paper rcpre- 
fent the plane in which the earth moves round the fun, 
or the ech'ptic ; and let Mcnid reprefcnt the moon's or- 
bit, inclined to tlie ecliptic, and cutting it in two 
points M, m, in the line SEF, then MEm is the line of 
the nodes, lying in conjuniftion and oppofition, the fun 
being at S ; and we mull conceive half the orbit Mem 
to lie above the paper, and tlie other half indM to lie 
below it ; defcribc alfo the circK Maml <.a\ tlie paper ; 
then thefe two circles Mcmd, Mamb, will be inclined to 
each other, like two hoops put one into the other, and 
inclined one to the other. Now if the moon be at M 
in conjunction with the fun S, the three bodies are then 
in the fame plane, and in the fame ftraight line, and 
therefore the moon is interpofed between the fun and 
earth, and caufes an eclipfe of the fun. But if the fun 
be at ,S" and the moon In conjunftion at M', (lie is then 
cut of the plane of the ecliptic, the part M' lying above 
the plane of the paper, or the ecliptic, and therefore the 
moon is not in the line joining 5" and E ; and M' may 
be fo far from the node at M, that it may be fo much 
elevated above the plane of the ecliptic, as not to inter- 
pofe between S' and £, in which cafe there can be no 
eclipfe of the fun. Whether therefore there will bean 
eclipfe, or not, at conjunftion, depends upon how far 
the moon at M' is diftant from the node at M, at the 
time of conjunftion. If the moon be at the node m at 
the time of oppofition, the three bodies are then in the 
fame ftraight line, and the moon mull pafs through the 
center of the earth's Ihadow, and be totally eclipfcd. 
But if at the time of oppofition to the fun at S', the 
moon be at m, m' may be fo far below the Iliadow Ev of 
the earth, that the moon may not pafs through it, in 
which cafe there will be no eclipfe. Whether there- 
fore there will be a lunar eclipfe at the moon's oppofi- 
tion, or not, depends upon how far the moon at ?n' is 
diftant from the node at m, at that time. But if the 
plane Mcmd of the moon's orbit coincided with the 
plane of the ecliptic, or the plane of the paper, there 
would manifeftly be a central interpofition every con- 
junftion and oppofition, and confequently an eclipfe. 
It is alio evident, that the place of the earth feen from 
the fun is the fame as the place of the earth's ftiadow> 
they both lying in the fame line from the fun. 



11^ Tli« 



XXX 



INTRODUCTION. 




144. The different eclipfer. which may happen of 
the moon, may be t'lius explained. Let CL reprefent 
the plane of the ecliptic, OR the moon's orbit, cutting 
the ecliptic in the node N ; and let ^//reprefent a fec- 
tion of the earth's fliadow at the diftance of th^ moon 
from the earth, :nd i/the moon at the time when it is 
in oppofition to tue fun ; for as the earth's fhadow is al- 
ways oppofite to the fun, when the moon paffts by, or 
through the fhadow, flic mull be in oppofition. Hence, if 
the oppofition happen as in pofition I, it is clear that the 
moon will juft pafs by the fliadow of the earth without 
entering it, and there will be no eclipfe. In pofition II, 
part of the moon will pafs through the earth's fliadow, 
and there will hi -.i partial eclipfe. In pofition III, the 
whole of the moon pafTes through the earth's fhadow, 
and there is a /o.W eclipfe. In pofition IV, the center 
of the moon paffes through the center of the earth's 
{hadow, and there is a total and central eclipfe. It is 
plain therefore, that whether there will, or will not be 
an eclipfe at the time of oppofition, depends upon the 
diflance of the moon from the node at that time, or the 
diflance of the earth's fliadow' from the node. Now it 
appears by calculation,' that if EN be greater than_ 1 1*. 
34' at the time of oppofition, there can be no eclipfe ; 
and when EN is lefs than that quantity, there may be 
sTP'eclipfe. The dillance EN ( = ii\ 34'.) in pofition 
1., is called the ecliptic limit of a lunar eclipfe. Or as 
(by the lafl article) the place of the earth's fhadow is 
the fame as the place of the earth feen from the fun, it 
is manifeft, that if at the time of oppofition we compute 
the place of the earth, and find it to be lefs than 11°. 
34', from the node, we know that there may be an 
ech'pfe ; and then we may proceed to the calculation ; 
but for that, we muft refer the reader to the Trcatife 
before mentioned, as we can here only explain the gene- 
ral principles. 



14^. The phsnomena of a fular eclipfe, may be thus 
explained. 




Let S be the fun, M the moon, AB, or AB', part of 
the furfate of the earth, for at dtfTerent times, the earth 
is at different diftances from the moon ; draw tangents 
pxvs, qxvr, from the fun 10 the/?.;;f fide of the moon, 

and 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXX.I 



and .riis will be tite moon's umlm, in which no part of 
the fun can be feen ; and if tangents p!bd, q-wac, be 
drawn from the fnn to the oppofile fides ol the earth, 
the fpnce comprehended between the umbra, and ivac, 
tbd. is called ihe penumhra, in which only a part of the 
fun can be feen. Now it is manifelt, that {( ytB be the 
furface of the earth, the fpace mn, where the umbra falls, 
will fuller a lutal tclipfe' ; the pai !s am, bit, between the 
bonndaiies of the umbra and penumbra, will luircr a 
partial eclipfe ; but to all the other parts of the earth 
there will be no eclipfe, no part of the fun being there 
hidden by the moon. Now let AB' be the fnrfacc of 
the. earth ; then the fpace rs will fuffijr an annular and 



partial ecliiffe, the fun appearing all round the moon, in 
the form ut a ring ; the parts cr, ds, will fuffcr a partial 
eclipfe ; and the other parts of the earth will fuifer ao 
eclipfe. In this fituation of the earth, there can there- 
fore be no total tclipfe anywhere. 

146. The umbra .vija is a cone, whofe vertex is ii ; 
and the penumbra lucdt is the frullrum of a cone, whofe 
vertt.s is /^. Hence, if thefe be both cut through their 
common axis, and perpendicular to it, the fedlion of 
each will be a circle, having a common center in the 
axis, which is the line joining the centers of the fun and 
moon ; and the fection of the penumbra includes that of 
the un'.bra. 




147. The different eclipfes which may happen of the 
fun, may be thus explained. Let CL reprefent the or- 
bit of tlie earth ; OR the line dcfcribed by the centers 
Ol the moon's umbra and penumbra at the earth ; A'^tlie 
moon's node ; SR the earth ; pn the moon's penumbra, 
and a the umbra. Then in pofition I, the penumbra 
jull paffes by the eaith, Avithout falling upon it, and 
tlierefore there will be no eclipfe. In pofition II. the 
penumbra falls upon the earth, but the umbra does not, 
therefore there will be a partial eclipfe where the pe- 
n\imbra palles over, but no total eclipfe. In pofition 
III, both the penumbra and umbra fall upon the earth; 
therefore where the umbra paffes over, there will be a 
total eclipfe ; where the penumbra only paffes over, 
there will be a ^(7/7;a/ eclipfe ; and to the other parts of 
the earth there will be no tclipfe. It is manifeft therefore 
that whether there will be an eclipfe, or not, or whether 
it will be partial or total, depends upon the earth's dif- 
tance from the node, at the time of conjunftion. Now 
it appears by calculation, that, if at conjunftion, jEA'" 
be greater than 17°. 21', there can be no eclipfe, but if 
it be lefs, there may be one. The diftance EN (=17". 
21') in pofition I, is called the ecliptic limit of a folar 
eclipfe. 

148. The ecliptic limits of the fun are to thofe of the 
mcon as 17°. 21' to 11°. 34', or nearly as 3 to 2, and 
hence there will be more folar than lunar eclipfes, in 
about that ratio. But more lunar than folar eclipfes are 
feen at any given place, becaufe a lunar eclipfe is villble 
lo a whole heraifpjiere of the earth at once j wlierea.^! a 



•folar eclipfe is vifible to a part only, and therefore there 
is a greater probability of feeing a lunar than a folar 
eclipfe. Since the moon is as long above the horizoa 
as below, every fpeftator may expcft to fee half the 
number of lunar eclipfes which happen. 

1 49. If the earth had no atmofphere, when the moon 
was totally eclipfed, fhe would be invifible ; but by the 
refraftion of the atmofphere, fome rays will be brought 
to fall on the moon's furface, on which account th^ 
moon ii rendered vifible, and of a duflvy red colour. 

150. An eclipfe of the moon arifing from a real depri- 
vation of light, muft appear to begin at the fame in- 
ftant of time to every place on that hemifphere of the 
earth which is next the moon. Hence, it affords a ready- 
method of finding the longitudes of places upon the 
earth's furface, as will be afterwards explained. 

151. The diameters of the fun and inoou are fup- 
pofed to be divided into 12 equal parts, called digits, and 
an eclipfe is faid to be fo many digits, according to the 
number of thofe parts which are involved at the greatell 
darknefs. 

152. The greatell number of eclipfes which can hap- 
pen in a year is feven, and when this happens, five will 
be of the fun and two of the moon. The leall number 
which can happen is two, and thefe muft be both folar ; 
for in every year there muff be two folar eclipfes. The 
mean number in a year is about four. 

153. In a total eclipfe of the fun, the planets, and 
fome of the brighteft of the fixed ftars, have been feen, . 

154. There are two feafo.ns in the year when eclipfes 

happen, . 



XXXll 

happen, that is, when the earth approaches near each 
n6de, as before (hown ; and as the nodes lie at oppofite 
points of the eartli's orhit, thefe feafons would be afthe 
diftaiice of half a year from each other, if the nodes were 
ftationary ; but as the nodes have a retrograde motion of 
about 19° in a year, and the carlh moves about a de- 
gree in a day, the feafons of eclipfes will return at an 
interval of about 9 or i o days lefs than half a year ; lo 
that if there be eclipfes about the middle of January, 
the next eclipfes may be expefted about the firll week 
of Jtily. 

On the Nature and Motion of Comets. 

155. Comets are folid bodies revolving in very cx- 
centric ellipfes about the fun in one of the foci, and are 
fubjeft to the fame laws as the planets are ; but they 
differ in appearances from them ; for they are very faint • 
bodies, and in fonie of them, as they approach the fun, 
a tail of light begins to appear, which increafes till the 
comet comes to its perihelion, and then It decreafes 
again, and vanidies. The ancient phllofophers fuppofed 
them to be planets. Aristotlk fays, that fomc Ital- 
ians called Pythagoreans, fjy, that a comet Is one of the 
planets. Apollonius affirms, that the comets were, 
by the ChalJeans, reckoned amongll the planets, and 
had their periods. Skneca having confidered the phseno- 
mena of two remarkable comets, believed them to be of 
equal duration with the world, though he was Ignorant 
of the lawr. which governed them: and foretold, that 
future ages would unfold thefe myfterics. He recom- 
mended it to ailronomers to keep a catalogue of them, 
in order to be able to determine whether they returned 
at certain periods. Notwithftanding this, moil attrono- 
mers from his time to Tvcho Brahe confidered them 
^rtly as meteors, exifting in our atmofphere ; but he, 
fniding that they had no diurnal parallax, placed them 
above the moon. At length Sir I. Niwton having 
proved that Kepler's law, by which the motions of 
the planets are regulated, was a neceffaiy confequence 
of his theory of gravity, it immediately followed, that 
comets were governed by the fame law ; and the obfer- 
vations upon them agreed fo accurately witii his theory, 
as to leave no doubt of its truth. Comets therefore re- 
volve in very excentric ellipfes about the fun in one of 
the foci. Ailronomers, however, for the cafe of calcu- 
tion, fuppofe them to move in paiabolic orbits, for that 
part wliich lies within the reach of obiervation, by which 
they can, with great accuracy-, find the place of the 
perihelion; its diftance from the fun; the Inclination 
of the plane of its orbit to the ecliptic ; and the place of 
the node, but not the periodic time. 

156. Dr." Hal ley fuppofed that the comet which 
was obferved by Apian, in 153 l, was the fame as that 
which Kepler and Longomontanus defcribed In 
1531 ; and the fame as that which lie obfetved In 1682 ; 
and having computed the effetl of Jupiter upon it at 
that time, he found that It would Increafe its periodic 
time above a year ; in confequence of wliich he pre- 



INTRODUCTION. 



dlcled Its return at the end of the year 175S, or thff 
beginning of 1759- He informs us that he did not 
make his computations with the utmoll accuracy ; but his 
predidlicm was right, for it was feen on Dec. 14, 175^, 
and pail'ed Its perihelion on March 13, 1759. Thus he 
had the glory of iirlt foretelling the return of a comet. 

157. Comets are not viiible till they return into the 
planetary regions. They are fnrrounded with a very 
denfe atmofphere, and from the tide oppolice to the fun, 
they frequently lend forth a tail, whieh I.vcreafes as the 
comet approaches Its perihelion, immediately after which 
it is longell and molt luinlnous, and t'l ;n It Is gencr.'illy a 
little bent and convex towards thofe parts to uhleli the 
comet Is mov'.iig ; the tail then decreafes, and atlaft it va- 
nldies. The imalleft ib.irs are feen tr.rough the tail, not- 
wlthilandliig Its great ihickneis, v. liich fhows that the 
matter of It Is extremely rate. Ap.istotle thought the 
tail to be a thin trery vapour arlfir.g from the comet. 
Apian, Cardan, Tycho, and others, fuppofed that the 
fun's rays being propagated through the iranfparei.t 
head of the comet, were rcfradlcd, a. by a lens. But 
the figure of the tail dots not anfwer to this. Kepler 
fuppofed that the fun's rays carried off fome of the 
grols parts of the comet. Sir I. Newton thought, that 
the tail was a very tliln vapour whieh the head, or nu- 
cleus of the comet, fends out by reafon of Its heat. Dr. 
Halley, in his defcrlption of the Aurora Boreal'ts In 
1716, fays, " the ftreams of light lo much refembled the 
long tails of comets, that at lirft fight they might be. 
well taken for fuch." And afterwards, " this light 
feems to have a great affinity to that which the effluvia 
of elettrlc bodies emit in the dark." D. de Mairan 
calls the tail of a comet, the Aurora BureaRs of the 
comet, This opinion Dr. Hamilton fupports by the 
following arguments. The Aurora Borealls has no 
efleit upon the ilars feen through It, nor has the tail of 
a comet. The atmofphere is known to ab6und with 
eletlric matter, and the appearance of the eleftrlc matter 
In vacuo, is exactly like the appearance of the Aurora 
Borealls, which, from its great altitude, may be con- 
iidercd to be In as perfedl a vacuum as we can make. 
The eleftrlc matter In vacuo fuffers the rays 'of light to 
pafs through, without' being affefted by them. The 
tail of a comet does not fpread Itfelf iideways, nor does 
the electric matter. Hence, he fuppofes the tails of 
comets, the aurora borealls, and the eleftric fluid, to be 
matter of the fame kind. 

158. In refpecl to the nature of comets. Sir I. New- 
ton obfcrves, that they mull be folid bodies, like the 
planets. For If they v.-ere nothing but vapours, tliey 
mull be dilTipated when they come near the fun. For 
the comet In 1680, wiien in its perihelion, was nearer to 
the fun than one lixth ot Its diameter, therefore the heat 
of the comet at that time was to lummer heat, as 28000 
to I. But the heat of boiling water is about 3 times 
greater than the heat which dry earth acquiies from the 
fummer fun ; and the heat of red hot Iron Is about 3 
or 4 times greater than the heat of boiling water. There- 
fore the heat of dry earth at the comet, wlien in itJ peri- 
helion, 
10 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXUI 



Iielion, was about 2000 times gicater than red hot iron. 
By fuch heat, all vapours uoulil be immediately diffipa- 
ted. 

ijg. This heat of the comet niun. be retained a long 
time. For a red hot glolie of iron of an inch diameter, 
expofed to the open air, fcarccly lofes all its heat in an 
hour ; but a greater globe would retain its heat longer, 
in proportion to its diameter, becaufe the furface, at 
which it grows cold, varies in that proportion lefs than 
the quantity of hot matter. Therefore a globe of red 
liot iron as big as the earth, would fcarce'y cool in 
50000 years. 

160. From the beginning of our a;ra to this time, it is 
probeble, according to the beft accounts, that there have 
appeared about 503 comets. Before that time, about 
100 others are recorded to have been feen, but it is pro- 
bable, that not above one half of them were comets. 

Oh the fixed Stars. 

161. All the heavenly bodies beyond our fyftem, are 
called^AW,'?j)v, becaufe (fome few excepted) they do 
not appear to have any proper motion of their own. 
From their immenfe dillance, they niuft be bodies of 
very great magnitudes, otherwlfe they could not I'C vifi- 
ble ; and when we confider the weaknefs of reflefted 
light, there can be no doubt but that they fliine with their 
own light. They are eafily known from the planets, 
by their twinkling. Dr. Herschel, by his late im- 
provements in telelcopes, has difcovered that the num- 
ber of fixed ftars is great beyond all conception. In the 
milky luny, he has, in a tjnarter of an hour, feen I 16000 
ftars pafs through his telcfcope, the field of view of 
which was only 15' aperture. Thefe liars, which- can 
be of no ufe to us, are probably funs to other fyftems of 
planets. 

162. From an attentive examination of the flars with 
good tekfcopes, many which appear only finglc to the 
naked eye, are found to confid of two, thiee, or more 
ftars- Dr. Maskelynf. had obferved a bcrctilis to be a 
double ftar ; and other aftronomeis have difcovered many 
others to be double. Dr. Herschel has found about 
700, of which, not above 42 had been before obferved. 
We will here mention a few of them. 

a Heratl'u-, a beautiful double ilar ; the two ftars 
very unequal ; the largell is red, and the imalleft blue, 
inclining to green. 

y AnJromed<e, double, very unequal ; the larger red- 
dilh w'hite, the fmaller a fine bright iky blue, inclining to 
green. 

a. Gemhiortim, double, a little unequal, both white. 

fi Lyris, quadruple, unequal, v.'hite, but three of them 
a little inclined to red. 

[ Booth, double, very unequal, larger reddilli, fmaller 
blue, or lather a faint lilac. 

V Lyra, treble, very unequal, larger white, fmalltr 
both fJulky. 

a. Lyric, double, very unequal, larger a fiilp brilliant 
»,hite, fmaller du/lcy. 

Vt)1. u 



Thefe are a few of the principal double, treble and 
qnadruple ftars mentioned by Dr. Herschel in the 
Fhll. 7 ran/. 1 785. 

163. Several ftars incntioncd by the ancient aftrono- 
mers are not now to be found ; and feveral are now ob- 
ferved, which do not appear in their catalogues. The mod 
ancient obfervation of a new ftar, is that by Hipparcus, 
about 120 years before J. C. which occalioncd his ma- 
king a catalogue of the fixed ftars, in order that future 
aftronomers might fee what alterations had taken place 
fince his time. Cornelius Gemma, on Nov. 8, 1572, 
obferved a new ftar in xht chair of cajfitpex. It exceeded 
firms in brightncfs, and was feen at mid-day. It firft 
appeared bigger thznji/piler ; but it gradually decayed, 
and after 16 months it entirely difappeared. It was ob- 
ferved by TvcHO, v/ho found that it had no fenfible pa- 
rallax ; and he concluded that it was a fixed ftar. 

164- Many ftars appear and difappear at certain 
periods. On Auguft 13, 1596, David Fabricius 
obferved a new ftar in the neci 0/ lie luLale. It difap- 
peared after Odlober in the fame year. Phocyllidi s 
Holwarda difcovered it again in 1637 ; and after it 
had difappeared for 9 months, he faw it again. BuL- 
LIALDUS determined the periodic time of its grcatcft 
brightnefs to be 333 days. Its greateft brightntfs is 
that of a ftar of the lecond magnitude, and Its lead, that 
of a ftar of the fixth. 

165. In 16S6, KiRCHius obferved x i" the/w(j« to 
be a changeable ftar, and found the period to be 405 
days. 

166 J. Goodricke, Efq. has determined the peri- 
odic variation oi algol, or ^ perfei, to be about 2d. 2lh, 
Its greateft brightnefs is of the fecond, and leail of the 
fourth magnitude. It changes from the fecond to the 
fourth, in about 3! hours, and back again in the fame 
time, and retains its full brightnefs for the remaining 
time. He alfo difcovered that /3 /ji;-^, and a cephei, are 
fubjeft to a periodic variation of brightnefs ; tlie forn-.tr 
in I 2d. igh. and the latter in 5d. 8I1 37 J'. 

167. E. PiGOTT, efq. difcovered r, atUlnoi to be a va- 
riable ftar, with a period of 7d. 4h. 38'. 

l6y. Dr. Herschel in the Phil Tranf. 1783, has 
given a large collefiion of ftars which were fin-mrrly feen, 
but are now loft : alio a catalogue of variable ftars, and 
of new ftars. 

169. Tlicre have been various conjeftures to account 
for the variable appearances of tlie changeable llar.s. M. 
M^upERTUis fuppofes. that they may have fo quick a 
motion about their axes, that their centrifugal forcts 
may reduce them to flat oblate fpheroids, not much un- 
like a mill-ftone ; and its plane may be inclined to -the 
plane of the orbits of its planets, by whofe attraction the 
pofition of the body may be altered, 'io that when its 
plane prtfTes through the eartli, it mav be almoft or en- 
tirely invilible, and become vllible again as its brcadlide 
is turned towards us. Others fuppofe that confiderable 
])arts of their fijrfaees are covered with dark fpots, v.'hii-h 
render the body invifible when they are turned. towards 
u;- Others coTijcClure that their dlfappcaranfe n-ay 
f ;r;;;- 



XXXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



arifefrom dark bodies revolving about tliem, and inter, 
pofing between ihtrn and us. The total difappearance 
of 3 ftar may probably be the deftniftion of its fyftcm ; 
iind the appearance of a new flav, the creation of a new 
fyilem of planets. 

I/O. The tixed ftars are not all evenly fpread throupjh 
the heavens, but the greater part of them are colltcted 
into clufters, which art difcovered by high magnifying 
powers Willi fmall powers they appear fmall whitilh 
fpots, called nebula. Some •.ebulx however do not re- 
ceive light from ftars. Huygens difcovered one in 
er'wn's fiuord ; it confiils only of 7 ftars, and the other 
part is a bright fpot. Dr. Hallky, in the fouthern 
hemifpheie difcovered one i;i the centaur, which is not 
Vilible here. He alfo discovered another in liercuks. 
Cassin I difcovered one between i\\e great Jrg znd. the 
JiAp, which he defcribes as full of ilari. M. d:; la 
Caille difcovered 42 nebulae. But Da. HERSCHtL 
has given us a catalogue of 2; oo. nebulae and clufters of 
flars, which he himfelr has difcovered. He has aifo dif- 
covered other pluEuomena in th'e heavens, which he calls 
nelulotisji^rs, that is, ftats furrounded with a faint lumi- 
nous attnofphere, of a confiderable extent. 



On the Conftellations. 

171. The ancients divided the heaven;; iiito conjidla- 
tions, or collcflions of ftars, and reprefented them by 
animals, and otiier figures, according as their difpofiiion 
fuggefted. The number of the ancient conllcllations 
was 4B, but the prefent numbei upon a globe is 70. 
Tliofe ftars which do not come into any of the conftella- 
tions are called unfnrmcd Jlars. The ftars vifible to 
the naked eye, are divided into 6 clalfcs, according to 
their magnitudes ; the laigcft are called of the firft mag. 
nitude, tlie next of the fecoud, and fo on. Thofe which 
cannot be feen by the naked eye, are called iclefcopk ftars. 
The ftars are marked upon the globes with greek letters ; 
the firft letter of the grci k alphabet being put for the 
largeft ftar of each coiiftellation, and fo on ; and vvIku 
more letters are wanted, the italic are generally ufed ; 
this fervcs to point out the ftar, and they were tirft thus 
de cribed by Bayer. The following catalogue contains 
the number of ftars in each conftellation, according to 
different aftronomers. 



^he Ancient Confiellations. 





I 




13 




^ 


55 1 








1- 






i 








^ 


&- 





^ 


Uffa minor 


The little Bear 


. 


8 


7 


12 


24 


Urfa major 


The great Bear - - - 


- 


35 


29 


73 


87 


Draco 


The Dragon - ... 


• 


3' 


32 


40 


S:) 


Capheus 


Cxpheus . • - 


- 


13 


4 


51 


35 


Bootes 


Bootes - _ . 


- 


23 


ly 


52 


54 


Corona borealis 


The northern Crown 


- 


8 


8 


8 


21 


Hercules 


Hercules kneeling 


- 


29 


28 


45 


"3 


Lyra 


The Harp 


- 


10 


11 


>7 


31 


Cygnus 


The Swan 


. 


19 


18 


47 


81 


Cailiopea 


The Lady in the Chair 


- 


13 


26 


37 


SI 


Perfeus 


Perfeus - - - - 


- 


29 


29 


46 


59 


Auriga 


The Waggoner ... 


- 


14 


9 


40 


66 


Serpeiitarlus 


Serpentarius - - - 


- 


29 


'5 


40 


74 


Serpens 


The Serpent 


- 


18 


13 


22 


6+ 


Sagitta 


The Arrow , • . - 


. 


S 


5 


5 


18 


Aquila 


The Eagle - . . - 


■ 




12 


= 3 


71 


Antinous 


Antinous . . - - 


•5 


3 


'9 


Delphinus 


The Dolphin 




10 


10 


14 


18 


Equulus 


The Horfes's head 


- 


4 


4 


6 


10 


Pegafus 


Tlie flying Horfe 


- 


20 


19 


,38 


89 


Andromeda 


Andromeda .r • ■ - 


. 


23 


23 


47 


66 


Triangulum 


The Triangle . . _ 


. 


4 


4 


12 


16 


Aries 


The Ram - - 


. 


18 


21 


27 . 


66 


Taurus 


The BuU - ... 


- 


44 


43 


5' 


141 


JGemini 


The Twins - - - 


• 


25 


25 


38 


85 


iCaiTcer 


The Crab - . . - 


- 


23 


15 


29 


83 



JLc6 



INTRODUCTION. 



XX xv 



'The Ancient Conftellalions continued. 



iLeo 

Coma Berenices 

Virgo 
.Libra 
iScorpiiis 
'Sagittarius 

Capricornus 

Aquarius 

Pi fees 

Cetus 

Orion 

Eridanus 

Lepus 

Canis major 

Canis minor 

Argo 

Hydra 

Crater 

Corvus 

Centaurus 

Lupus 

Ara 

Corona auftialls 

Pifcis auflralis 



The Lion 

Berenice's Hair 

The Virgin 

The Scales 

The Scorpion 

The Archer 

The Goat 

The Water-bearer 

The FiOies 

The Whale 

Orion 

Eridanus 

The Hare 

The great Dog 

The little Dog 

The Ship 

The Hydra 

The Cup 

The Crow 

The Centaur 

The Wolf 

The Altar 

The fouthern Crown 

The fouthern Fifh 



35 

32 
17 
24 

3» 
28 

45 
38 
22 

38 
34 
12 
29 
2 

45 

27 

7 

7 

■37 

>9 

7 

'3 

18 



^ 



30 
"4 

33 
10 
10 

14 
28 

41 
36 
21 

42 
10 
'3 
>3 

2 

3 

19 
3 
4 



t5 






49 
21 

50 
20 
20 
22 
29 
47 
39 
45 
62 

27 
16 
21 
13 
4 

31 
10 



95 

43 
110 

5' 

44 
69 

5' 
108 

113 

97 
7B 
84 
19 
31 
'4 
6+ 
60 

31 
9 

35 

2 + 

9 
12 

24 



The New Southern Conftellalions. 



Columba Noachi 


Noah's Dove ... 


JO 


Robur Caroliiium 


The Ro3'al Oak - ... 


12 


Grus 


The Crane - . . - 


'3 


PhcEuix 


The Phcenix - ... 


13 


Indus 


The Indian ... 


12 


Paos 


The Peacock - - ... 


H 


Apus, Avis InJica 


The Bird of Paradlfe 


1 1 


Apis, Mufca 


The Bee, or Fly . - 


4 


Chamasleon 


The Chameleon . . . - - 


10 


Triangulum anftrale 


The fouth Triangle 


5 


Pifcis volans, Pajjcr 


The flying Fidi _ _ . 


8 


Dorado, Xiphias 


The fword Fidi - • - - 


6 


Toucan 


The Americ:in Goofe 


9 


Hydrus 


The water Snake - ... 


10 



f2 



Hbvelu's's 



SXXVl 



INTRODUCTION. 

Hevelius's Ccnjlellatlons, raade of the unformed Stars, 



Lynx 


The Lynx 


. 


'9 


44 


Leo minor 


The little Lyon 


- 




53 


Aftcron and CIinr;i 


The Gi-cyhoinids 


m » 


23 


25 


Cerberus 


Cerberus 


. 


4 




Vulpcciila and Anfcr 


The Fox aud Goofe 


. - - 


27 


35 


Scutum Sobiclki 


Sobieficl's Shield 


- 


7 




Laccita 


The Lizai d - ■ - 


- 




16 


Camelopardalis 


The Chamelopard 


- 


32 


58 


Moiioceroi 


The Ujiieonj 


- 


19 


31 


Sextans 


The Sextant 


- 


II 


41 



The conftellntions as far as the triangle, with Coma Berenices, are northern ; thofe, after Pifces, in the ancient 
ronfttUation, zrefoutLnn. Btfides the letters which are prefixed to the ftais, many of them have names, zifyrius, 
r^gulus, arfturus. Sic, 



On the proper Motion of the fixed Stars. 

172. Dr.. Maseelvne, in the firft volume of his 
Ohfervahons, remarks, that many, if not all the fixed 
ftars, have fmall motions amongft themftlves, called their 
proper motions. From comparing his own obfervations 
with thofe of preceding aftronbmers, he fir ft determined 
the proper motions f^ifrius, caftor, procyon, poIlux, rcgu- 
lus, arSurus, and a aqinliz ; afterwards he determined the 
proper motions of 35 ftars in right afcenlion. Thefe are 
given in a catalogue of the right afcenfions of 36 princi- 
pal ftars, which he has determined to an extreme degiee 
of accuracy, and which are now generally ufed as funda- 
mental ftars, in order to determine the right afcenfions 
of all the other heavenly bodies. M. Mayer has de- 
termined the proper motion of 56 ftars. 

173. If the fun be in motion as well as the ftars, it 
will alter their apparent motion. In whatever direftion 
our fyl'em may be fnppofed to move, it is eafy to fee 
what effeft it will have on the apparent motion of the 
ftars. Dr. Herschel finds, that if a point be af- 
fumed about the 77° of right afcenfion, and the fun to 
Biove from it, it will account for the proper motions in 
right afcenfion of^the feven above-mentioned ftars of 
Dr. Maskelyne ; and if, inftead of fuppofing the fun 
to move in the equator, it fliould afcend to a point near 
to X herculls, it will account for tlve obferved change of 
declination ai firms and arT.urus ; he means in relpeft 
to d'lreSion, He next obfcrves, that this motion of the 
fun will account for many of the proper motions ob- 
ferved by M.VYER. AKo, frius and arSurus, being the 
largeft, are therefore probably the nearett, and hence, 
they ought to have the greateil apparent motion ; and 
fo we iind they have. Cajhr is a double ftar ; now, 
how extraordinary muft fuch a concurrence appear, 
that two fuch ftars ftiould both have the fame proper 
motion ; for they are found to continue at the fame dif- 
tafif? from each other. This feems to point out the 
common caufe, the motion of our fyftem. From argu- 
ments of this kind, Dr. Herschel thinks that iho 



folar fyftem is in moticHi, in the dlreftlon above-men', 
ticnied. 

On the Zodiacal Light. 

174. The 2c«&f(z/ /,^i.' is a pyramid of light which 
fometimes appears in the morning and evening, before 
fun rife, and after fun fet. It has the fun for its bafis, 
and- in appearance refembles the aurora horcaVis. Its 
fides ."j'e not ftraight, but a little curved, refembltng a 
lens feen edge-ways. It is generally feen in Oftober 
and March, the twilight then being ftiorteft. It was 
obferved by Cassini in 16S3, a little before the vernal 
equinox, in the evening, extending along the ecliptic 
from the fun. Ht thinks that icjiad been obferved be-^ 
fore; for Mr. J. CHlLnatY, in a book publiflied \\\ 
1 66 1 , gives an account of a phsenomenon which was pro- 
bably the fame. M. Fatio de Duillier obferved it 
foon after Cassini. In 1707, on April 3, it was ob- 
ferved by Mr. Durham in Effex. It appeared about a 
quarter ot an hour after fun let, and extended 15° or 20'^ 
above the horizon. It is generally fuppofed, that it is 
matter which is tin own off from the fun, by its rota- 
tion about its axis. 

On the Tides. 

175. The true caufe of the tides -ivas difcovered by 
Kepler. He fays xXvaI gravity is a power which is mu- 
tual between two bodies ; and that t!ie earth and moon 
would move towards each other, and meet at a point as 
much nearer to the earth than the moon, as the moon is 
lefs than the earth, it their motions in Llicir orbits did 
not hinder them. And he further fays, that the tides 
arife from the gravity of the waters 1 owar'l;; the moon. 
Sir I. N.-WTON, fiom his Theory oj Gravity, has ex- 
plained the gentral principles upon \' hich the pha:no- 
mena of the tides depend, from the unequal gravitation 
of the different parts of the earth towards the fun and 
moon. 

176. If 



INTRODUCTION. 



x.Kx\n 



176. If die earth were entirely fluid, and at reft, by 
the mutual gravity of its parts it muft form itfelf into a 
perfeft fphtie. But if one part be attradled by a dif- 



tant body more than another, the figtirc mud neccflarily 
be changed. 







For let ABDE be the earth, fuppofeJ firll to be a . 
perfed: fphere, and let M be a dillant body attrafting 
it ; then as the force of attradtion varies inverfely as the 
fquare of the diftance, the nearer parts of the earth to 
M will be more attrafted than thofe further diftant. 
The parts at A will therefore be more attrafted towards 
M than thofe at tlic center C, and thofe at the center C 
more than thofe at D; fo that A will be draw from C, 
and C from D ; and the effedl of drawing C from D is 
the fame as that of drawing D from C in the oppofite 
drredion. It is manifeft therefore, that the parts at A 
and D will recede from C ; and, in general, all the 
parts of EAB which are nearer to M than C is, will be 
drawn from C; and all the parts of £Z)5, which are 
further from M than C is, will be left by 6', or may be 
fuppofed to be drawn from C in the oppofite direftion. 
Thus, the waters will rife higher at A and D, and being 
drawn from ECU both ways, they muft fall at E and 
B, and the earth will put on the elliptical form Djnrs, 
and make high tide at m and r, on oppofite fides, at 
the iame time; and there will be low tide at n and s at 
the lame time, at two oppofite points, which are 90° 
from the high tides. M may reprtfent either the fun 
or moon ; but the effeft of the moon, from its nearncfs 
to the earth, is much greater than that of the fun ; we 
confider therefore the moon as principally rvding the 
tides. As the earth turns about its axis once every day, 
every part of the earth will come once to the moon in a 
day,^arid once oppofite to the moon, and therefore there 
will be two high tides every day, and the water will fall 
to its loweft, twice in a day. Or more accurately, the two 
tides happen in about 24h. 50'; for on account of the 
moon's motion in her orbit, it is that interval from the 
time the moon leaves the meridian till (he returns to it 
the next time. 

177. When the fun and moon arc in conjunflion, or 
in oppofition to each other, they will both t'.iid to raife 
the waters at the fame places, and therefore the tides 
will then be the higheil, and thefe are calledy^^VHj tides; 
but when the fun and moon are 90° from e;ich other, 
the fun will tend to -leprefs thofe parts which ihe moon 
tends to- rwfe, and therefore they oppofing each 



others efFeds, the tides will then be the lowefl; and 
thefe are called neap tides. Hence, there will be the 
higheft tides at new and full moon, and lowell when the 
moon is at her firil and third ([uarters. 

178. The water will continue to rife for fome time 
after it has paffed the moon, as the effed of the moon 
will continue though in a fmaller degree, fo that the 
water will not be the higheil at the lime when the 
moon is on the meridian, but it will fo-metimes happen, 
one, two, or three hours after, according to thecircum- 
ftances which may oppofe the motion of ihe waters. 

179. Sir I. Newton has fhovvn that the effcd ef 
the moon to raife the tides, increafes as the cube of the 
diftance decreafes ; hence, when the moon is at its Uaft 
dtllance, the effed will be the greateft. The fame is 
true in refped to the fun. 

180. The tides are greateft when the attrading bodr,, 
fun or moon, is in the equator. 




For let, fur Inftance, the moon be in the equator 
AQBD, and let A and B be the two points of liigh 
tide, and C and D the two points of low tide ; then the 
axis of the earth being here perpendicular to the plane 
ACBD, a fpedator at A. or B, where it is high tide, 
will, by the earth's rotation, be carried to C or Z)', 
where it is low tide, and therefore the difference between 
OA and OC will exprefs the difference of the heights of 
the water at high and low tide. Now fu-ppofe lOp to 

be 



XXXViU 



INTRODUCTION. 



he tli^^ lanh's axis, E^thc equator, j4/i, Bm, two pa- 
valk'h to It, the moon dcfcribing the parallel .--.;!. Then 
by the eai th's rotation, the places A and B aie cairied 
from A to n, and fiom B to m, and then from n to jl, 
and from m to B. Hence, the high tides to thoft two 
place^i are at /I and B, and the low tides at n and m ; 
thereforj; the difference between the height of the high 
and low tides will be the difierence of Oyi and On, and 
of OB and Om ; and as Om and On, arc greater than OC, 
the difference of the tides is lefs here than wheti the 
moon was in tlie equator. Hence, the tides are hightll 
when the n^oon is in the equator; and as the moon re- 
cedes from the equator, the tides diniinifh. 

iSr. Htnce, the highefl tides are when the new or 
full moon happens at the time when the fun is in the 
equator, or about March zzd, and September the zzd, 
for then the moon, which is in conjunftion with or op 
pofitiou to the fim at tliofc limes, muft alfo be in the 
equator. And if the moon be alfo then at its neartil 
diilanct, the tides will be the greateil of all. 

182. That the tides may have their full efTtft, the 
furface of the earth ought to be covered u itli water ; and 
hence, in large feas the efle6t is greateft. This is the 
reafon that the tider. are not fo great in the torrid zone, 
between /ifricn ar.d America, where the ocean is nar- 
rower, as in the temperate zones on either fide./ And 

^from this we may underlfand why the tides are fo fmall 
in illando that are very fat dillant from fhores. In the »A t- 
lantic, the water cannot rife on one fliore but bv defcend.- 
ing on the other ; fo that, at the intermediate diltant 
iflands, it will vary but a little from the mean height. 

183. As the tides pafs over ihoals, and run through 
flraights into bays of the fea, their motion becomes 
more various, and thtir heights depend on many circum- 
flances. It is high water on the coafts of Spain and the 
well of Ireland, about 3 hours after the moon has paffed 
the meridian. From thence it flows into the adjacent 
channels, as it iinds the eafieft pafTage. One current 
from it, for example, runs up by the fouth of England, 
another conies in by the north of Scotland. They take 
a confiderable time to move all this way, and it is higii 
water fooner in the places to which they firil come ; and 
it begins to fail at thefe places, whillt they are riling 
further on in their couife. As they return they are not 
able to raile the tide, bccaufe the water runs faller oif 
then it returns, till, by a new'tide from the open ocean, 
the return of the current is flopped, and the water begins 
to rife again. The tide takes 11 hours to come fi^m 
the ocean to London, fo that when it is high water 
there, a new tide is alreidy come into the ocean, and in 
fome intermediate place, it mnfl be low water at the 
tame time. When the tides run over (lioals, and flow 
upon flat fliores, the water riles to a greater height than 
in the deep and open oceans; becaiile the force of its 
motion cannot be broke upon level fhores, till the water 
rifes to a great height. 

184. It a place communicate with two oceans, or two 
ways with the fame oceaiij ont of which is a readier paf- 



fage than the other, two tides may arrive at that place 
at different times, which interfering with each other, 
may produce a variety of phscnomena. At Baljha, a 
port in the kingdom of Tunquin, in the Eajl Indies, in 
latitude 20°. 50' N. the day in which the moon paOTes 
the equator, the water ftagnates without any motion: 
as the moon removes from the equator, the water begins 
to rife and fall once a day, and it is hlffh water at the 
fetting of the moon, and low water at her riling. This 
daily tide increafes for about 7 or 8 days, and then de- 
creafcs by the fame degrees for the fame time, till the 
motion ce;ifcs at the moon's retm-n to the equator. 
AVlien (he has paffed the equator, and declines fouth- 
waid, the water rifes and falls again as before ; but it is 
high water now at the rlfnig, and low at the fetting of 
the moon. 

185. Sir T. Newton thus accounts for this pheno- 
menon. To Biitjl.n there are two inlets, one from the 
Chhicfe Ocean between the Continent and the Uandlas, 
the other from the lud'uin Ocean between the Continent 
and Borneo ; and he fuppofes that a tide may arrive at 
B.iijh.t, through one of thefe mlet-s at the third iiour of 
the moon, and the other through the other inlet 6 hours 
after. For whilll thefe tides are equal, the one flowing 
out as the other fluws in, the water mud fta^nate. Now 
they are equal when the moon is in the equator ; bot 
when the moon gets on the fame fide of the equator with 
Ba:{i:a, the dally tide exceeds the nightly, fo that two 
greater and two lefs tides muft an-ive ?a..BatJ]]a by 
turns. The difference of thefe u ill produce an agitation 
of the ^^•ater, which will rile to its greateft height at the 
mean time between the two greateil tides, and fall loweil 
at the mean time between the two leafl tides; fo that it 
win be high water about the lixth hour at the fetting 
of the moon, and low water at her rifing. When the 
moon gets on the other fide of the equator, the nightly 
tide will exceed the dally, and therefore the high tide 
will be at the rifing, and the low tide at the fetting of 
the moon. The fame principles will account for other 
extraordinary tides which are obferved. 

1 86. There are no tides in lakes, bccaufe they are gene- 
rally fo fmall, that the moon attrafts every part of the;m 
equally, and therefore no part of the water is ralfed 
above the other. The Mediterranean and Baltic Seas 
have very fmall tides, becaufe the inlets by which they 
communicate v.ith the ocean are fo nai row that they can- 
not, in fo fliort a time, receive or difcharge enough to 
raife or (ink their fui faces fenlihly. In the Mediterranean, 
the tides produce a variation ox about I foot in the 
height of the waters. 

To find the Longitude of Places upon the 
Earth's Surface. 

187. The lituation of a place upon the furface of the 

earth, is determined from its latitude and longitude. 

The methods of finding the latitude we have already 

explained ; but the longitude cannot be fo readily 

I found. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXXIX 



found.* Philip HI. kin;T of Sp.viif was the (ii-(l perfon 
v.Iu) otTercd a it:',vard fur its difcuvcry ; and l\\t:Piitcs of 
//ottW foon after follou-ci] his (.■xamplL-. During the 
minority of Ltwis XV'. (>[ France, lue regent power 
promifsd a great reward to any pt-rfou who fliould <hT- 
covtr the- longitude at fea In tlie time of of Cm at.lus 
-II. the Sienr de St. Pierrl, a Frenchman, propofcd a 
method of llnch'n;^ liic longitnde by tlie moon. Upon 
this, a comniillion was granted to I^ord Vifeount 
Brounki: R, Jjrefidcnt of the Rojal Society, Mi-. Fi.am- 
STEAD, and feveral others, to receive his propofah, and 
give their opinions reipec'ting it. Mr Flams rEAD gave 
his opinion, tliat if we h.id tlie phic^s oi the fixed (iars, 
and tabks of tlie moon's motion, we might find the lo..- 
gitude, bnt not by the method of the Sienr de St. 
FiURKE. Upon this, Mr. Flamstead was ajipointed 
aftnnionier royal, and an oblervatory was built at Gresn- 
wlch for him ; and the inftrnelions to him and his fne- 
ccdbrs vvf re, " that they (lionld apply themfeives W-iih 
the iitmoll care and diligence, to rcdify llie tables of the 
motions of the heavens, and the [iLices ol the fixed liars, 
in orderto fi idont thefo iniieh delired longitude at iea, 
for the perfetting of the Art of Navigation," 

lS8. In the year 1714, the Briiipj parliament offered 
a reward for the difcoveiy of the longitnde ; the funi of 
lo;oo/. if the method determined the longitude to 1° 
of a great circle, or to 60 giographicaj miles; of 
15,00/. if it determined it 1040 miles ; and of 20000/. 
if it determined it to 30 miles ; with this provifo, that 
if any fuch method extend no further than 30 miles ad- 
joining to the coall, the propofer lliould have no more 
than half the rewards. The i.ft alfo appoints the firll 
Lord of the Admiralty, the Speaker of the Honle of 
Commons, the firft Commiflioiier of Trade, the Admi- 
rals of the lied, White and Blue Squadrons, the Mailer 
of Trinity Floufe, the Prefident of the Royal Society, 
the Royal ^(Vtlronomer at Greenwich, the two Saviliau 
Profeffors at Oxford, and the LncaCan and Phimian 
Profeffbrs at Cambridge, with feveral other perlons, as 
Commiffiouerr. for the Longitude at Sea. The Lown- 
dian Profeffor at Cambridge was afterwards added. 
After this afl of parliament, feveral other acta paffcd in 
the reigns of George II. and III. for the encourage- 
nient of finding the longitnde. At laft, in 1774, an 
aft pafild, repealing all other afts, and offering feparate 
rewards to any perfon who Ihould difeover the longi 
tude, either by -the watch keeping true time wiihin cer- 
tain limits, or by the lunar method, or by a;iy other 
means. The aft propofcs as a reward for a tinie-keeper, 
the fum of 5000 /. if it determine the longitude to )° or 
60 geographical miles; the fum of 750J /. if it deter- 



mine it to ^o miles; and the fun-i of looco/. if it dcter- 
mi.ie it to 30. miles, after proper trials fpeeified in the 
aft. If the method be by improved folnr and lunar 
tables, conllruftcd upon Sir 1. Newton's 'I'heory of 
Gravitation, the airthor lliall be entitkd to 5000/. 
il fuch tables Iball lliow the diilsnce of the mo m from 
the fun and ftars, within fifteen feeonds of a degree, an- 
fweriug to about feven minutes of longitud.', after allow- 
ing halt a degree for the errors of obfervation. And for 
any other method, the fame rewards are offered as ihofe 
.for tiuiekeepei-s, provided it gives the longitude true 
within fame limits, and be prafticable at fca. The coni- 
milhoners have alfo a power of giving fnialler rewaids,' 
as they fliall judge proper, to any one who fliall make 
any difcoveiy for finding the longitude at fea, ihougli 
not within the above limits. Provided however, that 
if fuch perfon or perfons (liall afterwards make anv fur- 
ther difcovery as to come within the above mentioned 
limits, fuch fum or funis as they may have received, 
fhall be confidcred as part of fuch greater reward, and 
dedufted therefrom accordingly. 

189. After the deceafe of Mr. Flamstpad, T)r. 
Halley, who was appointed to fucceed him, made a 
ftrics of oblervatlons on the moon's tranfit. over the me- 
ridian, for a complete revolution of the moon's apogee, 
which obfervations being compared with the computa- 
tions from the tables then extant, he was enabled to 
correft the tables of the moon's motions. And as Mr. 
Hadley had then invented an inllrument by-which liie 
altitudes and diftances of the heavenly bodies could be 
taken at fea. Dr. Halley flrongly recommended the 
lunar method of finding the longitude. 

"To find the Longitude by a Time-keeper. . 

790. The fun appears to move round the earth from 
call to wefl, or to defcribe 360'^, in 24 hour:-, and there- 
fore he appears to move 15° in an liour If therefore tlic 
inerttliaas of two places, make an angle of 15° with each 
other, or if the two places differ 15' in longitude, the 
fun will come to the eadern meridian i hmir before he 
comes to the weftern meridian, and therefore when it is 1 2 
o'clock at the former place, it is only eleven at the latter ; 
and in general, the difference between the times by the 
clock at any two places, will be the difference of their 
longitudes, converted into time at the rate of 15'^ for an 
hour, the time at the eafleru place being the forwarded. . 
If therefore we can tell what o'clock it is at any two 
places, at the fame inftant of time, we can find the dif- 
ference of their longitudes, by allowing 15° for every 
hour that the clocks differ. 



* In many of the old map?, the firft meridian is made to pal's through Firro in tlic Canaries, which is 17", 45'. 5c" weft of Otcenwich. 
To reduce rlierefore the longitude from Ferro t« that frnin ttcenwich, add 17.*^ 45.' t,o" 'f tire place be •iv^Jl of l-trro, and it itives the Ic gi- 
tude weft from Green-A'ich ; if the place be fj/? of Fcrro, and in longitude AA than 170,4.:'. 50". the dift'erence of its longitude and 17*'. 
45'. 5c'', flicws the longitude weft iVom Grftnwich ; b'jt if the longitude be grejtir th^n 17''. 45', j'^", the ditTcre.icc /hows tht: lorg'tvide 
fail of Greenwich, '^bus you may reduce the longitude riom one place to that fr^m any other. 



19'. Let 



xl 



INTRODUCTION. 



191 . Let therefore the time keeper be well regulated 
and let to the time at Gnentvich, that being the place 
Irom which we reckon our longitude ; llien it the watch 
neither gains nor lofes, it will always li-.ow the time at 
Cieeniv'uh, wherever you may be. Now to find the 
linieby the clock at any other place, take the fun's al- 
titude, and thence find the time by article (a; now the 
time thus found is apparent time, or that found by the 
fun, which differs from the time fliown by the clock by 
the {quation of time, as we have fliown in article 79 : we 
null therefore apply the equation of time to the time 
found by the fun, and we (liiill get the time by the 
clock ; and the difference between the tin>.e by the clock 
fo found, and the time by the lime keeper, or the lime 
:.t Greaiiukh, converted into degrees at the rate of 15" 
for an hour, gives tlie longitude of the place from Green- 
•n-ich. For example, let the time by the time-keeper, 
vhtii the fun's altitude was taken, be f.h. 19', and let 
the time deduced from the fun's altitude be 9h. 27', and 
fuppofe at that time the equation of time to be 7', fliow- 
ing how much the fnn is that day behind the clock, 
then the time by the clock is, 9h. 34', the difference 
between which and 6h. 19' is 3h. 15'; and this con- 
vcited into degrees, at the rate of 13° for 1 hour, gives 
48^. 45', the longitude of tiie place from Greenivich ; 
and as tiie time is forwarder than that at Greeiiic'eh, tlje 
place lies to the eajl of Greenivkb. Thus the longitude 
cuuld be very eafily determined, if you could depend 
jipou the time-keeper. But as a watch will aUvays gain 
or lofe, before the time-keeper is fent out, its gaining 
or lofing every day for fomc time, a month for inllance, , 
is obfervcd ,■ this is called the raJc of going of the watch, 
and from thence the Vvm;; rate of going is thus found. 

192. Suppofe I examine the rate of a watch for 30 

«lays ; on fome of thofe days I find it has gained, and 

cm fome it has loft; add together all the quantities it has 

gained, and fnj)pofe t'ley amount to 17" ; add together all 

the quantities it har. loft, and fuppofe they amountto '3"; 

then, upon the whole, it has gained 4" in 30 day;:, and this 

is called the mean rate for that time, and this divided by 30, 

gives o", 133 for the lue-m daily rate of gaining; fo iliat 

if the watch had gained regularly o", 133 every day, at 

the end of the 30 days it would iiave gained jnft as much 

as it really did gain, by fometimes gaining and fomttimes 

iofing. Or you may get the mean iLiily rate thus. Take 

the difference between what the clock was t75o taft, or 

■ two flow, on tiie firfl; and lafl days of obfervation, if it 

be too fafl, or too flow, on each day ; but take the 

fum, if it be tv\'0 faft on one day and two flow on the 

other, and, divide by t e number of days between tiie ob- 

fervatioas, and you get the mean daily rate. Thus, if 

the watch was too fail on the iirll day 18", and too faft 

on the lafl day 32", the difference 14" divided by 30 gives 

o,''466 the laean daily rate of gaining, lint it the 

watch was too fall on the firfl day 7"", and too (low on 

the lail day 10", the ///hi 17" divided by 30 gives o",566 

the mean daily rate ot lofing. After having thus got the 

mean daily rate of gaining or lofing and knowing how 

much the watch was too fall or too flow at iii ft, you 

'3 



can tell, according to that rate of going, how much it is 
too faft or too flow, at aiiy other time. In the firit cafe, 
for inftance, let the watch have been 1'. 17" too faft at 
frrft, and I want to know how much it is too faft 50 
days after that time ; now it gains o",i33 everyday, 
if this be multiplied by 50 it gives 6",65 for the whole 
gain in 50 days; therefore at the end of that time the 
watch would be i'. 23",65 too fafl. This would be 
the error, if the watch continued to gain at the above 
rate ; and although, from the different temperatures c.f 
the air, and the impeifeflion of the workmanfliip, this 
cannot be cxpefted, yet the probable error will by this 
means I.e diminiflied, and it is the beft method we have 
to depend upon. In watches which are under tiial at 
the Royal Obfervatory at Green-wicb, as candidates for 
the rewards, this allowance of a mean rate is admitted, 
although it is not mentioned in the aft of parliament ; 
the commiffioners however are fo indulgent as to grant 
it, which is undoubtedly favourable to the watches. 

193. As the rate of going of a v.-atch is fubjeS to 
vary from fo many circumftances, the obferver, when- 
ever he goes afliore, and has fufiicient time, fhould com- 
pare hi? watch for feveral days with the true time found 
by the fun, by which he will be able to find its rate of 
going. And when he comes to a place whofe longitude 
is known, he may then fet his waccli again to Greenwich 
time ; for when the longitude of a place is known, you 
know the difference between the time there and at 
Greewzuich. For inftance, if he go to a place known to 
be 30° eaft longitude from Greeniuich, his watch (hould 
be 2 hours flower than the time at that place. Find 
therefore the true time at that place, by. the fun, and if 
the watch be 2 hours flower, it is riglit; if not, cot reft 
it by the difference, ard it again gives Grcenivich time. 

194. Ill long voyages, unlcfs you have fometimes an 
opportunity of adjufling the watch to Grcenivich time, 
its error will probably be confiderable, and the longitude 
deduced from it, will be fubjeft to a proportional error. 
In fiiort voyages, a watch is undoubtedly very ufeful ; 
and alfo in long ones, where you have the means of cor. 
refting it froin time to time. It ferves to carry on the 
longitude from one known place to another, fuppofing 
the interval of time not veiy long ; or to keep the longi- 
tude from that which is deduced from a lunar obferva- 
tion, till you can get another. Thus the watch may be 
rendered of great lervice in navigation. 

To Jiiid the Longitude ly an TLclipJe of the 
A'hofi, end cfjuf iter's Satellites. 

1 9 J. By an cchpfe of the moon. This eclipfe begins 
when the umbra of the earth firft tuuchcs the moon, and 
ends when it leaves the moon. Havirig the times cal- 
culated when the eclipfe begins and ends at Greenwich, 
obferve the times when it begins and ends at the place 
where you are ; and the difference of thefe times, con- 
verted into degrees, gives tlie differ-ence of tiie longi- 
tudes. For as the phafes of the moon in an ecliple, 
happen at the fau.e inllant at .all places, the difference of 

the 



INTRODUCTION. 



xli 



ihe times at different places when the fame phafc is ob- 
fcrved, arlfes from tlie difference of the clocks at tlioie 
place?, and that difference (as before obfcived) convert- 
ed into degrees, gives the difference of longitudes. If 
the beginning of an cclipfe hajipen at 6 o'clock at one 
place, and at 8 o'clock at another, thcfc places differ 2 
hours, or 30", in longitude. This would be a very 
ready and accurate method, if the times of the tirfl and 
laft contatl of the earth's umbra and tiie moon could be 
accurately obfcrved ; but the darknefs of the penumbra 
continues to increafe till it comes to the umbra, lo that 
until the umbra aftually gets upon the moon, it is not 
difcovered. The umbra itfelf is alfo badly delined. 
The beginning and end of a lunar eclipfe, cannot, in ge- 
ncial, be determined nearer than i' of time, and often 
not nearer than 2' or 3'. Upon thefe accounts, the 
longitude, thus deduced, is fubjecl to a confidcrable de- 
gree of uncertainty. Allronomers therefore determine 
the difference of longitudes of two places, by corrcf- 
ponding obfervations of other phafcs, that is, when the 
umbra bifetls any fpots upon the furface. And tins 
can be determined to a greater degree of accuracy, than 
the beginning and end ; for when the lunbra is got 
upon the moon's furface, the obferver has Icifure to 
confider and fix upon the proper line of termination, in 
which he will be allifted by running his eye along 
the circumference of the umbra. Thus the coinci- 
dence of the umbra with the fpots, may be obfervcd to 
a confiderable degree of accuracy. The obferver there- 
fore fhould have a good map of the moon at hand, that 
he may not miftakc. The telefcope to obferve a lunar 
eclipfe, (lipuld have but a fmall magnifying power with 
a great quantity of light. The (liadow comes upon the 
moon on the eall fide, and goes off on the weft ; but if 
the telefcope invert, the appearance will be the con- 
trary. 

196. The eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellites afford the 
readied method of determining the longitude of places 
upon land. It was alfo hoped, that fome method might 
be invented to oblerve them at fea, and Mr. Irwin made 
a chair to fwing for that purpoTe, for the obferver to 
iit in ; but Dr. Maskelyne, in a voyage to Barladoes, 
under the direction of the commiffioners of longitude, 
found it totally imprafticable to derive any benefit tro-n 
it ; and he obferves, that " confidering the great power 
requifite in a telefcope for making thefe obfervations 
well, and the violence as well as the irregularities of the 
motion of the fhip, I am afraid the complete manage- 
ment of a telefcope on flilp board, will always remain 
among the defiderata. However, I wculd not be under- 
flood to mean to difcouiage any attempt, founded on 
good principles, to get over the difficulty." The te- 
leicopcs prop-:r for making thefe obfervationss, are com» 
mon refraifling ones from ij to 20 feel; refleAing ones 
of 18 inches or 2 lett ; or the 46 inches achromatic. On 
account of the uncertaintv of the theory of. the fatel- 
lites. Dr. Maskelyne advifes the obferver to be fettled 
at his telefcope, 3 minutes before the expeiEled time of 
immerfion of the firil fatelL'te ; 6' or 8' before that of 

VOL. I. 



the fecond or third ; and a quarter of an hour before 
that of the fourth And if the longitude of the place 
be alu) uncertain, he mull look out proportionably foon- 
er. Thus, if the longitude be uncertain to 2'', anfwcr- 
ing to 8 minutes of tune, he mull begin to look out S 
minutes fooner than is mentioned above. However, 
when he has obfeivtd one ccli|)le and found the error of 
the tables, he may allow the fame correilion to the cal- 
culaticms of the EpLemtris (or fevcral months, which will 
advertife him very nearly of the time of expecting the 
eclipfes of the fame falellite, and difpeiifc with Ills at- 
tending fo long. Before the oppofitiou of Jupiter to 
the fun, the immerfions and emerfions happen on the 
iviji fide of Jupiter ; and ajicr oppofition, on the eaji 
fide; but if the telefcope invert, the appearance will be 
the contrary. Before oppofition, the i/H/nc;_y;ci/i/ only of 
the firll latellite are vilible ; and after oppofition, the 
emerfions only. The fame is generally the cafe in refpeil 
to the freond fatellite ; but both immerfion and emer- 
fion are frequently obferved in the third and fourth. 

197. When the obferver is waiting for an emerfion, as 
foon as he fufpeds that he fees it, he Ihould look at hij 
watch and note the fecond ; or begin to count the beats 
of the clock, till he is fure it is the fatellite, and then 
look at the clock and fubtracft the number of feconds 
which he has counted, and he will have the time of 
emerfion. If jupiter be 8' above the horizon, and the 
fun as much below, an eclipfe will be vifible ; this may 
be determined near enough by a common globe. 

198. The emerfion or immerfion being obferved ac- 
cording to apparent time, the longitude of the place 
from Greenwich is found, by taking the difference be- 
tween that time and the time fet down in the Nautical 
Almanac, which is calculated for apparent time. 

Ex. Suppofe the emerfion of a fatellite to have been 
obferved at the Cape of Good Hope, May 9, 1767, at 
loh. .^6'- 45" apparent time; now the time in the Nau- 
tical Almanac h ^h. 33'. 12"; the difference of which 
times is ih. 13'. 33" the longitude of the Cape fo/? of 
Greenwich in time, or 18°. 23'. 15". 

199. But to find the longitude of a place from an ob- 
fervation of an eclipfe of a fatellite, it is better to com- 
pare it with an obfervation made under fome well known 
meridian, than with the calculations in the Ephemeris, 
becaufe of the imperfeftion of the theory ; but where 
a correfponding obfervation cannot be obtained, find 
what corrctlion the calculations in the Ephemeris require, 
by the neareft obfervations to the given time that can be 
obtained ; and this correftion applied to the calculation 
of the eclipfe in the Ephemeris, renders it almoll equiva- 
lent to an adual obfervation. The obferver muft be 
careful to regulate his clock or watch to apparent time, 
or at kaft to know the diflerence. 

200. In order the better to know the difference of 
longitudes of two places, from correfponding obferva- 
tion.-i, the obferver fliould be fumiihed with the fatr.e 
kind of ttlefcopes. For at an immerfion, as the latel- 
lite enters the fliadow, it grows fainter and fainter, till 
at laft the quantity of light is fo fmall that it becomes 

g invifible, 



xVn 



INTRODUCTION. 



Jnvifihle, even before it is wholly immerfed in the 
fhadow ; the inftant therefore that it becomes invifible 
will depend upon the quantity of light which the telcf- 
cope receives, and its magnifying power. The inllant 
therefore of its appearance will be later, the better the 
telefcope is; and the fooner it will appear at its emer- 
lion. Now the immerfion is the inftant the fatellite is 
got into the fhadow, and the emerlJon is the inftant be- 
fore It begins to emerge from the Ihadow ; if therefore 
two telefcopes fhow the difappearance or appearance of 
the fatellite at the fame dillance of time from the im- 
merfion or eraerfion, the difference of the times will be 
the fame as the difference of the true times of immer- 
fion or emtrfion, and therefore will fhow the difference 
of longitudes accurately. But if the obftrved time at 
one place and the computed time at another be com- 
pared, we muft allow for the difference of the apparent 
and true times of Immerfion and emeriion, in order to 
get the true time where the obfervation was made, to 
compare with the true time from computation at the 
other place. This difference may be found, by obferv- 
ing an eclipfe at any place whofe longitude is known, 
and comparing it with the time by computation. Ob- 
fervers, therefore, fhould fettle the difference by the 
mean of a great number of obfcrvations thus compared 
with the computations, by which means the longitude 
will be more accurately afcertained. After all, however, 
the different ftates of the air, and of the eye, will caufe 
fome uncertainty ; but the latter may in a great mea- 
fure be obviated, if the obferver remove hinifelf from all 
warmth and light, for a little time before he obferves. 



To find the Longitude by the Moon's Dijlance 
from the Sun^ or a fixed Star. 

201. The fteps by which we find the longitude by 
this method, are thefc : 

1. I'rom the obfervcd altitudes of the moon and tlie 
fun, or a ftar, and their obfa-ved dillance, find their true 
diftance. 

2. From the Nautical Almanac find the apparent time 
at Greenwich when the moon was at that diftance. 

3. From the altitude of tlie fun or ftar, find the ap- 
parent time at the ulace of obfervation. 

4. The difference of the times thus found, gives the 
difference of the longitudes, or tlie longitude from 
GreenviUh. 

We will here fully explain each of thefe. 




Let Z be the zenith of the place of obfervation, M 
the apparent place of the moon, m its true place, iS' the 
apparent place of the fun or ftar, s the tiiic place ; then 
a<. tlic parallax 01 the moon depreffes it more than re- 
fraftion raifes it. the apparent place ^/is below the true 
place m; but the ftar is elevattd by refraftion and liis 
no parallax to dcprefsit, and the fun is more elevated Ly 
refra&ion than depreffed by parallax, therefore the true 
place 5 is below the apparent place S. Now the appa- 
rent altitudes being found by obfervation, we know the 
apparent zenith diilances Z.M, ZS ; and knowing thtir 
apparent dlflance MS, we know the three fides of the 
triangle ZSM ; hence, we can find the angle Z. Now 
find from the tables the parallax and refraftlon of the 
moon, and their difference is Mm ; do the fame for the 
fun, and we get Ss, or if it be a ftar, the refraflion gives 
^j-. From ZM fubtraft Mm, and we get Zm , and to 
ZS add Ss, and we get Zs ; hence, in the triangle Zsm, 
we know Zs, Zm, and the angle Z, to find sm the true 
diftance of the moon from the fun or ftar. 

Example. Suppofe on June 29, 1793, the fun's appa- 
rent zenith diftance ZS was obferved to be 70°. 56'. 
24", the moon's apparent zenith diflance ZM to be 
48''. 53'. 58", and their apparent diftance MS to be 
103°. 29'. 27". Then the true diflance sm being com- 
puted according to ti;e above method, it is found to be 
103°. 3'. 18". 

202. The true diftance of the mcon from the fun 
being found, the next thing is to find from thence, the 
time at Grceiiivich. Now in. the Nautical Almanac the 
true dillance of the moon from the fun or certain fixed 
flars, fuch as lie in or near the moon's path, is put down 
for every three hours. The true dMance therefore 
being known, look Into \.\\k. Nautical Almanac, and take 
out two dlflances, one greater and the other Itfs than 
the known true diflance as found above, and the differ- 
ence D of thefc diilances fh.ow5 how much the moon 

approaches 



INTRODUCTION. 



xliii 



T^p-.'oaches to or recedes from the fun or ftar, in three 
hours ; and tnke the diTTcrence d between the moon's 
diftance at the beginning of that interval, and the dif- 
tance foinid from obfervation, and then fay, D : d :: 3 
hour:; : llie time the moon is acceding to or receding 
frjm the ivin or ftar through the fpace d, which added to 



the time at the beginning of the interval, gives the ap- 
parent time at Greenwich, corrcfponding to tlic true dif- 
tance of the moon, as deduced from obfervation. 

Example. Taking the moon's true diftance 103°. 3'. 

18" on June 29, 1793, as deduced in the laft example, 

to fmd the apparent time at Greenwich. 



True diftance of D from Q 

True diftance on June 29, at 3h. by Nautical Aimanac 

True diftance on June 29, at 6h. by Naulica! ^/marac 



D = 
d = 



103°. 


3'. 


18" 


103. 


4- 


58 


lOI. 


26. 


42 


I. 


3«. 


16 


0. 


(• 


40 



Hence, 1°. 38'. 
at Grecniulch. 



iG' : o^. i'. 40" :: 3h : oh. 3'. 3", which added to 3 hours gives jh. 3'. 3" the apparent time 



203. The next thing to be done, is to find the time Now tlie refraftion was 2'. 44", and the parallax 8' ; 
at the place of obfervati(;n, knowing the fun's dcclina- hence, the true altitude was 19°. 1'; and by aiticle 
lion, the latitude of the place, and tlie fun's altitude. 61, the appurent ti; ' " " 



Example. The fun's declination was 23". 14'. 4", j'. 
and its oblerved altitude was 19°. 3'. 36", and the lati- 
tude was 52^. 12'. 2,5- 



29 



ppRrent time is found to be June 28, i8h. 

Hence, 



Apparent time at Greenwich, Jime 29 - 

Apparent time at place of obfervation, June 28 - — 

JLon^//!/i/f of place of obfervation in time 

Which converted into degrees, gives 123". 50', 16", the longitude of displace of oifcrvatlon weH of GretntuUh, 



31^- 


3- 
5- 


3 

29 


8. 


57- 


34 



• 204. Thus w^e have explained the regular fteps by 
ivhich the longitude is found by obferving the moon's 
diftance from the fun, or a fixed ftar ; but for a full ex- 
planation, we refer the reader to Mr. Vince's Complete 
Syjlem of jljlfonomy, in which woik he will find all the 
various calculations explained at large ; and where he 
will alfo fee three other methods of finding the longi- 
tude ; one, by a folar eclipfe ; another, by an occulta- 
tionofa fixed fear by the moon; and a third, by the 
moon's tranfit over the meridian, compared with that of 
a fixed ftar. Thcfe are of too difficult a nature to ad- 
mit of -a popular explanation. 

2C5. The above method of finding the longitude by 
the moon, was brought into practice by Dr. Maske- 
LYNE, who proved the accuracy of it in two voyages, 
one to St. Helena, and the other to Barbadocs, by the fol- 
lowing irrefragable proofs: I ft, On the near agree- 
ment of the longitude, inferred from oblervations made 
within a few days or hours of making land, with the 
known longitude of fuch land. 2d, From the near 
agreement of the longitude of the (hip from obferva- 
tions made on a gTcat many different days near to one 
another, \\ hen connefted by help of the common reckon- 



ing. 3d, From the near agreement of the longitude of 
the fliip, deduced from obfervations of ftars on different 
fides of the moon, taken on the fame night. For here 
all the moft probable kinds of errors operating different 
ways, their efFeft, if any, mutt have appeared in the re- 
fult. But in all the double longitudes thus found, their 
differences were fo fin all, as to warrant him to fay, that 
by good inftruments and careful obfervers, the longitude 
may be thus found to a very great degree of accuracy. 

On the U/e of the Globes. 

206. There are two globes, one called the icrreflrlal, 
upon which the places of the earth are delineated, and " 
the other called celejVial, upon which all the principal 
fixed ftars are put down, and the figures of the conftel- 
lations. The terrefliial globe is a perfeS map of the 
earth, reprefenting the relative fituations of all the places 
upon its furface, wJththe true figures ot ;J1 the different 
countries, which cannot be properly reprefcntcd upon a 
map ; and this renders a terreftrial globe very neceftary 
for the ftudy of geography. The celeftial globe ierves 
to explain all the phafncmona arifing from the diurnal 



• The uft'onomlcal day begins at mon, fo th« June jS, iSh. 5'. 29'' 's according to ihe common reckoning, June :9, 6h. 5'. 29" in 
themoiniQg. ] 

■ ' (J 2 motion 



xliv 



INTRODUCTION. 



motion of the earth about its axis, and alfo the variation 
of feafons arifing from its motion about the fun, only 
fnppofmg the fun to move in the ecHptic inftead of the 
earth, which will not alter any of the appearances. To 
each globe there is a circular, flat piece of wood, the 
plane of which paffes through the center of the globe, 
en which are marked the days of the month, and cor- 
refponding to them the iigns of the ecliptic, where the 
fun is on thofe days ; the points of the compafs are alfo 
put upon the fame piece. This is called the horizon ; 
at right angles to which, there is a circular piece of 
brafs, on which the globe hangs, called the brazen me- 
ridian ; it is fupported at the loweft point on a roller, 
on which it turns in its own plane, and pafTes through 
the horizon in two grooves cut for that purpofe ; on this 
circle the globe is fupported by the extremities of its 
axis ; and the axis pailVs through the brazen meridian, 
and carries an index round with it over a circular plate 
which is divided into hours, &c. On each globe tliere 
are two circles, one reprefenting the ecliptic, with the 
characters of the figns upon it, and the other the equa- 
tor. To each of thefe circles, on the celeftial globe, fe- 
condaries are drawn to every lo or 15 degrees ; but on 
the terrcflrial globe, they are drawn only to the equator. 
There is alfo a flat piece of brafs, called the quadrant af 
gltitude, which is occalionally fixed to the brazen meri- 
dian in its zenith, by a nut, and the lower end is put be- 
tween the globe and the horizon, and can be turned 
round to any point ; it is divided into degrees, &c. by 
which the altitudes of objefts above the horizon may be 
found, and their azimuths determined. From one point 
of the brazen meridian corrcfpondmgtothe equator, the 
degrees begin, and are continued both ways up to 90° 
at each pole ; but for the other femicircle of the brazen 
»neridian, the degrees begin at the poles, and are conti- 
nued up tq go" at the equator. On the horizon, the 
degrees begin at the eaft and weft, points, and are conti- 
nued both ways to 90°, or to the north and fouth 
points. The ecliptic and equator begin their degrees at 
one of their intcrfcAions, called aries, and they are con- 
tinued round the fame w'ay to 360°; alfo, the former is 
divided into, and marked with, the twelve figns ; and the 
latter is divided from the fame point, into 24 hours. 
Upon the foot of the globe there is often put a cx)m- 
pafs, by which the brazen meridian may be fet north 
and fouth. 

On the IJj'e of the Terrestrial Globe, 

207. To Jind the Latitude of a Place. 
Bring the place under that femicircle of the brazen 
meridian where the divifions begin at the equator, and 
obferve what degree the place is under, and it is the la- 
titude required. 

208. To reHify the dole to the Latitude of a Place.. 

Elevate the pole above tlie horizon till its altitude, 
cbfervcd on the brazen meridian, be equal to the lati- 
tude of the place, and it is then faid to bt reitiiitd to 



the latitude, and it fo far ftands right for the folution 
of all problems for that latitude. 

209. To find the Longitude of a Place from Greentuicfr. 
Brnig the place to the graduated edge of the brazen 

meridian, and obferve the point of the eq*!ater which 
lies under it, and the diftance of that point from the 
point where the meridian of Greenwich cuts the equa- 
tor, is the longitude required. 

210. Given the Latitude and I^ongitude of a Place, to 
Jind 'juhtre the Place is. 

Bring the given degree of longitude to the brazen 
meridian, and then under the givcEi degree of latitude 
upon that meridian, you have the place required. 

211. When it is Noon at any Place /I, to Jind the Hour 
at any other Place B. 

Bring A to the meridian, and fet the index to XII; 
then turn the globe till B comes under the meridian, 
and the index will (how the hour at B. If it be not 
noon at A, fet the index to the hour, and proceed as be- 
fore, and you get the correfponding hour at B. 

2 12. To Jind the D'Jlance of A from B. 
Bruig A to the meridian, and fcrew the quadrant of 
altitude over it, and carry it to B, and you get the num- 
ber of degrees between A and B, which multiply by 
69,2, the miles in one degree, and you get the ^Itancc 
required. 

213. To Jnd the Bearing of B from A. 
Reftify the globe for the latitude of A, andbrfng A 
to the meridian, and fix the quadrant of altitude to A ; 
then direft the quadrant to B, and the point where it 
cuts the horizon ftows the bearing required. 

214. ^t any Hour af the Day at Bf to Jind the Place A 
to which the Sun is "vertical. 

Find the fun's place in the ecliptic, and bring it to 
the brazen meridian, and you find its d<^clination on the 
mcridir.n ; then bring B to the meridian, and fet the in- 
dex to the given hour, and turn the globe tilTthe indcst 
comes to XII at noon, and the place under the fun's 
declination upon the meridian, is tluit req-uired. 

215. To find, at any Day and Hour, the Places icbers 
the Sun is ri/trig, fetting, or on the Meridian ; alfo, thofe 
Places ixihich are enlightened, and nahcre the Tivilight ij. 
I'tginning and ending. 

Find (by art. 214^) the place to which the fun is ver- 
tical at the given hour, and bring the fame to the rrreri- 
dian, and rcdtify the globe to- a latitude equal to the 
fun's declination. Then to all thofe places under th« 
ivef.ern femicircle of the horizon, the fun is i-ifing ; to 
thofe under the eaflern femiciiLle, the fun li fetting ; and 
to thofe under the meridian, it is noon. 

Alfo, all places above the horizon are enlightened, and 
all thofe below aie in the dark hcmifphtre. 

Ladly, in all thofe places 18° below the weftern hori- 
zon, the twilight is juft beginning in the morning, and ia 

thofe 



INTRODUCTION. 



xir 



thofe iR" below tliC eaflern hoiizon, it isjuft ending in 
the evening. 

2if>. To find nil the Places to ivhkh a Lunar EcUpfe is 
vifible at any Injhmt. 

Find the place to which the fun is vertical at any 
time, and bring that place to the zenith, and the ecliple 
will be viiible to all the licnnTphere tinder the horizon, 
bccaufe the moon is then oppofite to the fun. 

On the Ufe of the C-ELZ^T\M. Globe. 

217. Tofnd the Suns right Jlfccnfion and Declination. 
Bring the fun's place in the ecliptic to the brazen 

meridian, and it points out upon tlie meridian, llic de- 
clination ; and the degree of the equator wliicli is cut by 
the meridian, is the right afcenlion. 

218. Given the right Afccnfon and Declination of an hea- 
venly Body, iofndiis Place. 

Bring the given degree of right afccnfion on the equa- 
tor, to the brazen meridian, and the degree of the meri- 
dian correfponding, to the declination, points out the 
place required. 

219. Given the Latitude of a Place, the Day and Hour, 
tofnd the Altitude and Amplitude of a given heavenly Body. 

Reftify the globe (by art. 208.) to the latitude of the 
place, and bring the fun's place in the ecliptic to the 
brazen meridian, and fet the index to XII; then turn 
the globe till the index points to the given hour, and in 
that pofition the globe reprefents the proper iituation of 
all the heavenly bodies, in refpeft to the meridian and 
horizon. Then fix the quadrant of altitude to the 
zenith, and direft its graduated edge to the place of the 
body, and it fliows the altitiide of the body ; and the 
degree where it cuts the horizon, fhows its amplitude. 
If the body be the moon or a planet, after having found 
its place, you may put a fmall patch to denote its place. 

220. Given as before, to fet the Globe fo that the Stars 
vpon it may correfpond to their Situations in the Heavens. 

The globe being fixed as in the laft article, by means 
of the compafs let the brafa meridian be fet in the me- 
ridian of the place, with the north pole to the north ; 
then will all the ftars upon the globe correfpond to their 
places in the heavens, fo that an eye at the center of the 
globe would refer every liar on its furface to the place of 
the ftar in the heavens. By comparing therefore the 
ftars in the heavens with their places on the globe, you 
will eafily get acquainted with the ftars. 

221. Tofnd the Time when any of the heavenly Bodies 
rife, fet, or come to the Meridian ; alfo, their Azimuth al ri- 

fing or fet ting. 

Rectify the globe to the latitude of the place, and 
bring the fun's place in the ecliptic to the meridian, and 
fet the index to XII. as in art. 219. Then turn the globe 
till the given body comes to the eaftern part of the hori- 
zon, and the index Ihows the time of its rifing; and the 
arc of the horizon between the body and thi: north ov 



fouth points, will give its a/.iniuth. Bring the body to 
the meridian, and the index iliows the time of its oomintr 
to it. Bring tlie body to the wellern horizon, and the 
index (hows tlie time of its fetting ; and the arc of the 
horizon between the body and the north or fouth points, 
will give its azimuth. You may thus find the lime of 
the fun's rifing and fetting. If you turn the globe 
about its axis, all thofe liars wliich do not defcciul below 
the horizon, never fet at that place ; and tliofe which 
do not afcend above it, never rife. 

222. To explain, in general, the /jlleralion of the Lengths 
of the Days, and the Difference of the Seafons. 

Put patches upon the ecliptic from aries both ways 
to the trojjics, and let tliem reprtfent i'o many different 
fituations of the fun ; and then the globe being rtttified 
to the latitude of the place (by art. 208.), tiun it about 
and you will fee, for north latitude, that as the patches 
approach the tropic of cancer, the correfjjunding diurnal 
arcs will increale ; and as the patches approach the 
tropic of Capricorn, the diurr.al arcs will dccrcafe ; alio, 
the former arcs are greater than a fcmicircle, and the 
hitter lefs ; and the patch in the equator will defcribc a 
iemicircle above the horizon. When therefore the fun 
is in the equator, the days and nights are equal ; as he 
advances towards the tropic of cancer, the days increafe, 
and the nights decreaft, till he comes to the tropic, 
where the days are found to be longeil, and the nights 
(horteft ; then as he approaches the equator, the length 
of the days diminifiies and that of the nights increafes, and 
when the fun comes to the equator, the lengths of the 
days and nights are equal. Then as he advances to- 
wards Capricorn, the days continue to diminifh and the 
nights increafe till he comes to that tropic, where the days 
are fhorteft and the nights are longefl ; and then as he ap- 
proaches the equator, the days increafe and the nights di- 
minifh ; and when hecoraesto the equator, the days and 
nights are equal. And whatever be the latitude, when 
the fun is in the equator, days and nights are equal. To 
an inhabitant at the pole, the fun will appear to be half 
a year above the horizon, and half a year below. To an 
inhabitant at the equator, the days and nights will ap- 
pear to be always equal ; alfo, all the heavenly bodies 
will be found to be as long above the horizon as below. 
At the arctic circle, the longeft day will he found 
to be 24 hours, and the longeft night 24 hours ; this ap- 
pears by reftify ing the globe to that latitude, and ob- 
ferving the patches at the tropics of cancer and of Capri- 
corn. Lately, it will be found that all pla(?es enjoy 
equally the fun in rcfpeft to time, and are equally de- 
prived of it, the length of the days at one time of the 
year being found exaftly equal to the length of the 
nights at the oppofite fealou. This appears by putting 
patches upon the ecliptic at oppofite points of it. 

223. To find the Latitude and Longitude cf a given Star ; 
alfo, the Difiance of two Stars, 

Bring the folftitial colure to the meridian, raid fix 
the quadrant of altitude over the pole of the ecliptjc ; 
then turn the quadrant over the given ftar, and tlu: arc 

contained 



xlvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



contained between the ftar and the cclipt'c will be the 
latbuJe, and die degree on the ecliptic cut by it will be 
the longitude. The diitanee 0} two ilars maybe found, 
by laynig the quadrant of altitude uvtr both, and count- 
ing the degrees between. 

224. To explain the Phenomena cf the Hari'eJ} Moon. 

Reftify the globe for any northern latitude, for in- 
ilaiice, that of London ; and as the moon's orbit makes 
but a fmall angle with the ecliptic, let us fuppofe the 
ecliptic to repvclent tiic moon's orbit. Now, in Sep- 
tember, when the fun is in the beginning i-.Hiurn, if tlie 
moon be then at its full, it muil be in the beginning of 
arics ; and as the mean motion of ihe moon is about 13° 
in a day, put a patcli on the fn it point of avies, and an- 
other 13° beyond it on the ecliptic ; bring the foimer 
patch to the horizon, and tlien turn the globe till the 
other comes to it, and the motion of the iuJcK will iliuw 
about 17', which is the difference of times of the moon's 
rifing on two fucceffivc nights, becauie the earth muft 
make fo much more than a revolution in time, before it 
uvertnkes the moon the next night. This fmall difference 
uriles from the fmall angle which the 01 bit of the moon 
makes with the horizon, it you continue patches at every 
13° till you come to libra, you wiH find the difference of 
the times of riling will increnft up to that point, and 
there the diflerence will be about ih. 17'; and this point 
of the ecliptic, when it rifes, makes the greatell angle 
with the horizon. Hence, when the moon comes to the 
firil point of aries, there will be the leail difference of 
the times of her rifmg, and this happens at the time of 
the full moon, when the full moon happens about the 
2iii September. That point of the ecliptic which rifes 
at the leail angle with the horieon, will be found to fet 
at the gieatefi, and therefore when there is the lead 
difference in the times of rifing, there will be found to be 
the greatelt in the times of i'etting. 

On the Divifion of Time. 

235. The revolution of the earth about the fun divides 
time into aflronomical years ; the revolution of the 
moon about the earth divides it into allrononn'cal 
months ; and tire rotation of the earth about its axis di- 
vides it into allrouomical days ; thefe, which are alfo 
called natural days, include a connr.on day and night. 
Thefe natinal days arc iubdivided hx clocks into hours, 
minutes, -iwi. fee on Js. The firft objecl in the regulation 
and diviiior, of time, i.s to keep the fame feafons to the 
iamc months, fo that the middle of fummer may happen 
towards the end of Junr, and the middle of wjntcr to- 
wards the end of December. Dut before the fun's mo- 
tion was tolerably well known, it was not eafy to ac- 
complilh tlu's. Some of the ancients formed a lunar 
year, confilling of 12 fynodic lunar months, or 354 
days, at the end of which t-hey made their year begin 
again. Cut finding that this year would not agree with 
the feafons, to corredl it, they firll added a month every 
three years; afterwards, 3 mouths every eighth year ; 
and laftly, 8 months every 15 years. Thefe were called 



AW -/o/rtr years, and were uled hy \.\iC y^ws and Rcmani, 
The Egyptian year confifled of 365 days ; they had 12 
months of 30 days each, and then they added 5 days 
more. The year which Numa introduced amongfl the 
Romans was the lyni-tolar year, ailjing to the lunar year 
of 354 days, 22 days every two years, inferting them as 
an intercalary month, after February every other year. 
But through the ignorance or negligence of the Priejh, 
who luki tlie care of thefe matters, tlie corrtflions, cal- 
led intercalations, neceffary for prefcivjng the agree- 
ment between the lunifolar year and the fcafon.^i, were 
either omitted, or fo improperly applied, as to produce 
great diforders In the Roman calendai'. Tiierefoi:e 
Jt Lius C.«SAi», to whom, when frmtifex Ulaximu!, the 
care of thefe things belonged, refolvcd to prevent, as far 
as he could, the like errors for the future. According- 
ly, after having reltored all the feftivals to their proper 
feafons, he, by the afiiilance of SosiGtNFS, an aflrono- 
mer of Alexandria, caufed the old luni-folar year of 
NuMA to be entirely laid afide, and fubllituted, inflead 
thereof,, the Egyptian folar year of 365 days, with the 
correction of an additional day every lour years, it hav. 
ing been found that the true tropical year, by which 
the feafons are governed, exceeds 365 days by fix hours. 
This is called the jfuUan year. To add a day every 
fourth year, he caufed the twenty-fourtii.day of Febru- 
ary, which was the fixth fextus) of the calends before 
March, to be reckoned twice. Hence; this year was 
called biflexlile, and it is now called leip-year. In our 
calendar, this day is added every fourth year to the end 
of tebi'uary. Tliis civil year immediately came into 
ufe throughout all Europe. 

226. But time fliowed that this correcfticn was not 
accurate ; for it was found, that the equinoxes and fol- 
flices happened earlier bv fome days than they did fn 
former diltaut years; and more accurate ubfervacions of 
the fun difcoveied that the true tropical year was not 
365d. 6h. but 365d. jh. 4S'. 48". The tropical year 
was therefore thought to be longer than it really was, 
by 11'. 12", which in 129 years would amount to a 
whole day, and caufe the equine- es to fall fooner by one 
day ; and therefore tilt middle of fummer and the mid- 
dle of winter would fall one day fooner. A further 
correclion thtrefore became neceflary. 

Zi"]. Pope Gkegoky XHI. therefore, fet about the 
coiredioi", from a dcfire that the moveable feall of Eaft- 
er fhould happen as nearly as poffible at the lame times 
of the year refped'tively, with thofcat vvliich it had been 
kept tor fome years alter the general council at Nice, 
which was holdtn hi the year 325. But this could not 
be corrected without affefting' the civil year in fuch a 
manner, that the vcinal cquitiox fhould then, and at all 
future times, fall on, or as nearly pciffible to, iVlarch 21, 
as it did at that general council, but which had then an- 
ticipated 10 days. For this piirpofe, he cauled 10 days 
to be dropped in October i5!S2, and by this means the 
vernal equinox was rtftored to March 21. And having 
confulted with the allronomers, he ordered that three 
fucccfllve centenary years, which, according to the _yu- 

liaa 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlvli 



imii account, would Iiavebeen byj''xti!cs, rtiould be common 
years, but that every fourth centenary year flioulJ be, 
as it otherw ife would have been, a b'ljfixtilc year. By 
this means, the difference between the civil and tropical 
accounts for the fpace of 400 years, will nut difter (o 
much as two hours, and will not amoiuit to a whole day 
in Icfs than 50S2 years, at the end of which time it will 
be neceffaty to make a covrcflion for this d.iy. The 
civil year thus corre&ed, took place in moll paits o^ Eu- 
rope many years ago, but it did not take place in E':g- 
ItindiiW the year 1752, at which time a correftion of i i 
days was made, that being then ncccffary, and the thlril 
of September was called t\\it fourteenth. This is called by 
us the nfvry Jlile . and that in ufe before, or the yulian 
account, is called the old Jt'dc As leap year happens 
every fourth year, and every hundredth year was a leap 
year in the Julian account, therefore every year which is 
divifible by tour, became a leap year. Now thefe cen 
tenary years, which, in the Gregorian aci:o\\v.i, are not to 
be leap years, are 1700, 1800, 1900,2100,2200,2300, 
2500, Sic. Therefore as the year jyco happened be- 
tween the time of the correction by Grlgoky, and 
that made by us, the Gregnrlan account had left out one 
day in that year which the ^yi/Z/rtn had not; therefore 
the Gregorian account, having, at the time it took 
place, left out 10 days, we were obliged to leave out 1 1 
days, to bring our account to agree with that.* 

228. Amongft different nations, the leglmiitig of the 
year varied, as well as the length. The yczvs began their 
occlefiaftlcal year with the new moon of that month, 
wliofe full moon happened next after the vernal equinox. 
The church of Roms begin their year on the Sunday 
which falls on the faid full luoon, or that happens next 
after it ; or on Eafter Sunday, The ye-u/s began their 
civil year with the new moon which has its full moan 
happening next after the autumnal equinox. The Gre- 
ciaiis began their year with the new moon which hap- 
pened next after the fummer I'olllice. The Romans, ac- 
cording to Plutarck, began their year, at March, 
trom the time of Ro.mulijs to Numa, who changed 
the beginning to January. Romulvs made the year 
confill of only ten months, as appears from the name of 
the lad, December, or the tenth month ; and that March 
was the iiril, is evident, bccaufc they called the filth 
from it 5«/Vrf»/;\f, the iiy-th ft .stills, and the reft in their 
order. The fuil month ot the Egyptutt year began on 
Qur A\iguil 29. The Arabic and 'Turk'tft:: year began 
on July 16. The ancient Clergy made Maich 25, the 
beginning of the year. 

229. The firll divifion of the civil year is Into civil 
n,c«;/jj, of which theie are twelve. TJ)efe cmmot be of 
au equal length, becai.fe the number of days in ayearis 
not divifible by 12. There are therefore in every year, 

Jei'cn monihs of 3 I days each, four of 30 days each, and 
in. the common years one oi 28 days, but which contaius 
29 in every leap year. Thefe are the monthsufed for 
civil purpofes. Bat the fpace of 28 days is alfo c;!lled a 
moiLthy audit h by the divifion of this into four equal 



parts, that the year is fubdivided into weeks, each con- 
lilting of fevcn days. Hence, a common year coniifts 
of 13 of thefe months, or 52 weeks and i day, and a 
leap year of the fime, and 2 days. 

230. The days into which the civil year is divided, 
are called natu/al, and contain 24 hours. But there is 
a day called artificial, vrhich is the time from fun-rife to 
lunlet. The natural day is ehher ajlronomical or civil. 
The allrononiical day begins at noon. The Brltifb, 
French, Dutch, Germans, Spaniards, Portuguefe, and Egyp- 
tians, begin the civil day at midnight; the ancient 
Greets, jfc'ws, Bohemians, and Sllefans, began it at fuu- 
Ictting, as do the modern Italians and Chlnefe ; and the 
ancient Babylonians j Perftans, Syrians, and racdera 
Greeks, at fur.-rifiDg, The Jeius, Chaldeans, and .,-jra- 
bians, divide the hour into 1080 equal parts, called 
f rifles. ^ ■ 

231. The points of time from which liiftorians begin 
to reckon, arc called ip-:chs, or sras, and gereially arife 
from fome remarkable event. The lirll xra is the Crea- 
tion of the World. Hiftorians diifer a little in their efti- 
mation of this time, making it from 39,0 to 4C00 years 
before Christ. Tlie 4fra of the Olympiids is the moft fa- 
mous of the profane ones, which is placed 776 years 
befoi-e Christ, and this the Romans ufed. The ura 
of Nabonnffar was 747 years before Chirst, from which 
time the Chaldeans and Egyptians reckoned their years. 
The xra we ufe, is called the Chriflian xra, bccaufe it 
began at the birth of Christ ; not indeed on the very 
day that he was born, which is nckoned on 25th of De- 
cember, but 7 day s after, on January I ft the next year. The 
era of the jfulian year was 45 years before this, when 
Julius Caesar rejedled the old Roman year-, and order- 
ed the Julian year to be obferi'ed ail over the Roman em- 
pire. The Turkifh ecra is the Hegira, or flight of Maho- 
met, 62Z; A. C. The t erfan ara is called Tefdegird, 
63 1 A. C. 

232. But befides tlie mcafures of time by jrarj-, &c. 
it was found convenitnt to introduce the ufe of eyelet,- 
that is, a circulation of time between the i-eturn of the 
fame event. The cycle of the fun is the fpace of 28 years,, 
in which time the days of the months return again 
to the fame days of the week, and the fun's pla -e to the 
fame degreed ot liic ecliptic on the fame days, fo as not 
to ditTer 1° in loo years; aird the leap years return 
again in rcfpetl to the days of the week on which the 
days ot the month fall. Thefe things arife from hence : . 
If 365 (the days in a common year) be divided by 7, 
there remains 1, which fhows that the laft day of the 
year is the fame as the frrft, that is, if the Hrft be on the 
Monday the laft is on the Monday. Now it is cuftomaiy 
to plac<; againft the feven days of the week, the firft 
fcven lettci-s of the alphabet. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, pla- 
cing A always againlt the iirft day of the year and . 
therefore as they were contiiured tlirough the year, the 
fame letter A muftdand agiiinll the lait day. Kcnce, , 
if the_/r/? of January be a Sunday, and A ttands ag^inil 
it, A points out every Sunday in the year. But as the 

firit- 



• A3 the year »8oo was-a common year, ihtre is now iz days difference between the ntw and M ftile. 



xlviil 



INTRODUCTION. 



firfl day of the next year is a Monthly, agaiiifl wUicli A 
ftaiids, G will Hand a^iiiill. the liiil Sunday, and there- 
fore againft every Sunday in that year. For tlie fame 
reafon, the fnft day of the next year is Tuefday, ^n& 
being marked with A, F will ftand agaiuft every Sun- 
day in tlie year, and fo on. Therefore the Sur.ddy 
I't/ers will come on in an inverted order, A, G, F, E, 
U, C, B, in the fucceffive years ; hence, thefe are called 
dominical Icltevs. This would be the cafe, if there were 
no leap year or years, of 366 days; when this hap- 
pens, the additional day thus taken is marked with the 
fame letter, which necefl'arily throws the Sunday letter 
one letter back for the rell: of the year. Hence, in leap 
year there are two dominicnl letters, the firft takes place 
before February 29, the fecond after. As theiefoie the 
regular change of the Sunday letter which would be 
completed in 7 years, is thus interrupted every four 
yt«rs, the whole change will be completed in 7 X 4, or 
2y years. But this will be fometimes interrupted, be- 
caufe every three centenary years out of four, are not 
leap years. The year of our Saviour's birth was Mie 
9th of this cycle ; therefore to find the year of this 
cycle, add nine to the given year, and divide the fum by 
28, and the quotient fhows the number of cycles elapf 
ed fmce his birlh, and the remainder is the cycle for 
the year; if nothing remains, the cycle is 28. 

233. The cycle of the moon, fometimes called the Me- 
tonic cycle from the inventor Meton, is a period of 19 
years, in which times, the conjunftions, oppofitions, and 
all other afpefts of the moon, return on the fame days of 
the month as they did 19 years before, but about \\, 
hour fooner. The ancients formed this cycle thus : 
Taking any year for the cycle, they obferved all the 
days on which the new moon happened through the 
} ear, and againft each fuch day thty placed the num- 
ber I ; in the fecond year of the cycle they did the 
fame, placing the number 2 ; and proceeded in like 
manner through the cycle of 19 years. This being done 
for one cvclc, the fame numbers were fitted to the ca- 
lendar to {how the new moons in every future cycle ; 
and on account of their great life, they were written in 
?old, and thence called golden numbers. But the differ- 
cnce of about I j hour in 1 9 years mcreafes to a whole 
day in about 312 years, fo that this cycle can only hold 
for that time: for as the new and full moons antici- 
pate a day in tliat time, the golden numbers ought to 
be placed one day earlier in the calendar for the next 
312 years. It was thought proper, however, to make 
this correcllon at the end of whole centuries ; accord- 
ingly they put the new moon forward one day at tlie end 
of every 300 years, for feven times fucceffively, which 
makes 2100 years; and to account for the odd 12 j 
year.'., they deferred putting the moon forward to the 
end of 400 years, making tlie period of 8x312;=: 
2500 years. The golden numbers were properly placed 
by the council of jV/tr, A. D. 32J ; the aiiticipatior, 
which has been ncglefted ever fince, is now become al- 
molt 5 days, and therefore all the golden numbers ought 
no\>- to be placed 5 days higher in the calendar for the 
7 



old Jlik, than they were at the above-mentioned council; 
or 6 days lower for t\\t nczujlile. But bcciufe the lunar 
cycle ot 19 years fometimes includes 4 and fometimes 5 
leap years, it is impoffible to have a correft table of all 
the numbers, unlels iv be extended to 4 X 19, or 76 years. 
And in this cafe it mull be adapted to the oldjlile, be- 
caufe in every centenary year not divifible by 4, the re- 
gular courfe of the leap year is interrupted in the new 
Jlile. The year of our Saviour's birth was the iirft year 
of the lunar circle ; hence, to find at any time the cycle 
fur the year, add one to the given year of Christ, and 
divide the fum by 19, and the quotient is the number of 
cycles fince the time of Christ, and the remainder is 
the cycle for the given year, or the go/dcii number, and 
if nothing remain, 19 is the cycle, 

234. The epacl Is the moon's age in days, at the be- 
ginning of the year. Let a new moon happen on Janu- 
ary the I ft, then the epaft is nothing. Now as 12 
lunations are completed in 354 days, it is plain that the 
epaft, or moon's age, would be 11 at the beginning of 
the fecond year ; 22 at the beginning of the third year ; 
and 33 at the beginning of fUe fourth : but as one luna- 
tion is never more than 29^ days, the epaft muil always 
be lefs than 30 ; therefore fubtrafting 30 from 33, there 
remains 3 for the epaft for the fourth yc^r. And by pro- 
ceeding thus for 19 years, the epafts will ftand thus : O, 
II, 22, 3, 14, 25, 6, 17, 28, 9, 20, I, 12, 23, 4, 15, 
26, 7, 18, o; in the nineteenth year, the difference 
amounts to 29 days, and therefore themonth which isfub- 
traeled muflconfiilonly of 29 days, in order that the epadl 
may begin again, as it mull, the new moon falling on 
Januai-y lil. Thefe epafts being placed againft the 
days of the months in the calendar, on which the new 
moons fall in each year, anfwer the fame pnrpofe as the 
golden numbers. But it is liable to be interrupted every 3 10 
yearo, for the fame reafon, the moon having then antici- 
pated a whole day, and therefore on the firll year of the 
cycle, tiie moon would be one day old on the firft of 
January ; therefore the epaft would be increafed by I, 
and ftand thus: I, 12,23,4, &c. But this arrange- 
ment would be interrupted by the omiflion of the leap 
year, every three centuries out of 4 ; for thefe years 
being a day lefs than by the jfutinn account, the new 
moons would happen a day lalcr, and therefore make 
tlie epaft 1 lefs. The moon's age here fuppofecLis the 
mean new moon, that is, the new moon that would hap- 
pen, if the moon moved uniformly with its mean veloci- 
ty ; but as the moon's motion is variable, the true new 
moon happens at a different time, and may fometimes 
differ a day, that is, one may fall in one day, and the 
other iu the next day. According to the lule there- 
fore by which we find Eafter, that feftival is not always 
found to agree with the time deduced from the new 
moon, as put down in our silmanacs, for there the time 
of the true new moon is put down; whereas, in the 
rule for finding Eafter, the me.in new moon is ufed. In 
the correftion of the Britilh caleiidar, we ufe the golden 
numbers, ommitting the epafts ; and have placed the 
golden numbers, not ajjaiiift the days of the new moon, 

but 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlix 



but of tlie full moon, and only againft the full moons in 
the pafchal month-s March and April, in order to find 
Eafter. 

235. The IndiS'wn is a cycle of 15 years, and was 
ufed by the Romans for indicating the limes of certain 
payments, made by the fubjefti to the republic, and was 
eftahliflied by Constantine in the year 3IZ. Why it 
was confined to 15 years, or on what occafion it was 
inftituted, are not known. If we fubtrad 312 from the 
given year, and divide the remainder by 15, what re- 
mains is the indiflion for the given year ; and if nothing 
remain, the indiiftion is 15. 

236. The Cycle of Eajler, called the Dionyfum Period, 
is the produft of thejo/ar and /urinr circles of 2S and 19 
years — 532 years. If the new moons did not anticipate 
upon this circle, as in art. 233, Eajier-day would al- 
ways be the Sunday next after the firlt full moon which 
follows March 21 . But on account of that anticipation 
before the alteration of the ftile, the Eccltfiaflual Eajler 
happened, within this century, a week different from the 
true Eaf.er. But this is now remedied in the Common 
Prayer Bool:, by making the table, which nfed to find 
Eajler for ever, of no longer ufe than the lunar diffeieuce 
will admit of. 

237. The earliejl Eafter is March 22, and the lalejl is 
April 25 ; for Eajler Sunday is always the firil Sunday 
after the full moon, which happens upon or next after 
March 2 1 ft. Within thefe limits there are 35 days, 
and the number belonging to each is called the number 
cfdireS'wn. 

On the Nature and Ufe of Maps. 

238. A map is the reprefentation of the furface of 
the earth upon a plane ; and thefe are either general 
or parlicuhir. A general map, is a map of the whole 
earth, and this is reprefented in two circles touching 
each other, reprefenting two hemifpheies of the earth, 
the boundaries of which are meridians. A particular 
map, is a map of only apart of the furface of the earth, as 
ef one f the quarters of the world, or of any particular 
country. The laying down of thefe maps is called /ir<3- 

jeH'ion, of which there are feveral kinds. 
■ 239. In .maps, tiirce principal things are rcquiied. 
ift. To ftiow the latitude and longitude of places ; and 
this is done by drawing a certain number of meridians, 
and parallels of latitude. 2d. The fecond requifite is, 
to exhibit, as nearly as you can, the fhape of all the 
countries, for it cannot be done accurately by any pro- 
jeftion, on acco\uit ol its being made on a plane, wliei;, 
the earth is globular. 3d. The third is, to (how 
the bearings of places from each other, and their dif- 
tances; the former can be done in one projeftion, but 
the latter cannot. 

240. The projeftion of maps is made according to the 
rules of peri'pcAive. If the eye be fuppolcd to view the 
earth from an infinite diftance, the appearance rcprelent- 
ed upon a plane is called an orthographic projcftion. In 
this cafe, the parts about the middle are very well repre- 
fented, but the extreme parts are vcrj- much contraftcd. 

VOL. I. 



But the method generally made iifc of by geographers 
for maps, is the Jlereogr.iphic, where the lye is fuppofed 
to be on the furface of the earth, and looking at the op- 
pofite hemifpherc. There is alfo a projeilion called 
globular, in which meridians, equiJiftant upon the fur- 
nace of the earth, are reprefented by equidiftant circles in 
the map. There is alio another projeftion, ufed by na- 
vigators, called Mercator's, in which, both the meridian* 
and parallels of latitude are reprefented by flraight lines. 
Thefe are calledyra chnrts, wherein are exhibited fomc 
part of the fea, with tlie fiiores that bciund it : the in- 
lands are generally omitted, as being of no ufe to the 
failor ; but the parts near the Oiore are carefully laid 
down, with marks fignifying rocks, fands, or flats, and 
figures exprefling the foundings, or depths of the water. 
The accurate method of conftruiSting all kinds of maps, 
may be feen in the Treat ife of Aftronomy before refen-ed to. 

241. When we are to delineate a map of a/jra//part 
of the earth, if it be near the equator the meridians and 
parallels of latitude may be reprefented by equidiftant 
ftraight lines. If at fonie diftar.ce from the equator, the 
meridians muft then be made to converge a little, and 
the more fo, the further you recedt from the equator. 

242. When a map is made of a very fmall di/lrid, as of 
a county, on whatever part of the earth it is, the me- 
ridians and parallels of latitude may be reprefented by 
equidiftant parallel lines. 

243. A line which cuts all the meridians at the fame 
angle, is called a rhumb line ; as long therefore as a ftiip 
fails upon the fame rhumb, it fails upon the fame point 
of the compafs. When the projeftion of the meridians 
is by circles, then the rhumb line is a curve ; but when ' 
the meridians are reprefented by ftraight and parallel 
lines, the rhumb becomes a ftraight line, it being the 
property of a ftiaight line to cut parallel ftraight lines in 
the fame angle. 

244. Hence the great ufe of .^/I'rca/or's Chart, which is 
conftrutted upon this principle. Upon the earth's fur- 
face, the degrees of latitude are all equal, but the 
degrees of longitude decreafe as you approach the poles, 
as we have explained in art. 10. Now in this projeftion, 
the meridians being equidiftant ftraight lines, the de- 
grees of longitude muft be every where equal ; in order 
therefore to preferve the proper proportion between the 
degrees ef longitude and latitude, the degrees of lati- 
tude are increafcd in a proper proportion ; the degrees 
of latitude therefore increafe as you go from the equa- 
tor to the pole. Now in failing from one place to an- 
other, the ftiorteft way is to fail upon a great circle, 
but that is a thing which is impracticable, there being 
nothing to diredt you in fuch a courfe. Navigators 
therefore, when they have to go from one place A to 
another B, find upon what rhumb they muft fail, that is, 
upon what point of the compafs they muft go, fo as to 
come to B, and by their fteering compafs they can tell 
when they lall on the fame point. Now on Mercalor's 
projeftion, if you draw a ftraight line fiom A to B, it 
gives you the rhun)b required ; for in thefe maps, there 
is a point affumed, and from it there are drawn 32 

b ftraight 



1 



INTRODUCTION. 



ftra'ght lines to the 32 points of the compafs; when 
therefore you draw the ftiaiglit hue from A to B, you 
mud obferve to which of the 32 lines it is parallel, or to 
which it is ncareft fo, and you thus get the rhumb, or 
the point of the compafs you mull continue to fail up- 
on, in oidir to go from A to B. For iuilaiice, if you 
find the hne AB is parallel to the foutir-wclt line of the 
compafs, then if you continue to fail on the fouth-wed 
point, you muft come to B. 

245. In all maps, the upper part is northern, the 
lower part fouthern, the right hand fide is eallcru, and 
the left hand fide is wellcrn. On the riglit andlett fides, 
the degrees of Litltude are marked ; and on the top and 
bottom, the degrees ai longitude are marked. When the 
maps are very large,' the degrees may be fubdivided into 
halves, quarters, &c. 

246. When the meridians and parallels of latitude are 
Jlraight and parallel lines, the latitude of a place in found 

by ftietching a thread over the place, fo that it may cut 
■ditfame degree of latitude on the right and left fide of 
the map, and that degree is the latitude of the place. 
And to find \.\\'i longitude, ftretch a thread over the place, 
fo that it may cut ^e. fame degree of longitude on the 
top and bottom, and that degree is the longitude of the 
place. For inilance, if we take the chart of the Fall 
India illands, and ftretch a ilring over &am, we fhall 
find that it will cut each fide at 14° N. lat. and the top 
and bottom at 10°. lo'E. long. Thefe therefore are 
the latitude and longitude of that place. 

247. On the contraiy, if the latitude and longitude 
of a place be given to find the place, ftretch one thread 
over the given degree of latitude on each fide, and an- 
other thread over the given degree of longitude at 
the top and bottom; and at the interfedion of the 
threads is the place required. By this means you may 
put down in a map, any place whofe latitude and longi- 
tude are known. 

1.48. Now let the meridians and parallels of latitude 
be curve lines. Then to find the lattude of a place, a 
parallel of latitude muft be drawn through it, by the 
lame rules as the other parallels are drawn, and it cuts 
the fides at tlie degree of latitude of the place. And to 
find the longitude, of the place, draw a circle of longitude 
through it, by the fame rules as the other circles are 
drawn, and it cuts the top and bottom at the degree of 
longitude of the place. But as it is troubleiome to 
draw thefe circles, the following method may generally 
be fufhcicntly accurate. To find the latitude, rind by a 
pair of compafles and a^fcale of equal pa is, how far the 
place is from the two parallels between which it lies, and 
divide the diftancc of the parallels in that proportion, 
and you get very nearly the latitude. Suppofc, for in- 
ilance, the diftance between tlie parallels to be 5'', and 
that one is a parallel of 45", and the other of 50° ; and 
fuppofe the place to be within 3 parts of the parallel of 
45% and 7 parts of the parallel of 50° ; then 5° muft be 
divided into 10 parts, and 3 of thofe parts muft be 
added to 45", and it gives the latitude. This is done 



by proportion, thus, 3 + 7. or 10: 3 :: 5°; 3 X;'*_ 



ii-=: [4-° ; therefore the latitude is 461" nearly. In the 

10 

verv fame manner you may find the longitude nearly. 

2J9. On the contrary, it the latitude and longitude 
of a place be given, to find the place, draw a circle of 
latitude thiough the gi-rn latitude on each fide, and a 
circle of longitude through the given longitude at the 
top and bottom, and their inttrfedlion denotes the 
place. Or as you know between what two parallels of 
latitude and of longitude the place is, you know by 
what four lines it is bounded ; and as you know the 
proportional diftance from each line, you may eafily, by 
trial, find the point. 

250. When we undertake a voyage, we ought to be 
acquainted with the iflands, rocks, fands, ftraits, rivers, 
&c. near which we are to fail ; the windings and the 
runnings out of the fiiores, &c. we (liould alfo know the 
figns of being near land, which arc, frequently, by the 
appearing of birds ; ihe floating of wt^ds upon the fea ; 
the depth and colour of the water. Moreover, we 
ftiould know the times when the winds fet in, particu- 
larly the trade winds or monfoons : the feafons when 
ftorms and hurricanes are to be expeCitd, and the figns of 
their approach ; the motions of currents ; but more 
efpecially of the tides. All thefe things are to be learned 
by good fea-charts, and journals of voyages. 

On the Mariner's Comfajs, 

251. The earth pofleffes a ferruginous fubftancc 
which has the property of attrafting iron and Seel only, 
and this fubftance is called a natural magnet, or ioadjlcne. 
The fame property may, alfo be communicated to iron 
and ftcel, and rhefe are called artificial magnets. 

252. If apiece of wire, or a needle be rendered mag- 
netic, and be iulpended upon a fine point at its middle, 
fo that it can freely tuin in an horizontal plane, one end, 
will always be directed towards tiie northern part of the 
horizon, and the other towards the fouthern. The 
former end is called the north pole, and che latter end the 

fouth pole. Thefe poles are not direfted to the north 
and fouth poles of the earth, but vary confiderably from 
them, and differently in different places, and this is cal- 
led the variation of tlie compafs; and even in the fame- 
place, they are fubjeft to a very fmall gradual variation.. 
The direftion in which the magnet ftaiids, is called the 
magnetic meridian. 

253. The mariner's compcifs, or, as it is called, the 
compafs, thejkiring compafs, or the needle, confifts of three- 
parts, the box, the card or fly, and the needle The 
card is a circle of liift' paper reprefenting the hori/ouj. 
\Yith the 32 points of the compafs marked upon it ; the 
magnetic needle is fixed to the under fide of this card ; 
the centre of the needle is perforated, and a cap with a 
conical agate at its top Is fixed in this perforation ; this, 
cap is hung on afteel pin, \Yhich is fixed to the bottom. 

of 



I N T R O D U C T I O N. 



li 



-of the box, fo that the card, hanging on the pin, turns 
freely round its centre, and the needle lies in the direc- 
tion of the N. and Sk points of the card, and therefore 
thefe points will always be direi^edto the magneiic north 
and fouth points of the horizon, the needle hxing itfclf 
in the magnetic meridian. The box which contains the 
card and needle, is a pircular brafs box, hung within an- 
other box by two cinccntric ringSj called jimbals, fo 
fixed by crofs centres to the two boxes, that the inner 
one /liall retain a horizontal fituation in all the motions 
of the (hip. The top of the inner box has a cover of 
glafs, to prevent the card from being difturbed by the 
wind. 



254. In order to determine the tnic point of the 
compafson which a Ihip fails, it is ncceffary to know the 
■uariaiion of the compafe at the place w icre you are, on 
which account, every means have been ufed to d'^tetminCj 
by obfervation, what the variation is ; and tlicfe obfer- 
vations have been put down in good fea-charis, lor the 
ufe of navigators. Thcle however can fcrve but for a few 
years, on account of their being variable at the fame 
place ; nor has it been difcovered how much the varia- 
tion is fubjeft to vary. The following table funn Mr. 
Cavallo's Treatife on Magnetifm, contains the varia- 
tion at the places and times therein inferted, and upon 
many occafions may be found very ufeful. 



Latitude N. 


Longitude W. 


Variation E. 


Years. 


70^. 17' 


163°. 24- 


30°. 2 ,' 


1779 


69. 38 


164. 1 1 


31. 


1778 


66. 36 


167. 55 


27. 50 




65- 43 


»7e. 34 


27. 58 




63. s8 


165. 48 


26. 25 




59- 39 


149. 8 


22. 54 




58. 14 


139. 19 


24. 40 




5j. 12 


135- 


23. 29 




53- 37 


>34- 53 


20. 32 




50. 8 


4. 40 


Variation W. 




48. 4+ 


5. 


20. 36 


1776 


40. 41 


II. 10 


22. 38 




33- 45 


14. 50 


22. 27 




31. 8 


15- 30 


18. 7 




28. 30 


17. 


I?' 43 




33- 54 


18. 20 


14. 

15. 4 




20°. 30' 


20". 3' 


'4°. 35' 




19- 45 


20. 39 


13- 11 




16. 37 


22. 50 


'0- 33 




ij. 25 


23- 36 


9. 15 




13- 32 


23- 45 


9. 25 




12. 21 


23- 5+ 


9. 48 




tl. 51 


24. 5 


S. 19 




8. 55 


22. 50 


8. 58 




6. 29 


20. 5 


9. 44 




4. 23 


21. 2 


9. I 




3- 45 


22. 34 


8. 27 




2. 40 


24. 10 


7. 42 




1. 14 


26. 2 


5- 35 




0. 51 


27. 10 


4- 59 




0. 7 


27. .0 


4. 27 




Latitude S. 








I. I 3 


28. 58 


3- 12 





Latitude 



INTRODUCTION. 



Latitude S. 


Longitude W. 


Variation W. 


Years. 


2° 48' 


29° 37' 


2". 52' 


1776 


3- 37 


30. 14 


2. 14 




4. 22 


30. 29 


2. 54 




5. 


31. 40 


I. 26 




6. 


32. 50 


0. 6 

Variation E. 




6. 45 


33- 30 


0. 35 
Variation W. 




7- ^ 


34. 20 


0. 7 




^- 43 


34. 20 


Variation E. 




9. I 


34. 50 


0. 44 
Variation W. 




10'. 4' 


34. 49 


0-. . 38' 
Variation E. 




12. 40 


34- 49 


I. 12 




'3- 23 


34- 49 


I. I 




14. II 


34- 49 


I. 9 




15- 33 


34- 40 


I. 15 




!6. 12 


35. 20 


2. 4 




i8. 30 


35- 5^ 


3- 2 




20. 8 


36. I 


5. 26 




21- 37 


36- 9 


3- 24 




24. 17 


36. 15 


3- 24 




26. 47 


34- 27 


3- 44 




28. 19 


32. 20 


I. 58 




30. 25 


26. 28 


2. . 37 
Variation W, 




33- 43 


16. 30 


4- 44 




35- 37 


9- 30 


5- 51 




38. 52 


23. 20 


22. 12 






Longitude E. 


Variation E. 




40. 36 


173- 34 


13- 47 




42. 4 


167. 3J 


13- . »7 
Variation W. 




44. 52 


155- 47 


9. 28 




46. 15 


144. 50 


14. 48 




48. 41 


69. 10 


27- 39 





Varietlon 



INTRODUCTION. 



HU 



Variation ohferved at London at different 
Times. 



Years. 


Variation 


1576 


11°. 15' ^ 




1580 


II 


■ II 




1612 


6 


to 




1622 


6 





.Eaft. 


1633 


4 


5 




'634 


4 


5 




1657 










1665 


I 


22i] 




1666 


I 


35h 




1672 


2 


30 




1683 


4 


30 




1692 


6 







1700 


8 







17*7 


10 


42 




17*4 


II 


45 




1725 


II. 


56 >.Weft.' 


1730 


13 







1735 


14. 


16 




1740 


15 


40 




1745 


16 


53 




1750 


17 


54 




1760 


19 


12 




1765 


23 







1770 


20 


35 




1774 


21 


3 




'775 


21 


30 J 





255* The prefent variation at London is about 24°, 
and is increafmg. The change of variation is not fuf- 
iiciently regular, fo as to be able to afcertain at any fu- 
ture time, what the variation will be. 

256. The magnet is fubjeft to 3 iLvly variation, which 
is affefted by heat and cold, as appears by the following 
cbfervations, made by Mr. Canton. 

7'he Variation objerved at different Hours of the 

fame Day, July ly, 1759. 





Hour. Min. 


Variation W. 


Thermo. 







18 


1 S°. 2' 


62 




6 


4 


18. 58 


62 


Mominff i 


8 


30 


18: 55 


(>s 


to 1 


9 


2 


18. 54 


67 




10 


20 


18. 57 


69 




11 


40 


19. 4 


68 ■- 







5c 


19. 9 


70 




I 


3« 


19. 8 


70 


Afternoon < 


3 


10 


J9. 8 


68 




7 


20 


18. 59 


61 




9 


12 


19. 6 


59 




- II 


40 


18. 51 


571 



7'- 


8" 


8. 


58 


11. 


17 


12. 


26 


13- 





i.V 


21 


13- 


>4 


12. 


19 


ti. 


43 


10. 


36 


8. 


9 


6. 


5« 



ri*^ «7f<7» Variation for each Month in the 
Tear. 

Januaty 

February 

March • - - 

April - - - 

May - - - 

June • ■ - ' 

July 

Auguft - . - 

September 

Oftober 

November 

December 

By this table it appears, that the variation of the 
needle is greatell in fummcr, and lead in winter. 

257.. Dr. Halley firft publifhed fome variation 
charts, from cbfervations made at the beginning of the 
prefent century. Another chart was afterwards formed 
by MouNTAiNE and Dodson, upon cbfervations made 
in 1756. Thefe charts are thus conftrufted. On a 
general map of the world, mark down with dots, all the 
places in v.'hicb the variation is the farac, and then draw 
a line through all thefe points : thus, mark down with 
dots, every place which has 20° eaft variation, and draw 
a line through all thefe dots, and ypu get the line of 20° 
eaft variation. Where the dots are at a confiderable 
diftance, you muft fill the fpace up with a line which 
fecms moft to accord with the tendency of the line on 
each fide. In Dr. Halley's chart, the line of no va- 
riation ciofles the meridian oi London y at about the 55° 
of fouth latitude; it then proceeds in an arched manner 
towards the weft of the faid meridian, and increafing its 
curvature as it advances into the northern hemilphere* 
terminates at Charles Town in North jl7nerica. In the 
Indian fea, the lines of variation are very irregular. 

258. The method of finding by the compafs, the Ji- 
reftion in which a fhip (ails, is this : the compafs is fuf- 
pended in the cabin, and you look liorizontally over the 
compafs in the direftion of the fhip's wake, by which 
you fee the point of the compafs denoting the direftion 
of the wake, the oppofite point to which, is the point to 
which you are failing, according to the compafs ; and 
knoviiiig how much the compals varies, you can tell the 
true point of the horizon to which you are going. 

259. If a magnet be fulpended by an horizontal axis, 
fo that it can freely move in a vertical plane, it v.lll not 
ftand in an horizontal pofition, although the two ends 
be accurately balanced, but the north end of the magnet, 
in this part of the world, will incline towards the hori- 
zon, ox dip, as it is called, and of courfe the fouth pole 
will be elevated. An inftrunient thus con rufted is 
called a dipping needle. As you approach the fouthern 
parts of the earth, the dip will diminifh, and at length 
the magnet will become horizontal ; and proeeeding 

more 



liT 



I N; T R O, D U C T I O N. 



aiiore fontherly, the fouth -end will dip. The following By the dip, we mean the angle^vliich the magnet mjkei 
table fliows the dip at the places and times there noted, with the horizon. 



Latitude- N. 


Longitude E. 


North End Dips. 


Years. 




53^ 55' 


193"- 39' 


69'. i 10' 


1778 




49- 36 


233. 10 
Longitude W. 


72. ■ 29 


1776 




44- 5. 


8. 10 


71. 34 






. 3«' 53 


12. I 


70. 30 






34-_ 57 


14. 8 


66. 12 






29. i8 


J 6. 7 


62. 17 






24. 24 


18. 11 


59. 






20. 47 


19. 36 


56. i; 






15. 8 


23- 3« 


51. 






12. I 


23- 35 


48. 26 






10. 


22. 52 


44. 12 


.. 




5: * 


20. lo 


37- 25 




( 


Latitude S. 






'■" ' 


1 


o- 3 


27. 38 


30 3 






4. 40 


3°- 34 


22. 15 






7- 3 


33- " 


17- 57 






n. 25 


34- 2+ 
Longitude E. 


9. ly 

South End Dips. 






16. 4S 


208. 12 


29. 28 






19. 28 


204. I i 


41. 






21. 8 


J 85- 


39- I 


1777 




35- 55 


18. 20 


45- 37 


1774 




41. 5 


'74- 13 


63- 49 


1777 




45- 47 


166. 18 


70. 5 


1773 





260. In the fame place, the dip is fubje£l to a varia- 
tion ; it is now about 72° at London, and from the moft 
accurate obfervations on the dipping needle belonging 
to the Royal Society, it appears to diminifti about 15' 
in 4 years. In going from north to fouth, the dip does 
not alter regularly. As it is extremely difBcult to ba- 
lance the needle accurately, the poles of the needle are 
generally reverftd by a magnet, fo that its two ends may 
dip alternately, and the mean of the two dips is taken. 

261. A bar of iron which Hands for fome time in a 
vertical pofition, will acquire a degree of magnetifm ; 
from which, and die pha-nomena of the compajs and 
d'lpping needle, there can be no doubt but that the caufe 
txiiU in the earth. Dr. Hax-liy fuppoled that ti:e 
earth has within it a huge magnetic globe (not fixed 
within to the external parts), having four magnetic 
poles, two fixed and two moveable, which will account 
for all the phasnomena. Thij would make the variation 
fubjcft to a conftant law ; whereas we find calual 
changes which cannot be accounted for upon this hy- 
pothefis. This the Doftor fuppofes may arife from an 
unequal and irregular dillribution of the magnetic mat- 
ler. Tlie dillribution alio of the ferruginous matter in 
the fliell, may caufe fome irregularities. The Aurora 
Bpnalh has been obfervcd to have an eifedt upon the 



titedle ; and it is a remarkable circumdance, that the 
magnetic meridian isdirefted to the centre of the aurora 
borealis. Mr. Dalton, in his Meteorological Obferva^- 
t'lons and EJfays, has deduced the following conclufioris 
from his obfervations. ift, When the aurora appears 
to rife only about 5', 10% or 15°, above the horizon, 
the difturbance of needle is very little, and often infen- 
fible. 2d, When it rifes up to the zenith, and pafles 
it, there never fails to be a confiderable difturbance. 3d, 
This difturbance conCfts in an irregular ofciUation of the 
horizontal needle, to the eaftward and weftward of the 
mean dally pofition ; and in this place (Kendal) the 
excurfions on each fide are about half a degree. 4th, 
When the aurora ceafes, or foon after, the needle returns 
to its former ftatlon. It appears from hence, that there 
is fomething magnetic in the higher parts of the atmb- 
fphere. 

262. Mr. Dalton has alfo given us the following 
obfervations refpecling the effedls which the aurora bo- 
re<dis has on the vseather. Since the fpring of 1787, 
there have been 227 aurora obfcrved at Kendal and Kef- 
iv'ich; 83 of the next fucceeding days were wf/, and 
139 fair, at Kendal, now in the account of rain, the 
mean yearly number of luet days is 217, and o^ fair days 
148; hence, the chances of any one day, taken at ran- 
dom. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Iv 



dorr, being itjct or fair, are as thofe numbers. But it 
appears that tlie proportion offiiir days to wet ones fuc- 
cceding the aurorx, is much greater than this general 
ratio oi ftiir days to wd ones ; the inference therefore is, 
that the appearance of the aurora borea'is 13 a prognofti- 
cation aifc'ir weather. 

263. It may perhaps be here ohjefteJ, that as tlie 
aurora can only be fccn in a clear atmofphere, this cir- 
cumftance alone would render it probable that the next 
day would be fair ; but upon examining the obfcrvations, 
it appears that the aurora not only favours the next day, 
but it alfo indicates that a feries of days to th^ number 
of 10 or 12 are likely to be fair. 

Of 227 obfervations, 139 were followed by I or more 
fair days, ico by 2 or more, &c. as under: 

I 2 3456789101112 
139 100 69 52 38 30 21 16 10 6 2 I 

But according to the laws of chance, the feries ought 
to have been, if the aurora had no influence, as under: 

123456 
92 3S 15 6 2 I 

From which it appears, that there fhould not have 
been above 1 aurora out of 227 followed by 6 fair days ; 
and yet, in fad., there were 30. The aurora is more 
frequently followed by fair weather in fummer than in 
winter. 

On Winds. 

264. Wind is a current of air, and its direftion is de- 
nominated from that point of the compafsyrom which it 
eomes. The principal, if not the only caufe of wnids, 
is a partial rarefaftion of the air by heat. When the 
air is heated, it becomes rarer, and therefore afcends ; and 
the furroiuiding cold air rufliing in to fupply its place, 
forms a current in fome one direftion. A^^inds may be 
divided into coii/lant, or thofe wliich blow always in the 
fame direftion ; periodical, or thofe which blow half a 
year in one direction, and half a year in a contrary di- 
rection ; thefe aie CaWsd monfoons ; -CinA variable, which 
are fubjedl to no rules. The two former are alfo called 
trade winds. We fhall here give the principal phasno- 
mena of the winds, from Dr. Halle v's account thereof 
in the Phil. Tranf 

ift. In the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, under the equa- 
tor there is a conftant eafl wind. 

zd. To about 28° on each fide of the equator, the 
wind on the north fide declines towards the north eajl, 
and the more fo, the further you recede from the equa- 
tor ; and on ihtfouth fide it declines in like manner to- 
wards the fouth eafl. The limits of thefe winds are great- 
er in the Atlantic Ocean, on tlie American, than on the 
African fide, extending in the former cafe to about 32°, 
and in the latter to about ^'6'. And this is true likewife 
to the fouthward of the equinoflial ; for near the Cape 
of Good Hope, the limits of the trade v/inds are 3* or 4" 
cearer the line than en the cojft of Brafil, 



3d, Towards the Carlhlee IJlands, the aforefaid north- 
Call wind becomes more eallerly, fo as fomttimes to be 
ead, and iometiines eafl by fouth, but moil northwards 
ot the ead, a point or two. 

4th, On tile coaft of Africa, from the Canaries to 
ab«ut 10* N. latitude, the wind fets in towards the 
north eaft ; then it becomes fouth weft, approaching 
more to the fouth, as you approach the Cape. But 
away from the coafts, the winds are perpetually between 
the fouth and the eall ; on the African fide they are 
more foutherly ; on the Brafillan, more eatlerly, fo as 
to become almoil due eaft. Upon the coaft oi Guinea, 
they are fubjeft to frequent calms, and violent Hidden 
gufts, called /orn.Woj-, from all points of the compafs. 

5th, In the Indian Ocean, the winds are partly con- 
Jiant, and partly periodical. Between Madagafcar and 
New Holland, from 1 0° to 30° latitude, the wind blows 
fouth-eaft by eaft. During the months of May, yune,. 
July, Augujl, i>eptembcr, October, the aforefaid fouth-ealt . 
winds extend to within 2'' of the equator ; then for the 
other fix months, the contrary' winds fet in, and blow 
from 3' to 10^ S. latitude, From 3° fouth latitude 
over tlie Arabian and Indian feas and Bay of Bengal, 
from Sumatra to the coaft; of Africa, there is another 
monfoon, blowing from Oitober to April on the north-eaft. 
point, and in the other half year from the oppofite 
direftion. Between Madagafcar and Africa, a fouth 
fouth-weft wind blows from April to QBober, which, as 
you go more northerly, becomes more wellerly, till it 
falls in with the well-fouth-weft winds ; but the Doftor 
could not obtain a fatisfaclory account, how the windi 
are in the ether half year. To the eaftward of Sumatra 
and Malacca, on the north fide of the equator along the 
coaft of Cambodia and China, the monfoons blow, and 
change at the fame time as before mentioned ; but their 
directions are more northerly and foutherly. Thefe winds 
reach to the Philippine IfJands and to Japan. Between 
the fame meridians, on the fouth fide of the equator, 
from Sumatra to Neiv Guinea, the fame monfoons arc 
oblcrved. The fhifting of Lhefe winds is attended with 
great hurricanes. 

265. The eaft: wind about the equator is thus ex- 
plained. The fun moving from eall to weft, the point 
of greateft rarefadrlon of the air, by the heat of the fun, 
muft move in the fame diredllon ; and the point of great- 
eft rarefadlioH following the fun, the ait muft continual- 
ly rufh in from the eaft, and make a conftant eaft wind. 

266. The conftant north-eaft wind onthe north fide of 
the equator,and fonth-eall wind on tiie fouth fide, may be 
thus accounted for. The air towards the poles being den- 
ferthan that at the equator, will continually rufti towards 
the equator ; but as the velocity of diflerent parts of the 
earth's furface from its rotation, increafes as you ap- 
proach the equator, the air which is ruftiing from the 
north towards the equator will not continue upon the 
fame meridian, but it will be left behind ; that is, in re-- 
fpeft to the earth's furface, it will have a motion from 
the eafl, ar.d tlitfe two motions combined, produce a 

north. 



Ivi 



INTRODUCTION. 



fiorth eaft wind on the north fide of the equator. And 
in h'ke manner, there muft be a foutheaft wind on the 
fouth fide. The air which is thus continually moving 
from the poles towards the equator, being rarefied when 
it comes there, afcends to the top of the atmofphere, 
and then returns back to the poles. This folution is 
given by Mr. Hadley in the Phil. Tranf. vol. 39. 

267. The periodical winds are fuppofed to be owing 
to the courie of the inn northward and fouthward of the 
equator. Dr. Halll-y explains them thus: "feeing 
that fo great Continents do interpofc and break the con- 
tinuity of the Ocean, regard mull be had to the nature 
of the foil, and the poiition of the high mountains, 
which I fuppoi'e the two principal caufes of the fcveral 
variations of the winds from the general rule : for if a 
country lying near the fun prove, to be flat, fandy, low- 
land, fuch as the Defarts of Libya are ufually reported to 
be, the heat occafioned by the reflexion of the fun's 
beams, and the retention thereof in the fand, is incre- 
dible to thole that have never felt it ; whereby the air 
being exceedingly rarefied, it is necelTary that the cooler 
and more denfeair (hould run thitherward to rellore the 
equilibrium. This I take to be the caufe, why near 
the coaft of Giiinta,- the wind always lets in upon the 
land,_ blowing wellerly inftead of eallerly, there being 
fiifficient rcafon to believe, that the inland parts u'i ylfrica 
are prodigioully hot, fince the northern borders thereof 
were lo intemperate, as to give tlie ancients caufe to con- 
clude, that all beyond the tropic was made uninhabitable 
by excefs of heat. From the fame caufe it happens, 
that there are fo conilant calms in that part of the 
Ocean called the Rains. For this trad being placed in 
the middle, between the wellerly winds blowing on the 
coaft of Guinea, and the eallerly trade winds blowing to 
the wellwards thereof, the tendency of the air liere is in- 
different to either, and fo (lands in cquilibrio between 
both ; and the weight of the incumbent atmofphere 
being diminidied by the continual contrary winds blow- 
ing from hence, is the reafon that the air here holds not 
the copious vapours which it receives, but lets them fall 
in fo frequent rains. 

268. As the cold and denfe air, by reafon of its great- 
er gravity, preffes upon the hot and rarefied, 'tis dcmon- 
llrative that this latter mull afeend in a continual llream 
as fall as it is rarefied, and that being alcended. it mull 
difperfe itftlf to preferve the equilibrium, that is, by a 
contrary current, the upper air mufl move from thofe 
parts where the greateft heat is : fo by a kind of circu- 
lation, the N. E. trade wind below, will be attended 
with a S. W. above, and the S. E. below with a N. W. 
wind above. iVnd that this is more than a bare conjec- 
ture, the almoft inflantaneous change of the wind to the 
oppofite point, which Is frequently found in paffing the 
limits of the trade winds, feems to alfure us ; but that 
which above all confirms this hypothefis, is this, that the 
phasnomenon of the monfuons is, by this means, moll 
eafily folved, and without it, hardly explicable. Sup- 
pofing therefore fuch a circulation as above, 'tis to be 
eonfidered, that to thenoithward of the Indian Ocean 



there is every where land within the ufua! limits of the 
latitude of 30°, viz. Arabia, Perfia, India, &c. which 
for the fame reafon as the mediterranean parts of Africa, 
are fubjeft to unfuffei able heats when the fun is to the 
north, paffing nearly vertical, but yet are temperate 
enough when the fun is removed towards the other tro- 
pic, becaufe of a ridge of mountains at fome diftance 
within the land, faid to be frequently in winter covered 
with fnow, over which the air, as it paffes, mull needs 
be much chilled. Hence it comes to pafs, that the air 
coming, according to the general rule, out of the N. E. 
in the Indian Seas, is fometimes hotter, fometimes colder 
than that which, by this circulation, is returned out of 
S. W. as is clear from the times wherein thefe winds fet 
in, viz. in April, when the fun begins to warm thofe 
countries to the north, the S. W. monfoon begins, and 
blows during the heats till Odoler, when the fun being 
retired, and all things growing colder northward, and 
the heat increafing to the fouth, the N. E. winds enter 
anil blow all the winter till April again. 

269. And it is undoubtedly from the fame principle, 
that to the fouthward of the equator, in part of the 
Indian Ocean, the N. W. winds fucceed the S. E. when 
the fun draws near the tropic oi Capricorn. But I muft 
confefs, that in this latter occurs a difficulty not well to 
be accounted for, which is, why this change of the mon- 
foons Ihould be any more in this Ocean, than in the 
fame latitudes in the Elhioplc, where there is nothing 
more certain than a S. E. wiud all the year. 

270. 'Tis likewife very hard to conceive, why the 
limits of the trade winds ihould be fixed about the 30^* 
of latitude all round the globe, and that they fhould fo 
feldom tranfgrefs or fall Ihort of thofe bounds ; as alfo, 
that in the Indian Sea, only the northern part fliould be 
fubjeft to the changeable monfoons, and in the fouthern 
there fhould be a conftant S. E." 

271. There may perhaps be fome caufes of thefe pe- 
riodical winds, which we cannot fee altogether a folution 
of; but if all the circumftances of fituation, heat, cold, 
&c. were known, there is no reafon to doubt but that 
they might be accounted for from the principles here 
delivered. 

272. Winds over the fame place, at different altitudes, 
are found to blow in different diredlions ; for we fee 
clouds at different altitudes moving in different direc- 
tions ; and experiments with air balloons prove the 
fame. 

273. We may further obferve in refpeft to the direc- 
tion in which winds blow, that if a current fet off in any 
one direction, north call for inftance, and move in a 
great circle, it will not continue to move on that point of 
the compafs, becaufe a great circle will not meet all the 
meridians at the lame angle. This circumftance there- 
fore fhould enter into our confideration, in ellimating 
the direftion of the wind. High mountains are alio 
obferved to change its dirtdlion. On the lake of Geneva „ 
there are only two winds, that is, either up or down the I 
valley. And the like is known lo happen at other fuch ■ 
places. 

10 274. The 



INTRODUCTION'. 



IvS 



274. The eonjart and per'ioilkal winds blow only at 
iea ; at land, the wind is always variable. 

275. Befidcs the winds already mentioned, there are 
others called laud and fea brce'^es. Tlie air over the 
land being hotter during the day than the air over the 
fea, a cut rent of air will fct in from the fea to the land 
by day; but the air over the fea being hotter than that 
over the land at night, the current at night will be from 
the land to the fea. This is very remarkable in iflands 
fituatcd between the tropics. Mr. Clare exempliiiis 
this, by the following experiment : In tlie middle of a 
vefTel of water, place a water-plate of warm water, the 
water in the velTel reprefenting the ocean, and the plate, 
the idand rarefying tlie air over it. Then hold a lighted 
candle over the cold water, and blow it out, and the 
fmokc will move towards the plate. But if the plate be 
cold, and the furrounding fluid warm, the fmoke will 
move in the contrary direction. The fea breezes in the 
Weft Indies begin to appear about 9 in the morning, in 
a fine black curl upon the water, approaching the ihore ; 
it increafes gradually till noon, and dies away at 4 or 
5 in the afternoon. About 6 in the evening it changes 
to a land breeze, which blows from the land to the fea, 
and lafts till 8 in the morning. 

276. Dr. Derham, from repeated obfervations upon 
the motion of light downy feathers, found that the 
greateft velocity of the wind was not above 60 miles in 
an hour. But Mr. Br ice juftly obfervcs, that fuch 
experiments muft be fubje£l to great inaccuracy, as the 
feathers cannot proceed in a ftraight line ; he tiierefore 
eftimates the velocity by means of the fliadow of a cloud 
over the earth, by which lie found, that in a great ftorm, 
the wind moves 63 miles in an hour ; when it blows a 
fre(h gale, at the rate of 2 i miles in an hour ; and in a 
fmall breeze, at the rate of about 10 miles in an hour: 
but this method takes for granted that the clouds move as 
fait as the wind. It is probable that the velocity is fome- 
thing more than is here Itated. Mr. Rouse makes the 
velocity of a hurricane which tears up trees, See. to be 
ICO miles in an hour. 

277. Tliere are certain lakes which, at times, are agi- 
tated daring a calm feafon, by fome unknown caule ; 
and the pha;nomenon is called a bollom ■whul. Mr. D.il- 
TON, in his Meteorological Obfervaihns, informs us, chat 
Mr. Crost HWAiTE has been pretty affidiious in pro- 
curing intelligence refpetling thele phenomena, and in 
obferving any circumllances which might lead to a dlf- 
£oveiyofthe caufe ; but nothing has yet occurred to 
•him, that promifes to threw any light upon the f.'bjed. 

. Obfervations made en Derwent Lake. 

1789. 

April -o. From 8 A. ?>I. till noon, the lake pretty 
■much agi'atcJ. 

Augult 9. Ax. 8 A. M. the lake in very great agita- 
■tion ; white breakers on large waves, &c. without wind. 

Auguft 29. At 9 A. M. a fraall bcttora wind. 

•VOL. «. 



1790. 

Jimc 20. At 8 P. M a bottom wind on the lake. 

Odlober I !. At 8 P. M a botton\ wind on the lake. 

December I. At 9 P. M. a ilroiig bottom wind on 
the lake. 

1797. 

October 28. At I P. M. a bottom wind; the water 
much agitated. 

27R. In many parts of the world, more particularly in 
the IVefl Indies, they are attacked by hurricanes ; thefe 
happen there in the rainy feafon, principally in the 
month of Auguft; deftroying all the produce of the 
ground ; tearing up trees ; blowing down buddings ; 
and inundating large trafts of the country. They are 
fudden and very violent ftorms of vjind, rain, thunder and 
lightning, attended with a great fwelling of the fea, and 
fometimes with earthquakes. There are figns by which 
the inhabitants are warned of their approach. They 
come on either at the quarter, or at the full change of 
the moon. If they come on at the full change, then at 
the preceding change, the fl<y is troubled, the fun more 
red than ufual, there is a dead calm below, and the tops 
of the mountains are free from thofe mifts which ufually 
hover about them. In the caverns of the earth, and in 
wells, you hear a hollow rumbling found, like the ruili- 
ing of a great wind. At night, the ftars feem much 
larger than ufual, and are furrounded with a fort of burs ; 
the north-weft (ley has a black and menacing appearance; 
the fea emits a ftrong fmell, and riies into vaft waves, 
often without any wind. The wind itlelf now forfakes 
its ufual eallern fteady ftream, and fhifts about to the 
weft, from whence it fometimes, with intermiffions, 
blows violently and irregularly for about 2 hours at a time, 

279 The quality of air depends in a great meafure 
upon the foil over which it puffcs. The fandy deferts 
of Africa and ylrabia, give a burning heat and blafting 
quality to the air paifing over them. At Gone, in the 
river Senegal, there is an eafterly wind from the inland 
parts, with which thofe who are fuddenly met by it in 
the face are fcorched, as by a blaft from a furnace. At 
Fnlklaud IJlanrh an extraordinary "blafting wind is felt, 
but its duration is feldom above 24 hours. It cuts 
down the herbnge, as if iires had been made under them; 
the leaves are parched up and crumble into duft; 
fowls are feized with cramps, and never recover; men 
are opprtfted with a flopped perfpiration, heavincfs at 
the bieall, and fore throat, but they recover with proper 
care. But the moft dreadful winds are thofe at the de- 
larts near i?rtjTc/<7r/, called iUe famiel, or mortifying wind. 
The camels perceive their approach, and are faid tn 
make an unufual noife, and cover their nofes in the fand. 
To efcape their effects, travellers throw themfclves as 
clofc as pofftble on the ground, and wait till it lias paffed 
over, which iscomnviuly in a few minutes. Thus fome 
tfcape ; but ihoie who die, have their limbs mortl.*ied. 
If this wind meet with a fljower of rain, it u fa d to be 
deprived of its noxious quality. Itis alio faid, that it 
i never 



Iv'ili 



INTRODUCTION. 



never pifTes the walls of the c'ty. In Italy there is a 
wind called, by the Italians, Sirotco. It blows for feve- 
rnldays, and its mean heat is about I iz" of Fiihrailcit' ?■ 
thermometer. It is fatal to vegetation, and dcftruilive 
to the inhabitants; deprefinig ttitir fpirits, and fuipend- 
ing the po-i^ers of digeftion; fo that they who vcnt\ire 
to eat a heavy fupper whilll thefe wind;, prevail are fre- 
quently found dead the next morning. It is ftlt with pe- 
culiar violence at Palermo, where the 'inhabitants fhut 
their doors and windows ; and where there are no (hut- 
ttrs, they hang up wet blankets, and fcrvants are em- 
ployed to keep them wet. Nobody ventures out, if he 
c.\n pufTiblv avoid it. 

280. Mr. BRUCf, in relating the particulars of his 
journey acrofi tlie dtjarts of ''jVtct, mentions prodigiou.s 
pillars of fawd, moving with great velocities. Eleven of 
them appeared at once, at the diftance of about three 
miles from him ; the greatcft diameter of the largeil was 
eftimated at ten feet. The fame ph3jnonienon appear- 
ed again within a few da)S after ; more pillars in num- 
ber, but Icfs in fizc. They began immediately after fun 
rife, and his rays fhining through them, gave them the 
appearance of pillars of fire. 

281. There is a phasnomenon called a luater fpoul, 
hanging under a deep cloud, in the form of a cone with 
the vertex downwards ; and under it the lea bo:h up, 
and rifes in a conical form ; thefe two cones lometiines 
meet, and they generally begin to appear together ; but 
fomctimes the boiling of the fea appears lirll. The po- 
fition of the cones is moftly perpendiculaily to the fea, 
but fometimes it is oblique ; and fometimes the fpout is 
in the form of a curve. They frequently difappear fud- 
denly, and fometimes they move for a coufiderable fpace 
before they break. The form of the water fpout is 
more properly that of a fpeaking tnmipet, the fmaller 
end being downwards. Sometimes thefe water fpouts 
appear at land. When they appear at fea, and are ap- 
proaching a fliip, it is faid tliat the failors tire at them 
and break tliem ; as it might be dangerous if they were 
to meet with a fliip and break over it. It is with good 
reafon fuppofed tliat this is an eleftrical phenomenon ; 
for they generally appear in months which are fubjeflto 
thunder florins, and are commonly preceded, accompa- 
nied, or followed by lightning, rain, or hail. Flaflies of 
li-^ht have been feen about them. But the mofl; re- 
nwrkablc circumftance is, that they have been difperfed 
by ptefenting to them Iharp pointed knive;- or fwoids. 
The analogy alfo between a water fpout and cleftrieity 
may be fhoVn, by hanging a drop of water on the under 
fide of a plate of brafs connected with the prime conduc- 
tor, and placing a veflel of water under, at a fmall dif- 
tance ; then up.ii woikiug the machine, the water will 
ciefccnd from the drop in a conical form, and the water 
in the veflel will rife up under it in the form of a cone ; 
reftmbling veiy accurately the water fpout, and the 
afcent of tlie water in the fea under. If we therefore 
fuppofe the cloud to be ftrongly charged with the elec- 
tric matter, we have caufe futficient to folve the jihmo- 
mcnon. This theory of water fpouts is confirmed by 



one which Mr. Forster gives an account of In 
his voyage round the world. On tlie coall of Nciu 
Zealand, lie faw the water in a fpace of 50 or 60 
furlongs, move towards its centre, and there rifing into 
vapour, by the force of the whirling motion which it 
had, afeended in a fpiral form towards the clouds ; 
direftly over whicii tJie cloud defcended in a gradually 
tapered long llender tube, which foon united with the 
afceiiding fpiral in a cylindrical form. Tlie water was 
whirled upwards with great violence in a fpiral, and ap- 
peared to IcLive a liullov.' fpace in the middle ; fo tliat it 
feemed to form a hollow tube; and this was rendered 
probable, as it looked exactly like a hollow glafs tube. 
After fome time, the column became incurvated, and 
then broke, with the appearance of a flafli of lightning. 

282. ^ u l-irhvi/id is a wind which rifes fuddenly ; is 
extremely rapid and impetuous, taking up all light fub- 
ftance from the earth which it may meet with, and carry- 
ing them up in a fpiral motion. Dr. Franklin fup- 
pofes that a whirlwind and a water fpout proceed fnnn 
the fame caufe ; and this opinion is flrengihened by the 
following circumflances. The)' have eacli a progiefltve 
and circular motion ; they ufually rife after calms and 
gicat heats, and mofl frequently happen in warm lati- 
tudes ; the wind blows every way both to the whirlwind 
and water fpout ; and a water fpout has moved from the 
fea to the land and produced all tlie effefts of a whirl- 
wind. They are both of them probably therefore the 
effedls of the electrical fluid. 

Of! the Barometer. 

283 The Barometer is an inftrumcnt to meafure the 
weight or prefl'ure of the atmolphere, and is fo well 
known, that it is unncceflary here to defcribe it. Suffice 
it to fay, tnat the air in the glafs tube is fupported by 
the preifure of the air upon the meicury in the bafon, in 
which the lower and open end of the tube is immerfed ; 
and the fpace in the tube above the mercury is a vncuLun. 
When therefore the prefl'ure of the ait is increafcd, the 
mercury mull rife in the tube ; and when the prefl'ure h 
diminilhed, the mercury mull fall. Upon the level of 
the furface of the earth, the limits of the height of the 
mcrcmy in the tube above the furface of the mercury in 
the bafon, is from 28 to 3 1 inches ; a graduated fcale 
is therefoie placed agaiiill the tube from 28 to 31 inches, 
in order to afcertain the height of the mercury in tlie 
tube. But thofe barometers which are made to mea- 
fure the heights of mountains, are graduated niuch low- 
er ; hecaufc, as you afcend in the atmofphere, the mer- 
cury falls. When the mercury fl^ands at tlie altitude of 
30 inches, the prefTure of the air upon every fquarc inch 
of the earth's furface is about 15 lb. avoirdupoife At 
any other altitude of the mercury, the preffurc will be 
in proportion to the altitude. Hence, if we take the fur- 
face of a middlc-fi^ed man to be 14^ fquarefeet, wiien the 
air islighlell, its prefTure on him is 13,2 tons, and when 
heaviell it is 14, 3 tons ; the difference of which is 2464. 
lb. This diftcrence of preffures muft greatly afl'ecl us 

in 



INTRODUCTION. 



IJx 



in rcfpecl to our animal fundlions, and therefore in re- 
fpeft to our health ; more efpecially when the change is 
fuddtn. The prcffure of the air upon the whole furface 
of the earth, is about 77670257973563429 tons. 

Br. Halley's Account of the rifmg and falling 
cf the Mercury in a Barometer, u^>on the 
Change of IP^eather. 

284. To account for the difFerenf heights of the 
mercury at feveral times, it will be nceeflary to enume- 
rate feme of the principal obfervations made upon the 
barometer. 

ill. In calm weather, when the air is inclined to rain, 
the niercnrv is commonly low. 

zdly, In fcrene, good, fettled weather, the mercury 
is generally high. 

^dly, Upon very great wind?, tho\igh they be not ac- 
companied with rain, the mercury links lou'cfl of all, 
with relation to the point of the compafs the wind 
Mows upon. 

4thly, The greatefl heights of the mercury, cttens 
paribus, arc found upon cafterly and north-eailerly 
winds. 

5thly, In calm frofty weather, the mercury generally 
{lands high. 

6thlv, After very great dorms of wind, when the 
quickfilver has been low, it geneially rifes again very 
fall. 

7thly, The more northerly places have greater altera- 
tions of the barometer than the more foutherly. 

8thly, Within the tropics, and near them, thofe ac- 
counts we have had from others, and my own obferva- 
tions at St. Helena, make very little or no variation of the 
height of the mercury in all weathers. 

2H5. Hence I conceive, that the piincipal caufe of 
tile rife and fall ot the mercury, is from the variable 
winds which are found in the temperate zones, and 
whofe great incondancy lier,e iu England is mod noto- 
rious. 

286. A fecond caufe is the uncertain exhalation and 
precipitation of the vapours lodging in the air, whereby 
it comes to be at one time more crowded than another, 
and confequently heavier; but this latter in a great 
meafure depends upon the former. Now from thefe 
principles 1 (hail endeavour to exph'cate the feveral phe- 
nomena of the barometer, taking chem in the fame order 
I laid them down. 

id. The iTleie'iiry being low inclines it to rain, be- 
caufe the air being liglit, the vapours are no longer fup- 
ported thereby, being become Ipecifically heavier than 
the medium wherein they floated ; fo that they dcfcend 
towards the earth, and in the fall meeting with other 
aqueous particles, they incorporate together and form 
little drops of rain. But the mercury's being at one 
time lower than at another, is the effeft of two con- 
trary windi blowing /rom the place wheie the barome- 
ter (lands, wliereby the air of that place is carried both 
ways from it, and confequently the incumbent cylinder 



of air is diminlfhed, and accordingly the mercury finks- 
As for indance, if in the German Occnn it fhould blow a 
gale of wederly wind, and at the fame time an caderly 
wind in the Irifli Sea ; or if in Frame it fliould blow a 
northerly wind, ai,d m Hcolluiid z foutherly, it mud be 
granted me that, that part of the atmofphcre impendant 
over England v:ou\d. thereby be exhaudcd and attenuated, 
and the mercury would fubdde, ard the vapours which 
before floated in thefe parts of the air of equal gravity 
with thcihfclves, would fuik to the earth. 

2dly, The great height of the barometer is occafioned 
by two contrary winds blowing ^o^ynrr/j- the place of ob- 
fervation, whcitby the air of other places is brouglit 
thither and accumulated; fo that the incumbent cylin- 
der of air being increafed both in height and weight, the 
mercury preffed thereby mud needs rife and flaiid high, 
as long as the winds continue fo to blow ; and then the 
air being fpecifically heavier, the vapours are better fiif- 
pended, fo that they have no inclination to precipitate 
and fall down in drops ; which is the rcafon of the fe- 
rene good weather, which attends the greater heights of 
the mercury. 

3d!y, The mercury finks the lowed of all by the very 
rapid motion of the air in dorms of wind. For the trar>, 
or region of the earth's furface, wherein thefe winds 
rage, not extending all round the globe, that dagnant air 
which is left behind, as likewife that on the fides, can- 
not come in fo fad as to fupply the evacuation made by 
fo fwift a current ; fo that the air mud neceffarily be at- 
tenuated wlien and where the faid winds continue to 
blow, and that more or lefs according to their violence; 
add to which, that the horizontal motion of the air 
being fo quick as it is, may in all probability take off 
fome part of the perpfendicvilar predure thereof: and the 
great agitation of its particles is the reafon why the va-' 
pours are difTipated and do not condenfe into drops fo 
as to form rain, otherwife the natural confequence of 
the air's rarefaction. 

4tlily, The mercury dands the highed upon an eafter- 
ly or north-eaderly wind, becaufe in the great /itlantic 
Ocean, on this fide the 35th deg/ee of north latitude, the 
wederly and fouth- wederly winds blow almod always 
trade, lo that whenever here the wind comes up at !.ad 
and north-ead, it is fure to be checked by a contrary gale 
as foon as it n-aches the ocean ; wherefore aceoiding 
to what is made out in our (Vc(jnd remark, the air mud 
needs be heaped over this ifla'.id, and confequently the 
mercury muil da'i:d high, as often as thefe winds blow. 
This holds true in this country, but- it is not a general 
rule for others where the windf are under different cir- 
cumdances; and I have fometlmes feen' the mercuiy 
here as low as 29 inches, upon an eallerly wind ; but 
then it i.lew exceeding hard, and fo cymes to be ac- 
counted for by AVhat was obferved upon the third 
remark. 

jthly. In calm frody weather the mercury gcnenlly ' 

dands high, becaufe (as I conceive) it feldom freezes 

but v.hen the wind comes out of the northern and north- 

eadern quarters, or at lead unlefs thefe winds blow a.t 

1 7. no 



u> 



INTRODUCTION. 



no great diftance off; for the northern parts of Germany, 
Perimark, Siuedtn, Norway, and all that traft from 
whence north-eaftern winds come, are fiibjeft to ahnoft 
continual froll all the winter; and thtieby the lower air 
IS very much condcwfcd, and in that ilate is brought 
liitherwards by thole winds, and being accumiiLted by 
the oppofitlon of the wefterly wind blowing in the 
Ocean, the mercury mud needs be prcIRd to a more than 
ordinary height ; and as a concurring caufe, the fhrink- 
ing of the lower parts of the air into Icni-r room by cold, 
ipiift needs caufe a dcfcent of the upper parts of the at- 
mofphere to i educe the cavity made by this contraClion 
to an equilibrium. 

6thly, After great ftorms of wind, when the mercury 
has been very low, it generally rifes again very fall. I 
once obferved it to rife \\ inch in lefs than 6 hours, 
^fter a long continued itorm of fouth-weft wind. The 
reafou is, becaufe the air being very much rarefied, by 
the great evacuations which fiich continued ftorms make 
thereof, the neighbouring air runs in more fwiftly to 
bring it to an equilibrium ; as we fee water runs the 
fallcr for having a great declivity. 

ythly. The variations are greater in the more north- 
erly places, as at Stockholm greater than at Paris (com- 
pared by Mr. Paschall), becaufe the more northerly 
places have ufually greater ftorms of wind than the 
more foutherly, whereby the meicury ftiould fink lower 
in that extreme ; and then the northerly winds bringing 
the condenfed and ponderous air from the neighbourhood 
of the pole, and that again being checked by a fouther- 
ly wind at no great diftance, and fo heaped, muft of ne- 
eeflity make thp mercury in fuch cafe ftand higher in 
tlie other extreme. 

8thly, Laftly, this remark, that there is little or no 
variation near the equiuoftial, as at Barbadoes and Si. 
Helena, does above all things confirm the hypothefis of 
the variable winds being ths caufe of thefe variations of 
the height of the mercury ; for in the places above- 
named, there is always an eafy gale of wind blowing 
nearly upon the fame point, viz. E. N. E. at Barbadoes, 
and E. S. E. at St. Helena, fo that there being no con- 
trary currents of the air to exliauft or accumulate it, 
the atmofphere continues much in the fame ftate : how- 
ever, upon hurncanes (the moft violent of itorms) the 
mercury has been obferved very low, but this is but once 
in two or three years,, and it foon recovers its fettled 
ftate of about 29 j inches. 

2t>7. The principal objeftion againft this doftrine is, 
that 1 fuppofe the air fometinies to move from thofe 
parts where it is already evacuated below the equilibri- 
mn, and fometimes again to-ii>ards thofe parts where it is 
condenfed and crowded above the mean date, which may 
be thought contrary to the laws of Statics, and the 
rules of the equilibrium of fluids. But thofe who ftiall 
eonfider how when once an impetus is given to a fluid 
body, it is capable of mounting, above its level, and 
checking others that have a contrary tendency to dc- 
fccnd by their own gravity, will no longer regard this 
ai a. Jnateiial obilacle ; but will rather conclude, that 



the great analogy there is between the rlfing and falling-, 
of the water upon the flux and reflux of the fea, and thit 
of accumulating and extenuating the air, is a great ar- 
gument for the truth of the hypothefis. For as the fea, 
over againft the coaft o^ EJfcx, rifes and fwells by the 
meeting of the two contrary tides of flood, whereof the 
one comes from the S.W. along the channel of England, 
and the other from the noith; and on the contrary, 
finks below the level upon the retreat of the waters both 
ways, in the tide of ebb ; fo it is very probable, that the 
air may ebb and flow after the fame manner ; but by 
reafon of the divirfiiy of caufes whereby the air may be 
fet in moving, the times of thefe fluxes and refluxes 
thereof are purely caiual, and not reducible to any rule, 
as are the motions of the fea, depending wholly uporj 
the regular courfe of the moon. 'I'hus fai Dr. 
Halley. 

288. The following rules are given for judging of the 
weather by Mr. PATRicx, and arc efteemed the beit 
which wc have. 

1. The rifing of the mercury prefages, in general, fair 
weather ;. and its falling, foul weather ; as rain, fnow^ 
high winds, and ftorms. 

2. In very hot weather, the falling of the mercury in- 
dicates thunder. 

3. In winter, the rifing indicates froft : and in froftjr 
weather, if the mercury fall 3 or 4 divifions, there will 
follow a thaw. But in a continued froft, if the mer- 
cury rife, it will fnow. 

4. When foul weather happens foon after the fal- 
ling of the mercury, expeft but little of it; and on the 
contrary, expeft but little fair weather, when it proves 
fair fhortly after the mercury has rifen. 

5. In foul weather when the mercury rifes much and 
liigh, and fo continues for 2 or 3 days before the foul 
weather is quite over, then cxpeft a continuance of fair 
weather to follow. 

6. In fair weather when the mercury falls much and. 
low, and thus continues for 2 or 3 days before the rain 
comes, then expeft a great deal at wet, and probably 
high winds. 

7. The unfettled motion of the mercury, denotes un. 
certain and changeable weather. 

8. You are not fo ftrictly to obfervc the words on the 
plate, though in general the weather agrees v.Ith them : 
For if the mercury ftand at much rain and then rife to 
changeable, A denotes fair weather, though not to con- 
tinue fo long as if the mercury had rifen higher And 
on the contrary, if the mercury ftand aXfair and fall to 
chisr.geable, it denotes foul weather, though not fo much 
as if it had funk lower. 

2S9. The following rules are iifeful to judge whea 
the mercury is rifing or falling. 

1. If the furface of the mercury be convex, it is ri.- 
fing, 

2. If the furface of the mercury be concave, it i» 
falling. 

3. If the middle of the mercury be plain, It is neither 
rifing nor faUing ; for mercury put into a glafs tube, will 

naturally 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixi 



naturally have tlie parts adjacent to the tube con- 
vex. 

rf. As the meiciiiy will adhere a litlle to the tube, 
before you note its height it i" proper to (hake the baro- 
jneler a little, by giving it a little tap with the knuckle. 

Oil the 'Ther-.r.ometer. 

290. A Thermomeler is an inftrument to meafure dif- 
ft-rtnt digiecs of heat. It is a fiiiall glafs tulie wiih a 
bulb at the bottom, having thi bulb and part of tht lube 
filled with mercury, or Ipirits of wine. The tube is 
elofed at the top, and the part not occupied by the 
fluid is a vacuum. Agaiull the tube tliere is a feale to 
meafure the expanfion of the fluid under different tem 
peratuics ; for fluids expand by heat, and contract by 
cold. An incroafe of temperature will therefore make 
the fluid rife in the tube, and a decreafe of temperature 
■will make it fall. 

291. The thermometer now in ufe Is that which is 
conltrufted by Fahrfnheit. On this fcale, the fluid 
ilando at 32 when it jull begins to freeze, and at 212 
when put into boiling water ; at temperate it ftands at 
55 ; at fummer heat, at 76 ; at blood heat, at 98. If 
the fcale be continued tii 600, it gives the heat of boil, 
ing mercury; and if it be continued downwards to 39 
below o, it gives a degree of cold which will freeze 
mere ury. 

292. By means of the barometer and thermometer, 
the altitude of a mountain may be foimd to a great de- 
gree of accuracy. The following is the rule given by 
Dr. Maskelyne in his introduftion to Taylor's Lo- 
garithms ; being the mean between thofe given by Ge- 
neral Roy and Sir George Shuckborgh. 

293. Given the altitudes of the barometer at two 
ftations, with the heights of Fahrenheit's tliermometer 
attached to the barometer, and the heights of two i^/*-- 
to/jf(/ tliermomcters of the fame kind, expofed to the 
air but fhelteied from the fun at the two ilations, to find 
the perpendicular altitude of oiie ilatiou above the 
ether. 

Rule. Put A'' for the obferved height of the barome- 
ter at the lower itation, and /j for tiiat at the upper ita- 
tion, D for the difference of heights of Fahrenheit's 
t\\txmomettr attached to the barometer at the two fta- 
tions, and m for the mean of the two heights of the two 



detached thermometers expofed freety for a few minutej 
to the open air in the fhade, at the two ftations ; then 
the altitude of the upper llation above the lower, ia 
Englidi fathoms, is thus cxpreffed : 



(Log. /T-log. h +0,454 -OJ X (i -f ffi— 32°Xo,oo244.) 

Where the upper fign — is to be ufed, when the ther- 
mometer attached to the barometer is liighcll at the 
lower flation (which is moll ufual , and the lower figii 
-f , when it is lowell at the lower ftation. 

I'ut to render the rule more generally ufcful, we (liall 
put it down in common language. 

Rule. Take the difference of tiie common logarithTis 
of the obferved lieights of the barometers at the two 
ftations, confidering the firft four figures, cxclufive of 
the index, as whole numbers, and the remaining figures 
to the right as decimals, znd fuitraB or add 0,454 ■"'■'1- 
tiplied by the diiTerence of altitudes of Fahrenheit's 
thermometer attached to the barometer at the two fta- 
tions, according as it was higheft at the /o'wer or upper 
ftation ; and this is nearly the retjuired height. Then 
multiply the heigjit thus nearly foiuid, by the difference 
between the mean of the two altitudes of the two de- 
tached thermometers expofed to the air at the two fta- 
tions, and 32°, and again that prodoft by 0,0 244, and^ 
the laft produft will be the correftion of the altitude be- 
fore nearly found ; which added ta or fubtraned from the 
fame, according as the mean of the two altitudes of the 
detached 'i\\e\-movc\eteri expofed to the air,, was higher or 
/oicw than 32°, will give the true heiglit of the upper 
ftation above the lower, in Englidi fathoms ; and this 
multiplied by 6, gives the true altitude in Englilh feet. 

Ex. Let the Itate of the barumeters and thermome- 
ters be as follows ; to find the altitude of one ftation 
above the other. 



Barometers. 


Thermometers. 


Lower 30,16 
Upper 24,19 


attai hcd. 
59 
47 


detached. 
J8 
42 


1 2 dif. 


50 mean. 



30,16 



1X11 



INTRODUCTION. 



Altitude 


3°. 

24> 

ne 


i6 - - 
19 - - 

Subtraft 
irly 

> 


Log. 

- • I4794'3»3 

- - «383''^'359 

957>954 
. - 5.448 = 

952,506 
18 = 


:o,454Xi2 
50-32 




7620048 
952506 

17145,108 
0,00244 




r.add 
. nearly 


68580432 
68580432 
342902.6 

41,83406352 
952,5c 6 




At. in 


994,340 fathoms 
6 






5966,04 feet 





For beigKts which do not exceed 4000 or 5000 feet. 
Sir G. Shuckburgh gives the following rule : 

Let Ar: the mean height of the two 
barometers in inches ; ar; the difference of 
the two in tenths of an inch ; br: the 
number of feet in the table, corrtlponJing 
to the nu'rin height of the two thernionic- 
ters ; xn: the height of the mountain in 

3oab 
feet ; then x=: — — 



32', 86,85 

35 1*^7.49 
88,54 
89,60 
90,66 
9''72 
'92.77 
:93,S2 

^94.«8 

95'93 
96_99 

Heie Ar:28,59 inches; a=r22,6 ; the mean heat of 
the two thermometers z;6l, the proportional number 
correfponding to which found from the table is 92,98 
30x22, 6x9:, 98 

~b ; hence x:= = 2205 feet the 

28,59 
height required. 

39^. The mean height of the barometer in London, 



Ex Snppofe the barometer at the bot- 
tom to be 29,72 inches, thermometer 64' ; 
the barometer at the top to be 27,46, 
thermometer 58" ; to find the altitu(;e of 
•the mountain. 



from obfervations made at llie Royal Society, is 29,88 
inches ; and the mean temperature, according to Tah- 
renheit's thermometer, is 58^. The mean height at 
the fiuftice of the fea is 3ot-4 inches, the heat of tlie 
barometer being 55% and that of the air 62°, according 
to Sir Gi:0RGC Shuckburgh 

The heights of fome of the moll remarkable 



mountains in Englilh feci 

Snowden 

Mod Eilio 

SchihaUitn, weil fummit ( 

Kirk Yettou Cairn 

Skiddaw 

Helvellyu 

Monte Rofa 

Montblanc 

Argenticre 

Bnet 

Mole 

Dole 

Saleor 

Mont Cenis, al the Pod 

Monte Velino - 

Vefuvius 



Feet 
3)55 

2371 
32S1 

'544 

3^40 

3300 

15084 

'4432 

12172 

8894 

48«3 

4293 
328+ 

503 « 
8397 
3938 



iEt 



114 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixiii 



Tenen'fF 

Monte Viio 

Htcla, in Iceland 

Table Kill, weil Signal 

Pico Riiivo 

C'lrabourou 

Cnnigiui 

l-jtliiiicha 

El Coracon 

Cor.icDU - - • 

Cliiiuboraco 



Feet 
1095+ 

I fC22 

9997 
49C3 
3+68 

5 4« 

7840 
92.4 

9374 
•55^+ 
'57«3 
'5f^33 

20575 



The liclixlits of Si:o\vtlen and Moel Eilio are above 
Carnarvcn Qu:iy. The height of Schihnlllcn is above 
Wtein. 'I'lic height of Kirk Yetton is above Leitli 
Pier he.id. The height of .Stiddaw is above Derweiit 
Like, and of Hel'.cllyn above Lenthes Lake. The 
l;:ights of Moiitblanc, Aigentitre, Biict, Mole. Dole, 
Suleov, and Munt Cenis, are above the Lake of Geneva. 
'i"he luiglitb of the otlier inoiintaius--ai'e above the Sea. 
'i'lie Lake oi Gencv:i is r22d feet above tlie Mediter- 
nuiean Sea, and its grcatcil depth is 393 feet. 

0;j the Rali-gage. 

7j6. The Ra:r: g's^e h an ii:(lnimpnt to fhow the 
qnaiitity of vain which falls upon the earth at any place 
where you may wifli to make oblervations. It confifls 
of a funnel co • munieating with a cylindiical tube at lis 
bottom, into which the rain is conveyed by the funnel. 
The dtpth of the water in the cyilifdcr is meafured by 
a rule fixed to a float, the rule paffi;ig through the cen- 
ter of the funnel. The divifions on the rale fhow the 
number of eubic Liches of water that have fallen on a 
farface equal to the area of the top of the funnel. The 
funnel is io contrived as to p-evcnt the water from eva- 
porating. 

297. To ufe the rain gage, fo much water mii(l firll 
be put into the cvlirder as v.-il! raile the float, fo that c 
on the ride mjy exacl'y coincide with the aperture of 
the funnel. The gage (hnuld be lirmly fixed \n a place, 
where, whatever winds blow, the fall of the rain may not 
be inteiceptcd by any ohUaelcS. By this inllrument, 
llic mean annual depths of rain in inches at the places 
below, has been determined. 



London • 

Paris 

Pifa in Italy 

Zurich, SwilTerland 

Lide, Flanders 

Upminiftcr, Efitx 

Townley, Lnncafhire 

Kendal 

Kcfwiclt 



Inches 

- 21,4 
19,6 

- • 43.25 
32.25 

24,0 

- i9.'9 

4^.5 
<54,5 

68,55 

Mr. Dalton informs us, that the greatefl qiantity 
of rain at Kendal in 24 hours, in live years, 178H, 17P9, 
1790, 1791, 1792. ^25 on the 22d of April, 1792, 
4,592 inches ; at Kefwick, t'opiething lefs. In the level 
parts of this kingdom, and iMlie neighbourhood of Lon- 
don, the mean annual depth ci rain is about 19 or 20 
inches. ■ 

298. It appears that the moll rain falls in places near 
the fea coaft, and lefs and lels as the places become more 
inland. The quantity which falls on the luejlcrn coaj} of 
England is fometimes twice as much as falls at London. 
It is alfo found, that the nearer the infirument is to the 
ground, the more rain it coUet^s. By experiments made 
by Dr. H: BERDEN, from July 1766 to July 1767, the 
following refults were obtained : On the top of WelK 
minller Abbey there fell i 2,099 "iches ; on the top of 
a houfc, 18,139 inches; at the bottom of the huufe, 
22,608 inches ; thefe are the mean annual quantities. 
Mr. Barrington placed two rain-gagts, one upon 
Mount Reniiirg in Wales., and the other on the plain be- 
low ; and froin July to November there fell at the upper 
gage 8,265 inches, and at the lower 8,766 inches. 
Hence it ap[ cars, that the quantity of rain depends 
upon thencarnels of the place to the earth, a:;d not on 
the height of the place In comparing therefore the 
quantity of lain at two places by two rain gages, they 
ftould be placed at the fame dillance from the earth. 

On the Hygrometer. 

299 The Hygrometer is an inft/ument to meafuTe' llie 
moilture and drynefs of the air : and is formed c.f fnb- 
ftances which will expand or contraft upon any altera- 
tion of raoirtnre. Wood expands by moiihire and ccni- 
tiads by drynefs ; on the contrary, chord, catgnt, 5ic. 
contrail bv moilture and expand by diynefs ; and vari- 
ous mechanic al contrivances have been Invented, to ren- 
der fcnftble the fmalleit variations in the lengths of tliei'e 
fubftaiiccs. We will defcribe one of them, which any 
pcrlon mav very ealilv make for himfelf. 

Let 



Ixiv 



INTRODUCTION. 




Let AB reprefent the feftion af a cylinder moveable 
about its axis, which is parallel to the horizon ; at the 
end there is an index /moveable againft a graduated arc 
ab ; about this cylinder fome catgut •viu is wound, one 
end of which is fixed to the cylinder, and the other end 
to fomcthing immoveable at Z. Now as the moifture 
of the air increafes, the catgut contrails and turns the 
cylinder, and the motion of the index Ihows the increafe 
of the moifture ; and as the air decreafes in moifture, 
the catgut will lengthen, and the weight of the index 
will carry the cylinder back, and the index will fliow 
the correfponding decreafe of moifture. 

300. In order to make a perfeft iiygrometer, fuch 
fubttances mull be ufed that will contrait or expand in 
proportion to the quantity of moifture leceived. Mr. 
De Luc has made a great many experiments in order to 
find out fuch fubftances ; and the refult ia, that 
whalebone and box, cut acrofs the fibres, increafe very 
nearly in proportion to the quantity of moifture received. 
He preferred the whalebone, firft, on account of its 
.fteadinefs, in always coming to the fame point ftt ex- 
treme moifture; fccondly, on account of its greater ex- 
panfion, it increafmg in length above one eighth of it- 
-fcif, from extreme drynefs to extreme moifture ; laftly, 
it is more eafily made thin and narrow. 

301. De Saussurk and De Luc have proved by 
■the hygrometer, tliat the air increafes in dryncfs as you 
afcend in the atmofphere ; fo that in the upper attain- 
able regions, it is coiiilantly very dry, except in the 
clouds. The former gentleman has alfo iliown, that if 
the whok atmofphere pafitd from extreme drynefs to 
extreme moifture, the quuntity of water thus evapora- 
ted would not raifc the barometer half an incli. Laftly., 
in chemical operations on the air, the greateft quantity 
of evaporated water that may be fnppofcd in them at the 
common temperature of the atmofphere, even if they 
were at extreme moifture, is not fo much as the one 
hundredth part of their raafs. 



On the AJcent of Vapours, the Origin of 
Springs, and Formation of Rain, Snow and 
Hail. 

302. Vapours are raifed from the furface of the moHl 
earth and waters ; the principal caufe of which is, pro- 
bably, the heat of the lun, the evaporation being always 
greateft when the heat is greateft. The difficulty of 
iolving the phaenomenon arifes from hence, that we find 
a heavier fluid (water) fufpendcd in a lighter fluid (air)^ 
contrary to the common principles of hydroftatics. 

303. Dr. Halley fuppoied, that by the adlion of 
the fun upon the furface of the water, the aqueous par- 
ticles become formed into hollow bubbles filled with 
warm and rarefied air, fo as to make the whole bulk fpe- 
cifically lighter than air, in which cafe the particles will 
afcend. But there is great difficulty in conceiving how 
this can be effefted. And if bubbles could be at Jirfi 
thus formed, when they afcend, the air within would 
foon be reduced to the fame temperature of the air with- 
out, on which account they would immediately defcend. 
The moft probable fuppofition is, that evaporation is a 
chemical folution of water in air. We know that metals 
are diffolved in menftruums, and their particles diffufed 
and fufpended in the fluid, although their fpecific gravi- 
ty be greater than that of the fluid. Heat promotes 
this folution ; in the day time therefore the heat caufes a 
more perfeft folution than what can take place in the 
night when the air is colder ; in which cafe, the water 
falls in dews and fogs. The vapours, tlius raifed by 
heat, afcend into tlie cold legion of the atmofphere, and, 
not being there kept in a ftate of perfeft folution, form 
clouds. 

304. Marriotte fuppofed Springs to be owing to 
rain water and melted fnow, which penetrating the fur- 
faces of hills, and running by the fide of clay or rocks 
which it cannot penetrate, at laft comes to fome place 
where it breaks out. This would account for the phe- 
nomenon, provided the fupply from thefe caufes was 
fufRcIeut. Now Dr. Hai.lev has difcovered a caufe 
fufficient for a fnpply ; for he has proved by experiment, 
that the vapoiu-s whicii are raifed, afford a much greater 
fupply than is iiecefl'iiry. We v.'ill give the account ia 
his own words. 

305. " We took a pan of water (falted to the degree 
of the faltnefs of the tea, by a fuliitiun of about a 
fortieth part of fait) about 4 inches deep, and 7,'^, inches 
diameter, in which we placed a thermometer, and by 
means of a pan of coals, we brought the water to the 
fame degree of heat which is obferved to be that of the 
air in our hottcft iummcrs ; the thermometer nicely 
ftiowing it. This done, we affixed the pan of water, 
with tlie thermometer in it, to one end of the beam 
of the fcales, and exactly counterpolfcd it with weights 
at the other end ; and by the application or removal of 
the pan of coals, w : iomid it very cafy to maintain the 
water in the fame degree of heat preciftly. Doing 'his, 
we found the weight of the water fen (ibly to decreafe ; 
and at ;the end of two hours wc obfervcd, that there 

wanted 



INTRODUCTION. 



XV 



wanted half an ounce troy, all 'out 7 grains, or 233 grains 
of water, which in that time had gone off in vapour ; 
though one could hardly perceive it fmoke, and the 
water- was not fei.fibly warm. This quantity info fliort 
a time feemed very coniiderable, being little lefs than 6 
ounces in 24 hours, from fo fmall a circle as 8 inches 
diameter. To reduce this experiment to an exaft cal- 
culus, and to determine the thicknefs of the flcin of 
water which had evaporated, I affume the experiment 
alleged by Dr. Edw. Bernard to have been made in 
the Oxford Society, viz. that thccubic foot Engli/lj of water 
weighs exadlly 76 pounds troy ; tin's divided by 1728, 
the number of inches in a foot, will give 253' grains, 
or half an ounce 137 grains for the weight of a cubic 
inch of water; wherefore the weight of 233 grains is 
W\, or 35 parts of 38 of a cubic inch of water. Now 
the area of the circle, whofe diameter is 7 ,\ inches, is 
49 fquare inches, by which dividing the quantity of 
water evaporated, viz. \': of an inch, the quotient -r'|j, 
or -y., (liovvs that the thicknefs of the water evaporated 
was the 53d part of an inch : but we will fuppofe it to 
be only the 6cth part, for the facility of calculation. 
If therefore water, as warm as the air in fummer, exhales 
the thicknefs of the' 60th part of an inch in two 
hours from its whck furface, in 12 hours it will exhale 
■^■^ of an inch ; which quantity will be found abundant- 
ly fufPicient to ferve for all the rains, fprings, and dews, 
and account for the Cafp'mn Sea'i being always at a 
ftand, neither wailing nor overflowing ; as likewife for 
the current faid to let always in at the ftraights of Gii- 
raltar, though thofe I\lsiitterraiiea!i Sias receive fo 
many, and io confiderable rivers. 

306. To eillmate the quantity of water arifing in 
vapours out of the fea, I think I ought to confider it 
only the time the fun is up, for that the dews return in 
the night as much, if not more vapours than are then 
emitted ; and in fummer the days being longer than 1 2 
hours, this cxcefs is balanced by the weaker rays of the 
fun, cfpeclally when rifmg before the water is warmed : 
fo that if I allow Jg of an inch of the furface of the fea 
to be raifcd per dlcm ia vapours, it may not be an impro- 
bable conjecture. 

307. Upon this fuppofition, every 10 fquare inches 
of the furface of the vvater, yields in vapour, y)f/- dhm, 
a cubic inch of water ; and evci-y fquare toot, halt a 
■wine pint ; every fpace of 4 fquare feet, a gallon ; a 
mile fquare, 6914 tons ; a fquare degree, fuppofe of 69 
iin_j/;//) miles, will evaporate 33 million of tons : and if 
the Mediterranean be ellimatcd at 40 degrees long, and 
4 broad, allowances being made for the places where it 
is broader by thofe that are narrower, (and I am fure I 
guefs at the leaft,) there will be '160 fquare degrees of 
fea ; and confequently the whole Mediterranean Sea mull 
lofe in vapour, in a fummer'a day, at Icall 5280 millions 
of tons. And this quantity of vapour, though very 
great, is as little as can be concluded from the experi- 
ment produced : and yet there remains another caule, 
which cannot be reduced to, the rule, I mean the winds, 
whereby the furface of the water is licked up, fome- 

VOL. u 



what farter than it exhales by the heat of the fun, as it 
is well known to thofe that have confidered thofe dry- 
ing winds which blow fometimes. 

308. The Medilcrraitean receives thefe confiderable 
rivers : the Iberus, the Rhone, the Tiber, the Po, the 
Danube, the Nic/ler, the Boryjlhenes, the Tanais, and the 
Nile, all the lell being ol no great note, and their 
quantity of water Inconfiderable. We will luppofe each 
of thefe nine rivers to bring down ten times as much 
water as the liver Thames, not that any of them is fo 
great in reality, but to comprehend with them all the 
Imall rivulets that fall into the fea, wiiich otherwifc I 
know not how to allow for. 

309. Tio calculate the water of the Thames, I affume 
that at Kingjlon Bridge, where the flood never i-eaches, 
and the water always runs down, the breadth o^ the 
channel is 100 yards, and its depth 3, it being reduced 
to an equality (in both which luppohtions I am fure I 
take the moll). Hence, the profile of the water in 
this place is 300 fquai'e yards : this multiplied by 48 
miles, (which I allow the water to run in 24 hour-s, at 
2 miles in an hour) or 84,^80 yards, gives 25344COO 
cubic yards or water to be evacuated ever-y day, that is, 
203COCOO tons /»«• (//Vm ; and I doubt not but in the 
excefs of my meafui-e of the channel of the river, I have 
made more than fiifficient allowance for the waters of 
the Brent, the JVande!, the Lea, and the Deriuent, which 
ai-e all worth notice, that fall into the Thames below 
King Hon . 

310. Now if each of the aforefafd nine river's yield 
ten times as much water as the Thames doth, it will fol- 
low, that each of them yields but 203 millions of tons 
per diem, and the whole nine but 1827 millions of tons 
in a day ; which is but little moi-e than \ of what is 
I'aifed by vapours out of the Mediterranean, in twelve 
hours." 

311. Thus the Doiflor has fliown that the waters 
raited by vapours are vallly more than fufficient for the 
fupply of all the rivei'S ; the overplus may fall, partly 
upon the fea, and partly upon the flat lands, and not 
contribute to fill the rivers. We may therefore admit 
Mr. Marriotte's fohition of the caufe of fprings. 

312. Befides the conjlant fprings, there are others 
which ebb zwdjloiu alternately, which may be thus ac- 
counted for. The water, before rt bi'eaks out, may meet 
with a large cavity on the fide of the hill, and upon the 
overflowing of this refervoir, it may find an aperture, 
and make its efcape ; in cafe of dry weather, therefore, 
the fupply of water may not be fufficient to keep it full, 
in which cafe, the fpring will ceafe to flow, and conti- 
nue dry, till a fupply caufes it to overflow, and produce . 
again the fpring. 

313. There is another theory to account for fprings 
and rivers, which refers this caufe to a great abyfs of 
waters occupying the central parts of our globe. It 
aiferts, that all the phenomena of fprings are chiefly 
derived from the vapours, yeiiis, and id'ues, of this great 
abyls, into which they are returned ; and that a perpe- 
tual circulation and equality is kept up; the Iprings 

k never 



Ixvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



never Failing, and the fea, by reafon of its conimunica- 
tioii with the fiibterraneous waters, never overflowing. 
In finking mines and wells from 8 to 800 feet deep, it 
is comraon to break in upon poweiful fourccs of water, 
and thefe fometimes at very great depths. Springs near 
the iurfaee may have theirfources from refervoirs whicli 
he deeper, and they in their turns are fed by larger and 
deeper, till we come to the grand rcpofitory of all, 
vhich is fnppofe J to keep up a communication with the 
fea, in coniequence of wlu'cli, the water in the earth has 
always a tendency to rife to the level of the fea. Dr. 
Derham has fhown, that fprings occur in great plenty, 
and are conftant in their courfe, even in times of the 
greateft drought, where the country is in general very 
low, and there are no mountain tops to condenfe the 
vapours. M. GuALTERi fays, that the waters dif- 
charged by the rivers in Italy into the fea, are to the 
rain which falls upon the land, as ^^ to 27. The earth 
is alfo moiilened to a greater depth than can be ac- 
counted for from the falling of the rain. From all 
thefe circumftances it is concluded, that there mull be 
fubterrancous refervoirs of water. It is not unHkely 
but that this, and the caufe of fprings and rivers affigned 
by Dr. H ALLEY, may both operate. 

314. Clouds are formed by the water raifed by eva- 
poration, and are of the fame nature as dews and fogs 
upon the earth. When the water in the air ceafes to 
be fufpended, it falls down, and the particles uniting in 
falling, form drops. Various, probably, are the caules of 
the precipitation of the water. After the air is fatura- 
ted with vapour, a fudden diminution of the denfity 
of the air will caufe it to part with fome of its vapours ; 
for as a certain quantity of air can hold but a certain 
quantity of water in folution, if that air become rare- 
fied, it will not hold all its water in folution, and a pre- 
cipitation will take place. As vapour is principaliy 
raifed by heat, a variation of temperature will probably 
caufe a precipitation. Alfo, we know by an eleclrome- 
'ter, that the air is always in a (late of eledlricity, fome- 
times pofitive, and fometimes negative. From M. de 
Saussure's oblervations, in winter the eleftricity 
■was generally weakeil in an evening, when the dew had 
fallen, until the fun's rifing ; it afterwards increafed, 
and generally before nopn it attained its maximum, and 
then diminifhed, till the fall of the dew, when it would 
be fometimes ftronger than it had been during the whole 
"day ; after which, it would gradually diminilh the 
whole night. In fummer, in general, if the ground 
have been dry for fome days, and the air been dry alfo, 
the eleftricity generally increafcs from the rifing of the 
fun till 3 or 4. in the afternoon, when it is ftrongcll ; 
it then diminiihes till the dew begins to fall, and then it 
increafes ; but after this it declines, and is very fniall 
durmg the night. Now Beccari.^ reckons rain, hail, 
and inow, amongft the efFedls of the eleftriclty of the 
atmofphere. Clouds which bring rain, he thinks, are 
produced in the fame manner as thunder-clouds arc, 
only by a lefs degree of eleftricity. He remarks feveral 
circuiiirtancts attending rain without lightning, which 



make it probable that it is produced by the fame caufe 
as when it is attended by thunder and lightning. 
I^ight has been feen amongft the clouds by night in 
rainy weather ; and even by day, rainy clouds are feen 
to have a brightnefs evidently independent of the fun. 
The intenfity of eleiftricity alfo in his apparatus, ufually 
correfponded very well with the quantity of rain. The 
phsenomcna alio of thunder, ligtitning, and rain, arc 
very frequently obfcrved to accompany each other, which 
fliows the conneftion they have with a common caufe. 
He fiippofes that previous to rain, a quantity of tleiilric 
matter efcapes out of the earth, and in its afcent, col- 
lefts a quantity of vapour, and thus the air becomes 
overcharged with vapours. Hence, the rain will be 
heavier the more vigorous the eleclricity is ; and this is. 
agreeable to obfervation. Mr. de Luc h.as Ihowii that 
water in a ftate of vapour combined with the air, pro- 
duces no moiftnefs, and therefore concludes that rain 
does not arife from the moifture in the atmofphere /■/■/cr 
to the rain. The decompofition produces the moillure 
and then the rain. If it be veiy cold in thefe regions 
where the rain begins to be formed, it then dtfcends in 
fnow ; and when the drops of rain are formed, and arc 
defcending, if in their defcent they pafs through a re»- 
gion of the air cold enough to freeze them, they defcend 
in hail. 

Oil the Temperature of different Parts of the 
Earth. 

315. The prefence of the fun is one of the principal 
fources of heat, and its abfence the caufe of cold ; and 
were thefe the only lourcesof heat and cold, in the fame 
parallel of latitude there would be the fame degree of 
heat or cold at the fame feafon ; but this is found to be 
contrary to matter of fa£l ; the temperature of the eall- 
ern coal! of North America is much colder than the 
weftern coaft oi Europe, under the fame latitude. Very- 
hot days are frequently felt in the coidell climates ; and • 
very cold weather, even perpetual fnow is found in 
countries imder the equator. We mull therefore feek 
for other caufes of heat and cold, and thefe muft evi- 
dently be partly local. 

316. One great fource of heat is from the earth ; 
whether thisarifes from any central fire, or from a mafs 
of heat diffufed through the earth, it is not perhaps eafy 
to fay; the latter caufe is perhaps the mod probable; 
and in this cafe, the heat which is thus gradually loll 
is renewed again by the fun. This heat imparted from 
the earth to the atmofphere, tends greatly to moderate 
the feverity of the winter's cold. It is found by obfer- 
vation, that the fame degree of heat retides in all fub- 
terrancous places at the lame depth, varying a little at 
different depths, but is never lefs than 36° of Fahren- 
heit's thermometer. There is however an exception 
to this in mines, where there is probably fome chemical 
operations going forwards. Mr. Kirwan, in his £fli- 
male of the Temperature of different Latitudes, and to whom 
we arc principally indebted for what wc fhall here give 

upon 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixvli 



tipon thk fubj<(ft, obferves, that at So or 90 feet (if 
this depth liave any communication with the open air, 
and perhaps, at a much lefs depth, if there be no fuch 
communication) the temperature of the earth varies very 
little, and generally approaches to the mean annual heat. 
Thus the temperature of fprings is nearly the fame as 
the mean annual temperature, and varies very little in 
different fcafons. The temperature of the cave at the 
obfervatory at Paris is about ^^'^ degrees, and varies 
about half a degree in very cold years ; its depth is 
abouc 90 feet. The internal heat of the earth in our 
climate is always above 40", and therefore the fiiow ge- 
nerally begins to melt firft at the bottom. The next 
fource ot heat is the condenfation of vapour. It is well 
known that vapour contains a great quantity of heat, 
which produces no other cffedt, but that of making it 
aflume an aerial, expanded ftate, until the vapour is con- 
denfed into a liquid ; during which condenfation a certain 
quantity of heat efcapes, and warms the furrounding at- 
mofphere. This condenfation is frequently formed by 
the attraftion of an cledlrical cloud, and hence arifes the 
great fultrinefs which we frequently experience before 
rain, and particularly before a thunder ftorm. 

317. As the earth is one of the great fources of heat, 
warming the furrounding air, diilance from the earth 
muft be a fource of cold ; and thus we find that as you 
afcend in the atmofphere, the cold increafes. In the 
vicinity of Paris, the temperature of the earth being 47°, 
at the eftimated height of 11084 ^'^^^ '^ "'''S found to 
be 21", or ii" below congelation, by M. Charles who 



afcended in a balloon. And Lord Mulgrave, at the 
bottom oi HacklytHil!., lat. 80°, found the temperature 
of the air 50°; but on the top, at the height of 1503 
feet, only 42°. Hence we find, that tlie highcd moun- 
tain*, even under the equator, have their tops coi.linual- 
ly covered with fnow. Mr. Bouguer found the cold 
of Pinch'tna, one of the Covdeltercs, immediately under 
the line, to extend from 7° to 9" below the ftetziiig 
point every morning before fun-rife ; and h.cnce at a 
certain height, which varies in almoft every latitude, it 
conflantly freezes at night all the year round, though in 
the warm climates it thaws to fome degree tlie next day. 
This height he call,-, the lozuer Term of congelation : be- 
tween the tropics he places it at the height of i^STI 
feet, Englifi nieafure. The next great fource of cold 
is evaporation. The fame caufe which makes the con- 
denfation of vapour a fource of heat, makes evaporation 
the fource of cold ; as it abforbs the fire in the latter 
iiiftancc, which it gives out in the former : the heat thus 
abforbed is called latent heat, it producing, in that ftate, 
no fenfation of warmth. At a certain height above the 
lower term of congelation it never freezes, not becaufe 
the cold decreafes, but becaufe the vapours do not 
afcend fo high; this height Mr. Booguer calls the 
upper term of congelation, and under the equator he fixes 
it at the height of 28000 feet. Mr. Kirvvan has given us 
the following mean height of the upper and lower terms 
of congelation, for the latitude of erery five degrees, in 
feet. 





Alt. loiver 


Alt. upper 




Alt. lower 


Alt. upper 


Lat. 


Term. 


Term. 


Lat. 


Term. 


Term. 


0° 


'5577 


28000 


45" 


7658 


13730 


5 


15457 


27784 


SO 


6260 


II2S3 


10 


15067 


27084 


55 


4912 


8830 


IS 


14498 


26061 


60 


3684 


6546 


20 


13719 


24661 


65 


2516 


4676 


29 


13030 


234'3 


70 


>557 


2809 


30 


11592 


20838 


75 


748 


1346 


.35 


10664 


19169 


80 


I20 


207 


40 


9016 


16207 









ai8. Sometimes the temperature of the upper air is a confiderablc degree. The clouds, by abiorbing the 
higlierthan that of the lower air, particularly when a fun's rays, are more heated than the clear air would be. 
large mafs of vapours is condenfed by eleftrical agency ; Thefe, and other circumftances, render the true height 
for no part of the heat given out by that caufe being of the terms of congelation at any time, fubjeft to con- 
loft by communication with air much colder, that which fiderable uncertainty, 
furrounds the vapours fo condenfed, muft be heated to 



k» 



319. The 



Ixviil 



INTRODUCTION. 



319. The dearinpf away of woods lefTens the vapours, 
and confeqii jntly diminiihes the quantity of rain, and 
I'ncreafes tht temperature. Several parifhes in 'Jamaica 
■which ufed to produce fine crops of fugar canes, are 
now dry for 9 months in a year, and are turned into 
cattle-pens, through the clearing away of the woods. 
Hence, water is molt plentiful in thofe countries where 
woods abound, and the beft fprings are there found. 
In America-, fince the woods in the neighbourhood of their 
towns have been cut down, many ilreams have become 
dry ; and others have been reduced fo low, as to caufe 
great interruptions to the miller. 

320. Of evaporation, the following fafts may be ob- 
fcrved. i. That in our climates, evaporation is about 
four times as great from the 21ft of March to the 21ft 
of September, as from the 21ft of September to the 
21 ft of March. 

2. That, other circumftances being the fame, it is 
greater in proportion as the difference between the tem- 
perature of the air, and that of the evaporating furface 
is greater ; and fo much the fmaller, as the ditt'erence is 
fmaller ; and therefore fmalleft, when the temperature of 
the air and evaporating liquor are equal. The former 
part ol this propofition however requires fome reftric- 
tion ; for if air be more than 15 degrees colder than the 
evaporating furface, there is fcarce any evaporation ; 
but on the contrary, it depofits its moifture on the fur- 
face of the liquor. 

3. The degree of cold produced by evaporation, is al- 
ways much greater when the air is warmer than the 
evaporating furface, than that which is produced when 
the furface is v/armer than the air. Hence, warm winds, 
as the Sirocco and Harmatan, are more drying than cold 
winds. 

4. Evaporation Is more copious when the air is lefs 
loaded with vapours, and is therefore greatly promoted 
by cold winds flowing into warmer countries. 

5. Evaporation is greatly increafed by a current of 
air or wind flowing over the evaporating furface, be- 
caufe unlaturated air is conftantly brought into contadl 
with it. Hence, calm days are hotteft,as has commonly 
been remarked. 

6. Trafts of land covered with trses or vegetables 
emit more vapour than the fame fp»ce covered with 



water. Mr. Williams [PhilLidelphlaTranfa^llons) ioMni. 
this quantity to amount to \ more. Hence, tlie air about 
a wood or forell is made colder by evaporation froqi 
trees and fhrubs, while the plants themfelves are kept in. 
a more moderate heat, and fecured from the burning 
heat of the fun by the vapours perfpired from the 
leaves. Thus, we find the fliade of vegetables more 
efteftual to cool us, as well as more agreeable, than the 
fiiade from rocks and buildings. 

. 321. The heat and cold of different countries are 
tranfmitted from one to the other, by the medium of 
winds. 

322. From what has been obferved it is manifeft, that 
fome iituations are better fitted to receive or communi- 
cate heat, than others ; thus, high and mountainous 
fituations being nearer to the fource of cold than lower 
fituatiuns ; and countries covered with woods, as they 
prevent the accefs of the fun's rays to the earth, or to 
the fnow which they may conceal, and prefent more 
numerous evaporating furfaces, muft be colder than open 
countries, though fituatcd in the lame latitude. And. 
fince all tradls of land prefent infinite varieties of fitu- 
ation, uniform refults cannot here be expefted. Mr» 
KiRWAN obferves therefore, that it is on water only 
that we muft feek for a ftandard fituation with which 
to compare the temperature of other fituations. Now 
the globe contains, properly fpeaking, but two great 
trafts of water, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Pacific 
Ocean ; which may each be divided into north and 
fouth, as they lie on the northern or fouthern fide of 
the equator. In this traft of water, he chofe that fitua- 
tion for a ftandard which recommends itfelf moft by its 
fimplicity, and freedom from any but the moft permanent 
caufes of alteration of temperature ; viz. that part of 
the Atlantic which lies between 80° north and 45° 
fouth latitude, and extending fouthwards as far as the 
Gulph Stream, and to within a few leagues of the 
Coaft of ./America ; and that part of the Pacific Occam 
which lies between 45°' north and 40° fouth latitude, 
and from 20° to 275° eaft longitude. Within this 
fpace, the mean annual temperature will be found as ex- 
preffed by the following table. The temperatures be- 
yond 80° latitude arQ added, though not Ibidly withio 
the ffandavd. 



A Table 



INTRODUCTION. Ixix 

A Table of the mean Annual Temperature of the ftandard fituation, in every degree of Latitude. 



Lat. 


Temp. 


Lat. 


Temp. 


Lat. 


Temp. 


0° 


84 


33° 


68,3 


62.° 


42>7 


5 


83,6 


34 


67.4 


63 


4«.9 


6 


«3.4 


35 


66,6 


64 


41,2 


7 


^,z 


36 


65.7 


65 


40,4 


8 


82,9 


37 


64>8 


66 


39'7 


9 


82,7 


38 


63.9 


67 


39.1 


lo 


82,3 


39 


63 


68 


38,4 


II 


8: 


40 


62 


69 


37.8 


12 


Ki,7 


41 


61, J 


70 


37.2 


'3 


81,3 


42 


60,3 


71 


36,6 


14 


80,8 


43 


59.4 


72 


36 


15 


80,4 


4+ 


58.4 


73 


35.5 


i6- 


79.9 


45 


57.5 


74 


35 


17 


79.+ 


46 


50'4 


75 


34'5 


18 


7 ^'.9 


47 


55.6 


76 


34.1 


19 


78,3 


48 


54.7 


77 


33.7 


20 


77.8 


49 


53.8 


78 


Zh^ 


21 


77.2 


50 


52,9 


79 


32.9 


23 


76,5 


5' 


52.4 


80 


32,6 


23 


75.9 


52 


51. 1 


81 


32.2 


24 


75.4 


53 


50,2 


82 


32 


25 


74.5 


5 + 


49,2 


83 


31.7 


26 


73.8 


55 


48.4 


84 


3'.5 


27 


72,8 


56 


47.5 


85 


3'.4 


28 


72.3 


57 


46.7 


86 


31,2 


29 


71.5 


58 


45>8 


87 


31.14 


30 


70,7 


59 


45.1 


88 


S'.'o 


31 


69,9 


6o 


44.3 


89 


31.04 


32 


C9,i 


61 


43.5 


90 


3« 



323. The rule by which tliis table has been comput- 
ed, was given by the famous aftronomer Tobias Mayer 
of Gottvgen, and is as follows ; it was conftrufted from 
knowing the mean annual temperatures of two latitudes. 
Let X be the fine of the latitude; then the mean annual 
temperature will be 84—53 ^•'^ ! 'li''' '^» f'"'^"' 84 fub- 
trad 53 muhipUed info the J'quare of the fine of the latitude, 
and the remainder is the mean annual temperature. 

324. The temperatures of different years differ very 
little near the equator, but they differ more and more as 
you approach the poles. 

325. It fcarce ever fieezes in latitudes under 35°, 
except in high fituations ; and it fcarce ever hails in la- 
titudes higher than 60°. 

326. In latitudes between 35" and 60", in places ad- 
jacent to the fea, it generally thaws when the fun's alti- 
tude is 40° or upwards ; and feldom begins to freeze, 
until the fun's meridian altitude is below 40°. 

327. The greateft cold in all latitudes in our hemif- 
phere, is generally about half an hour before fun-rife. 



The greateft heat in all latitudes between 60° Tiud 45° is 
about half-paft 2 o'clock in the afternoon ; between 
latitudes 45° and 35°, about 2 o'clock ; between lati- 
tudes 35° and 25% about half-pafl i o'clock ; and be- 
tween latitude 25° and the equator, about I o'clock. 
On fea, the difference between the heat of day and 
night, is not fo great as on land, particularly in low la- 
titudes. 

328. In all latitudes, January is the coldeft month.. 
July is the warmell month in all latitudes above 48°; 
but in lower latitudes, Auguft is the warmeft. The 
tempcratflre of April approaches more nearly to the 
mean annual temperature, than any other month. 

329. In the higheft latitudes, we often meet with an 
heat of 75° or So°; and in latitudes 59° and 60'' the 
heat of July is frequently greater than in latitude 51". 

330. All countries lying to the windward of high 
mountains, or extenfive forefts, are warmer than thofe 
to the leeward in the fame latitude. 

331. The vicinity to the fea is another circumftance 

which 



-Ixx 



INTRODUCTION. 



which afFe£l3 the temperature of a climate ; as it mode- 
rates the heat from the land, and brings the atmofphere 
down to a ilandard beil fitted to tlie human conftitu- 
tion. In our liemifphere, countries which he to the 
fouth of any fea, are warmer than thofe that have the 
fea he to the fouth of them, becaufe the winds that 
fhould cool them in winter are mitigated by paffing over 
tlie fea ; whereas thofe which are northward of the fea, 
are cooler in fummer by the breezes from it. A north- 
ern or fouthern bearing of the fea, renders a country 
warmer than an eaftern or weftern bearing. 

332. Ifland:. participate more of temperature arifing 
from the fea, and are therefore warmer than continents. 

333. The foils of large trafts of land have their ftare 
in influencing the temperature of the country : Thus, 
ftones and fand, heat and cool more readily, and to a 
greater degree, than mould ; hence, the violent heats in 
the fandy defarts of Ayahia and Africa ; and the intenfe 
cold of Terra del Fuego, and other flony countries in 
cold latitudes, 

334. Vegetables confiderably affeft the temperature 
of a climate. Wooded countries are much colder than 
thofe which are open and cultivated. 

335. Every habitable latitude enjoys a heat of 60° at 
leall, for two months, and this is neceflary for the 
growth and maturity of corn. The quicknefs of vege- 
tation in the higher latitudes proceeds from the time the 
fun is above the horizon. Rain is but little wanted, as 
the earth is fufficiently moiftened by the liquifaction of 
the fnow that covers it during the winter. In this we 
cannot fufficiently admire the wife difpofition of Provi- 
dence. 

336. It is owing to the fame provident hand that the 
globe of the earth is interfedted with feas and mountains, 
in a manner, that feems, on its firft appearance, altoge- 
ther irregular and fortuitous; prefenting to the eye of 
ignorance, the view of an immenfe ruin ; but when the 



effcfts of thefe feeming irregiilatities on the earth are 
carefully infpefted, they are found mod beneficial, and 
even neceflary to the welfare of its inliabitants ; for to 
fay nothing of the advantages of trade and commerce, 
which could not exift without feas, we have feen that it 
is by their vicinity, that the cold of higher latitudes 
is moderated, and the heat of the lower. It is by the 
want of feas, that the interior patts of A/ia, as Siberia 
and Great Tartary, as well as thofe of Africa, are ren- 
dered almoft uninhabitable ; a circumftance which fur- 
nifties a ftrong prejudice againft the opinion of thofe, 
■who thijik !thofe countries were the original habitations 
of man. \ri the fame manner, mountains are neceflary ; 
not only as the refervoirs of rivers, but as a defence 
againfl theTiolence of heat in the warm latitudes ; with- 
out the Alps, Pyrenees, Apennine, the mountains of 
Dauphine, Auvergne, &c. Italy, Spain and Francs 
would be deprived of the mild temperature which they 
now enjoy. Without the Balgate Hills, or Indian 
Apeniiine, India weuld have been a defert. Hence, 
Jamaica, St. Domingo, Sumatra, and moft other iflands 
between the tropics, are furniftied with mountains, from 
which the breezes proceed which refrefh them. 

337. The annual heat of London and Paris is nearly 
the fame ; but from the beginning of April to the end 
of Oftober, the heat is greater at Paris than at London. 
Hence, grapes arrive at greater perfeftion in the neigh- 
bourhood of Paris than about London. 

338. The following table contains a comparifon of 
the temperature of London with feveral other places. 
The firll column contains the place ; the fecond, the 
annual temperature ; the third, the temperature of Jan- 
uary, that being the coldefl month ; and the fourth, the 
temperature of July ; that at London, as the ilandard, 
being eftiraated at 1000. The degree of cold h efli- 
mated in the third columnj and the degree of beat ia 
the fourth and fecond. 



Places. 


An. Temp. 


Temp. Jan. 


Temp. July. 


London - . - . 


1000 


1000 


1000 


Paris - - - - 


102^ 


1040 


1037 


Edinburgh . . . . 


923 


1040 


914 


Berlin - - _ . 


942 






Stockholm - - _ . 


811 


^5^3 


964 


PeterflDurgh - • - 


746 


3 590 


ioo3 


Vienna - - . . 


987 


1305 


1037 


Pekin 


1067 


1730 


1283 


Bourdeaux - - - 


1090 


925 


1139 


Montpelier - - - 


1170 


850 


1 196 


Madeira - - . . 


1319 


559 


1128 


Spanilh Town, in Jamaica - - 


1557 






Madrafs - - - - 


1565 


49 £ 


1349 



339- At 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxi 



3^9. At London, by a mean of tlie obfervatioss made 
at the Royal Society from 1772 to 1 780, it appears 
that the mean annual temperature is 5i°,9, or in whole 
numbers, 52°; and tht monthly temperature is as fol- 
lows : 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July - 

Auguft 

September 

Ottobcr 

November 

December 



42'3 
46,4 

49,9 

56,61 

63,22 

6'„s 
6585 

52,81 

44.44 
41,04 



The grcattit ufual cold is 20', and happens in Janu- 
ary ; the greateit ufual heat is 81° and happens general- 
ly in July. 

The limits of the annual variation are 2°,5, that Is, 
I ° above, and \°,^ below the mean. 

The greateft variations of the mean temperature of 
the fame month in different years, are as follows : 



January 


6° 


July 


2" 


February - 


5 


Auguil 


2 


March 


- 4 


September 


- 3.J 


April 


- 3 


Oftober 


- 4 


May 


- 2,5 


November 


4 


June 


2 


December 


- 3 



Hence It appears, that the temperatures of the fum- 
mers differ much lefs than thofe of the winters. 

Tile muil ufual variations of temperature within the 
fpace of 24 hours in every month, are, 



January 


6° 


July 


10 


February 


. 8 


Augufl 


- 15 


March 


20 


September - 


18 


April - 


18 


Oftober - 


14 


May - 


14 


November - 


- 9 


June 


- 12 


December - 


- 6 



340. At Peterjlurgh, latitude 59''. ^6', longitude 
30°. 24' E. the mean annual temperature is 3S°,8, fiom 
the mean of 6 years. The greatefl cold obferved was 
that at which mercury freezes, that is, 39"^ below 0° ; 
but the greateft mean degree of cold for feveral years 
was 25° below 0°. The greateft fummer heat, on a 
mean, is 79°, yet once it amounted to 94°, It fcarce 
ever hails at this place. 

341. In latitude 79°. 50', Lord MulgrAve obferv- 
ed the greateft heat for two days to be 5^°, and the 
leaft 46°. Mr. Martin obferves, that the weather in 
the polar regions is very unlleady : one hour it blows a 
violent ftorm, and in the next there is a dead calm ; nei- 
ther does it blow long in any one point, but fometimes 
from every poist within 24 hours. After a calm, the 
north wind fprings up firft j the ilcy is feldom pcrfc<rtly 



clear, and ftorms are much more frequent than in lower 
latitudes. 

342. \n Europe, unufual cold in fummer may arife, 
either from a long continuance of eallerly or northerly 
winds, or from frequent and heavy rains, which are fol- 
lowed by great evaporations, or from a long continuance 
of cloudy weather in June and July, which prevents the 
earth from receiving its proper degiee of heat. 

343. The caufes of unufual cold in winter may be 
thele. ift, Unufual cnld In the preceding Jumner. For 
the heat in the winter being in a great meafnre derived 
from the earth, if this be deprived of its ufual heat, the 
want of it muft be perceived in winter. The cold of 
January 1 709, was the fcvcreft, long knos^Ti in p^iiropc ; 
and ^Ir. Derham remarked, that the preceding June 
was fo cold, that his thermometer was near the frce/ijig 
point on the 12th of that month, and the quantiiy of 
rain was much greater than ufual. Mr. Wolf made 
the fame obfervation in Germany. 2dly. Heavy ruin! 

folloived by eaj}cr!y or northerly winds. This circum- 
ftance produces great cold at any time, on account of 
the great evaporation which then takes place by thefe 
dry winds. It took place in Oftober 1708, as Mr, 
Wolf obferved ; and an intenfe cold immediately fol- 
lowed, sdly. Wejierly or foutherly currents, in the upper 
regions of the atwofphere, luhilfl eaflerly or northerly 'winds 
prevail in the lower. For the warm currents are depri- 
ved of their moifture, by the cold of the fuperlor re- 
gions ; and this defcending in the form of fnow, cools 
the Inferior ftrata below their ufual temperature : this 
circumftance alfo took place in 1 709, when the cold was 
greateft. 4thly. The arrival of Siberian, or American 
•winds. Siberia is 2S00 miles eaft of London ; but ac- 
cording to Mr. Smeaton's computation, a common 
high wind moves at the rate of 35 mile* in an hour, and 
therefore may pafs to us in 3 days from Siberia, 
and preferve much of its original degree of cold. 
The winds from Jmerica may alfo arrive in a few 
days ; but their rigour will be abated by pafTuig over 
the fea ; but if the fea have been previoully cooled by 
northerly winds, the wefterly winds may prove very cold. 
Mr. Derham, on comparing his journals with thofe 
of Mr. RoBiE in N'e-w England, found, that after a few 
days, the American winds paffed Into England. The 
wind in 1784 was equally fevere In America, as in Eu- 
rope. 5thly. The fall of a fnperior flratum of the atmof- 
phere. This will happen when a cold wind in the upper 
regions of the atmofphere paffes over a country, the 
lower ftrata of whofe atmofphere are lighter ; and hence 
a low ftate of the barometer generally precedes, fuch ex- 
traordinary cold. It is probably for this reafon, that 
Holland ohaKV experiences a greater degree of cold, 
than other countries under higher latitudes ; for being 
a moill country, its atmofphere abounds more in va- 
pours, which renders it fpecitically lighter ; thus, dur- 
ing the great cold of January 1783, the barometer was 
lower than it had been known to be for 50 years before, 
during that month: and Muschenbrock reraarked, 

thai 



Ixxii 



INTRODUCTION. 



tKat in winter, v,'hen tVie mercury in the barometer de- 
fcends, the cold increafcs. 

344. Land io capable of receiving much more either 
heat or cold, than water. In winter when the furface of 
water is much cooled by contaft with the colder air, the 
deeper and warmer water at the bottom, being fpecifi- 
cally lighter, rifcs and tempers the top, and as the 
colder water conftantly defccnds during the winter, in 
the following fummer the furface is generally warmer 
than at greater depths ; whereas in winter it is colder; 
hence it has been remarked, that the fea is always colder 



in fummer and warmer in winter, after a ftorni, the 
water at great depths being mixed with that at the fur- 
face. Of the following obfeivations, the three firft 
were made by Lord Mulgrave, the three next by 
Wales and I5ayley, and the other by Mr. Bladh. 
The third column expreifes the heat of the air over the 
furface of the fea ; the fourth exprcfles the depth of the 
fea in feet s the fifth cxpreffes the heat of the fea at that 
depth, and the fixth ejcpreffes the heat of the fea at the 
furface. 



Latitude- 


Time. 


Heat of Air. 


Depth. 


Heat of Sea. 


Ht. of Surface. 


67° N. 


June 20 


4S5.5 


4680 


26 




78 N. 


30 


40,5 


708 


3' 




69 N. 


Augufl. 3'. 


59'5 


4038 


32 







Sept. ; 


75.5 


510 


66 


74 


24 S. 


26 


72.5 


480 


70 


70 


34- 4+' S. 


oa. II 


60,5 


/300 


57 


59 


57 N. 


Jan. 8 


^\ 


6 


40 


37 




10 


43.6 


50 


43>'5 


43.5 


SS. 40' N. 


20 


47 


no 


5'>S 


40 


39. 30 N. 


28 


53 


JIO 


5') 


59 


2. S5 N. 


Feb. 25 


8i 


58 


81 


81 


2. 50 N. 


26 


83 


no 


81 


H>S 



345. As the water in the high northern and fouth- 
ern latitudes, is, by cold, rendered heavier than that in 
lower warm latitudes, hence arifes a perpetual current 
from the poles to the equator, which fometimes carries 
down large malfcs of ice, which cool tlie air to a great 
extent. Inland feas of great extent have been frozen 
in very ftvere winters. In 1668, the Baltic was fo 
firmly frozen, that Charles XI. oi Sweden, carried his 
whole army over it ; and the .idr'uitic was frozen in 
1709. The temperatures of land and water differ more 
in winter than in fummer; for in winter, inland coun- 
tries, from lat. 49° to 70° are frequently cooled down 
to 40°, 50°, and fome to 70° below the freezing point ; 
whereas, the fea below lat. 76^ is not colder than 4° 
below that -point in the northern henuTphere, except 
fome narrow feas in the north Pacific Ueean ; but in 
fummer, no confiderable extent of land is heated to 
more than 15" or 20" above the temperature of the fea, 
llony and fandy defarts excepted. 

346. The temperatures . of the fmaller feas, in gene- 
ral, if not furrounded with high m.ountains, are a few 
degrees warmer in fummer, and colder in winter, than 
the,ftandard ocean ; in high latitudes they are frequent- 
ly frozen. 

347. The ivhite fea is frozen in the winter. 

348- The Gjilph of Bothnia is in a great in'eafure 



frozen in winter; but in fummer it is fometimes heated 
to 70". Its general temperature in July is from 48° to 

349. The German fea is about 3° colder in winter and 
5° warmer in fummer, than the Atlantic. 

350. The Mediterranean fea is, for the greater part of 
its extent, warmer both fummer and winter, than the 
Atlant'ic, which, fur that reafon, flows into it. It is 
fometimes frozen in the neighbourhood of Venice. 

351. The Black fta is colder than the Mediterranean^ 
and flows into it. 

352. The Cafpian fea is fituated in the vicinity of 
high mountains, and is in a gieat meafure frozen in win- 
ter. Its level is faid, by Pallas, to be lower than the 
ocean. 

^53. Some idea may be formed what altitudes on the 
furface of the globe aie accelTible to man, by conilder- 
ing the height above the fea of the inferior line of per- 
petual fnow. In the middle of the torrid zone, it ap- 
pears, from Mr. Bouguer's obfcrvations, to be eleva- 
ted 5201 yards, and 4476 about the tropics. In mid- 
dle latitudes there is confliant fnow at the height of 
3300 yards. In lat. 8c° north. Lord Mulgrave 
found the inferior line of fnow to be at the height of 
400 yards : whence we may conclude, that at the poles, 
there is coiillant fnow upon the furface of the earth, 

G/; 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ix:-; 



;m 



On the Divij'iC'is cf the Surface of the Earth. 

354. The furface of the earth contains land and 
lijatcr. The great collcdioi) of water ii called the fea, 
or the ocean ; and this is divided into lln-ee principal 
parts ; t'.ie yitlant'ic Ocean, which divides Europe and 
^Ifiica frotn /imcrlcii ; tlie Pcicifc Ocean, or great ioiilh 
f«,7, which divides /ijia irom /! ,)i rica ; ■nnA\.\\e Indian Aq^l, 
which lies between .-Africa and IS'ialacca, Sumatra, 'Java, 
AvTO HolLwd, &c. Befidcs thefe, there are others which 
take their names from tlie countries again!! which they 
are filu.ated ; as the Irfij Sea, the German Sea. There 
is alfo the Mediterranean Sea, dividing Europe from /</- 
rica ; the B/aci Sea; the Cufpian Sea, which is not 
connetted with the other Seas ; the Red Sea, &c. &c. 

355. A bay, or g;df, is a part of the Sea running in- 
to the land, fo as to have a cor.riderable portion of it, 
more or leis according to circnmftances, bounded by 
fiiores ; as the bay of Bi/cay, the bay of Bengal, HuJfnn\ 
bay, Cardigan bay ; the gulf of I'lnice the gulf of Mexi- 
co, the guif of Jvj/>rt«, &c. &c. If the extent into tlie 
land be but i'mali, it is called a creek, a haven, or a road. 

356. A f rait, orf.raigkl, is a narrow part of the fea 
running between two countries, and connefting two 
feas ; as the ftraits of 'Dover, the ftraits of Giliraltar, 
the ftraits oi Snr.da, the itraits of Magellan, Sec. &c. 

357. A coniiderable body of inland frelh water, is 
called a lake ; as the lake of Gc-neva, lake Ontario, lake 
oi Der-zuent, Sic. &c. 

358. A confiderable ftream of inland water vs'hich 
runs into the fea, is called a river ; and fmaller ftreams 
which run into a river, are called brooii. 

359. A current is a ftream of water upon the fea. 
Under the equator there are fome very violent ones, 
againft which a ftiip cannot make any way. There is 
one which carries a fliip very fwiftly from Jfrica to 
America, but it cannot return the fame way. Governor 
PowNAL obferves, that this current performs a conti- 
nual circulation, fetting out from the coaft of Guinea, 
crofling over the /Itlautic, fetting into the gulf of il^f.vi- 
co by the fouth, and fweeping round by the bottom of 
the gulf, it iffues on the north fide, and goes along the 
coaft of North Anierica till it arrives at NenvfounJIand, 
where it is turned back acrofs the Atlantic to the coall 
of Europe, and thence fouthward to the point from 
which it fcts out. In St. George's Channel there is a 
current which ufually fets in eaftvvard. From the Baltic 
a current fets into the Britijh Channel. It is generally 
allowed, tliat there is alwayj a current fetting round the 

, Capes of Finifterre and Ortcgal into the bay of Bifcay ; 

' and Mr. Rennell has dilcovered that this current is 
vjontinued, and palfes about N. W. by W. from the 
coaft of France, to the wcftv.ard of Scilly and Ireland, 
In crolilng the Atlantic therefore for llie Englifli Chan- 
nel, he advifes the navigator to keep in the parallel of 
^%°. 45', at the highelt, left the current (hould carry 
him upon the rocks of Scilly. From an ignorance of 
litis current, many fliips have been loft on thofe rocks. 

360. A very great extent of land is called a continent. 



of which there arc two ; one contains Europe, /Jfin and 
Africa, and the other contains America ; and thefe a;e 
called the four quarters of the world ; the former is alfo 
called the enjlern, and the latter the lucjlern continent. 

361. A fmail extent of land fui rounded by the fea, 
is called an ijland ; as the ifland of Great Britain, the 
ifland o{ Jamaicei, the lOand of Java, Sec. &c. 

362. If land run out from the main land, and be 
joined to it by a narrow trnft of land, the land fo run- 
ning out is called a reninfn/a, or almoft an ifland ; and 
the narrow tract is called an IJIhmus. 

363. If the land projetl far into the fea witliout an 
illhmus, it is called d promontory, the end of which is 
called a cape. 

On the Component Parts of the Earth. 

364. The two grand divifions of the earth are what 
are ufually called land and mater. The fuhdivifions 
may be as follows : earths and Jlones ; fa/ts ; infammahle 
fubllances; metalic fubftances. 

365. Earths and Stones. Mineralogifts divide 
thcle into calcareous, ponderous, niagnefan or muriatic, 
argillaceous, andfliceous. All ftones and earths confat 
of thefe iubftances, either fi igly, or mixed, or chymical- 
ly combined, together witli faline, inllammable and tr.e- 
talic fubftances, for they are feldom found pure. Thty 
are nearly infoluble in water, and have their fpecific 
gravities between i and 5, that of Vater being i. 

366. Calcareous earth, when freed from the carbonic 
acid by means of heat, and rendered pure from all other 
fubftances, conftitutes lime. Its fpeciiic gravity is about 
2,3. It combines with all acids, and is eafily folublc in 
the nitrous or marine, and forms deliqueicent falts. 
There are a great many fpecimens of this earth ; as 
limeftone, chalk, fclenite, illand cryftals, almoft all 
kinds of fpars, whether tranfparent or opaque, and many 
kinds of marble ; all thefe confift of this earth combined 
with fome acid. To thefe we may add, Ketton ftone, 
Portland ftone, Purbeck ftone. Vegetable and animal 
earths are found to be calcareous; the latter, purely fo ; 
and the former for the moft part, witii a mi.'cture fomc- 
times of the calces of iron and mangancfe ; but tlie 
greater part of the fubftances of vegetables 15 water. 
According to fome late experiments, 33 pounds of oak 
afforded only 3 drachms of afties. Hence we fee why 
clay is unfavourable to vegetation, and how calcaveousi 
earth is introduced into the bodies of animal:. 

367. Ponderous earth, or Larytes, has its fpecific gra- 
vity about 4. Its fpecimens are the ponderous Tpar, or 
marmor metallicum, commonly known by tl<; name of 
Cawk. It combines with acids, and with the nftroiis 
and marine it forms falts that do not deliquefce. This 
earth combined with the xrir.l fluid, has been found at 
Alfton Moor, in Cumberland, and refeniblcs alum. 

368. Magnfan earth has its fpecidc gravity about 
2,33. It combines with acids ; and tiie ipeclmens arc 
fteatites, fbap-rock, French chalk, afbeftos, and talk* 
Epfom fait is alfo a combination of this earth with vi- 
triolic acid. 

I 369. ArgiUi- 



Isxlv 



INTRODUCTION. 



369. y}i-ginaceo:is earth, or day, hss its fpecific gravity 
not above 2. It combines with acids, and with the 
vitrioh'c it forms alum. It imbibes water very ftrongly, 
and, capableof being inoulded into various forms, it is of 
great ufe in the arts and nianufaftories, for the eflential 
ingredient in all kinds of pottery, is clay ; the Englidi 
ftone ware is compofed of pipe clay and ground flints ; 
the yellow Queen's ware is made of the fame materials, 
but in different proportions. China is a femivitrlfied 
earthcrn wart of an intermediate nature between common 
wares and glafs. Chinefe ware is compofed of two in- 
gredients, one a hard flone called /)c'/m«//>, and the other 
eallcd Laoliii. This earth contradts very mucli by heat, 
and thence it has been made ufe of as a meafure of very 
great heats, by confidering the different dcgiees of con- 
traftlon. The natural fpecimtns are, boles, clays, 
niarles, flates, mica, gems, Sec. 

370. Silicerjus earth has its fpecific gravity 2,65. _ It 
is called cryftalline, or vitrifiiblc earth, and combines 
with no acid, except the fparry. Extreme hardnefs is 
one of its properties, fo that ftones, in which it predo- 
minates, as flint, will ftrike fire with ftecl. It may be 
diffolvedby fixed alkalis, either in the dry or wet way. 
Its fpecimens are, cryftal, which is one of the pureft, 
quartz, flints, onyx, jafper, wetftone, fand and gravel, 
&c. The precious ftones are principally compofed of 
argillaceous and filiceous earths. Bergman obtained 
from ICO parts of the following precious ftones : 





Clay 


Flint 


Lime 


Iron 


J:,mcrald 


60 


24 


8 


6 


Sapphire - 


58 


35 


5 


2 


Topaz 


46 


39 


« 


6 


Hyacinth 


40 


25 • 


20 


13 


Ruby - - 


40 


39 


9 


10 



371. Mr. KiRWAx obferves, that the diamond and 
plumbago, cannot properly be arranged under the claf- 
fes of minerals, earths, nor inflammables ; but diamond 
has been fince affigned to the latter clafs. A diamond 
is tranfparent, often colourlefs, ilrikes fire with fteel, 
cuts the hardcft cryftals, and even rubies, being the 
tiardeft of all bodies : Its fpecilic gravity is about 3,6. 
No acid but the vitriolic can affcft it. In a heat fome- 
what greater than that in which filver melts, a diamond 
is entirely volatilized and confumed. Plumbago has 
its fpecific gravity from 1,987 to 2,267. It is inloluhle 
in mineral acids. The fubftance is black without, but 
blueifh white when firft cut. It is ufed for pencils. 

372. Salts are thofe fubftances which are fufible, 
▼olatile, foluble in water, not inflammable, and fapid 
when applied to the tongue. In their moft fimpie ftate 
it is awhile, brittle, and in fome meafure a tranfparent 
Biafs. They are fimpie and compoiird. Simple falts 
are acids and alkalis ; and from their union a compound 
fait is formed, called neutral. Earths and metals will 
alfo unite T\:ith thenj and form compound falts. 



373. ylc'uls are generally fluid, and one mark b}' which 
they may be difcovered, is their property of changing to 
a red, the iiifufion of violets. They are diftinguifhcd 
into mineral, vegetable, and animal. 

374. Mincial acids are the a:!r!Hl, the vitriolic, the 
marine, the nitrous, the fpan-y, the fuccinous, the phof- 
phoric, the molybdeuous, the arfcnical, the tungftenic, 
and the fedative. 

375. Vegetable acids are vinegar, the acids of tartar, 
of fugar, of lorrel, of lemons, and of benjamin. 

376. Animal acids are, acids of milk, of fugar of milk, 
of ants, of tallow, of Pruflian blue, and the acidum 
perlati. 

377. Alkalis are of two forts, fixed and volatile; 
and the fixed are e ther vegetable or mineral. The mi- 
neral fixed alkali is met with in an impure ftate in kdp, 
barilla, foda. The vegetable fixed alkali is met with in 
an impure ftate in fait of tai'tar, pot-afh, pcarl-afh, &c. 
The volatile alkali is never met with but as compound- 
ed with other bodies. It is fold in fliops under th; 
name of fnielling falts. Alkalis change the blue infu- 
fion of violets to green. 

37S. Inflammables. Under this head are includ- 
ed thofe fubftances which are inflammable, and which 
do not come under the denomination of earths, falts, or 
metalic ores, and have general charafters perfeftly dif- 
tinft from them. Of thefe, fome are fluid, and fome 
folid ; the fpecific gravity of the latter never exceeds 
2,5, and the former are the lighteft of all bodies. v 

379. Thefe fubftances are, inflammable air, or fire 
damp, fuch as is frequently found in coal-pits and mines, 
and this will burn when mixed with twice or thrice its 
bulk of common air ; alfo, hepatic air, petrol, Bar- 
badoes tar, mineral.tallow, Scotch coal, Newcaftle coal, 
Cannel coal, Kilkenny coal, amber, copal, fulphur, 
brimftone, &c. 

380- Cannel coal burns with a bright light, and is fo 
hard, that it is ufed to make fnuff-boxes, buttons, &c. 
Newcaftle coal will cake and become cinders. Scotch 
coal burns to a white afli. Kilkenny coal burns with 
lefs flame and Imoak than Cannel coal, and more flou'ly, 
though intcnfely. The earth in this coal does not ex- 
ceed y'o of its weight ; and its fpecific gravity is about 
1,4. Wherever coals exirt, flates are found near them ; 
and fait or mineral Iprings in the neig-hbourhood. 

3K1. Metals. Thefe fubftances are opaque bodies, 
whofe fpecific gravities are above 5. Tlicy are allcon- 
duftors of ehftrlcity,and the bed ot any fubftances. They 
are foluble in nitrous acid, or in aqua regia ; and all preci- 
pitable in fome degree by cauftic alkali. There are 17 me- 
talic fubftances ; gold, platina, filver, copper, iron, lead, 
tin, mercury,zinc,regulus of antimony, regulus of arfenic, 
bifmuth, cobalt, nickel, regulus ot manganefe, and regu- 
lus of molybdena. By the action of fire and air, all me- 
tals, except gold, filver and platina, maybe reduced to a 
fubftanc- called a calx, and they are then faid to be cal- 
cined. The calx is heavier than the metal, owing to 
the pure air which is imbibed during the operation. 
Certain metals eafily combine together ; and hence tliey 

aie 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxv 



arc iifcJ ior folileiiiig : Tims, tin is a folder for Lad; 
braf!., ^old, or J'tk'ti-; is a folder for iron. 

382. Gold, lilver, platlna, and nierc;iry, are called 
pfi-feS metals, becaiile when calcined, they recover their 
plilogillon without the addition of any phlogillic fub- 
llance. Copper, iron, lead, and tin, aie called imperfrB 
metals, becaiife they cannot be entirely reduced without 
the addition of fome phlogillic fiibihince. All thele 
however (even mercfury when iolid) are niallealile to a 
cettain degree. The other eight are calledymi-nittal,-, 
and are fcarcely at ail malleable. 

3f<3. Gold has a fpecilic gravity fometimes as far as 
!-9,64 ; and is foluble only in aqua regia. Ifexpofed 
to the utmoft heat, it lofes none of its weight. In its 
PTitive llate it is found in kimp^, or in vifible grains mixed 
with fand, or embodied in earths or ftones. When pure, 
it is alnioll as foft as lead, and is neither elaltic nor fo- 
norous ; an alloy of filver and copper, each one part to 
2 2 of pure gold, will make it as hard as our coin. 

384.. Silver when pure has a fpecific gravity of 
1 1 ,C95 ; and is foluble in concentrated vitriolic acid with 
the afliftance of heat, and in moderately diluted nitrous 
acid without heat. Native filver is found in a granular, 
leniellar, filamentous, capillary, abforbent, or cryftalized 
form, in various earths and (lones. Alfo in leparate 
maiTes. Pure filver is too foft to be ufed without alloy. 
In the Britilh coinage, 15 parts of filver are alloyed with 
one of copper. 

■' 385. Platina when pure has its fpecific gravity very 
nearly 23. It is found only in the gold mines at Peru, 
and comes to us in the form of large Imooth grains, of 
an irregular figure, intermixed with quart/, and a ferru- 
ginous fand. It is foluble only in aqua regia, or de- 
phlogifticated marine acid ; and is about as hard as fteel. 

386. Mercury in its pure ftate has a fpecific gravity 
of about 13,6, and its liquidity diftinguiihes it from all 
other metals. Native mercury is found flowing from a 
{hiftofe or quartzy matrix, mixed with lome other metals. 
In Sweden and Germany it is found united to filver in the 
form of a fomewhat hard and brittle amalgam. It has 
alfo been found diffufed through mafies of clay, and 
fome particular kind of ftones. It is readily dilTolved in 
nitrous acid, and combines with almoft all metalic fub- 
ftances. 

387. Copper has a fpecific gravity from 8,7 to 9,3. 
It is foluble in acids, alkalis, and neutral falts. Native 
copper is found either in grains, or in large folid lumps, 
or in a foliated, capillary, arborefcent form, or cryfta- 
lized in quadrangular pyarmids, or in clay, quartz, &c. 
It mixes with the other mttals, and is coniiderably hard, 
and malleable. Brafs is a mixture of pure copper, with 
a fourth part of pure zinc. Copper mixed with tin, 
form gun ineiai. Copper alloyed with tin, make bell- 
metal. Copper and lead n\?ik£ poi-melal. Bronze is a 
compound of copper and tin, to which zinc 13 fome- 
times added. Piuchbecl is a kind of brafs made in imi- 
tation of gold. 

388. Iron has its fpecific gravity from 7,6 to 8. It 
is foluble in all acido, and is more difficult to be lufed 



than any of the metalic fubftances, plat ina and manganefc 
excepted. Native iron cxifts in many place."!. Its ores 
are either purely calciform, as in orchres ; or the calces 
are mixed with earths, as in fpats, jafper, &c. Or the 
iron is mineralized with fulphur, asin pyrites. Siccl is 
ufually made by cementation from the bell forged iron, 
with tnatters of the inflammabie kind. Call iron is not 
malleable, and fo hard that a file will not touch it. 

T.^(). Lead hm a fpecific gravity from i 1,3 to 11,479. 
It is more or lefs foluble in all acids ; foft, and eafy of 
fufibility. Native lead is faid to have been found in 
MonmoulhJI.nre in fmall pieces, and in fome other places. 
1'he ores of lead are moflly found amoiigft calcareous 
and pondeious earths. It is alfo found mineralized. By 
heat and air, lead is converted inlo minium, or red le.ui. 
The calces of lead are ufed for painting. Lead is ufcd 
as a preparation of enamels, and of porcelain as a flux, 
and makes the bafis of the glazing of pottery wares. 

390. Tin has its fpecific gravity from 7 to 7,45. It 
diflolves m fpirit of fait or aqua regia ; is not quite fo 
fott as lead ; and melts the moft readily of all metals. 
Native tin has been found in Cornivall'm the form of thin 
flexible laminae ilfuing out of a matrix of quartz, or re- 
gularly cryfl:alized. The ores of tin are generally calces 
of that metal in a cryftalized form, bedded moftly in a 
filiceous matrix. Pewter is a mixture of tin and lead. 

391. Regulus of antimony in its pure ftate has its fpe- 
cific gravity 6,^6. Its colour ii a filvery white ; very 
brittle ; and is foluble in a confiderable degree by feveral 
acids. The moft common ore of this metal is anti- 
mony. 

392. Regulus of arfenic has its fpecific gravity f',\\. 
Its colour is bright yellowilh white, but grows black 
by expofure to the air. It is very brittle ; is eafily folu- 
ble in the nitrous acid ; with more difficulty in the vi- 
triolic ; and fcarce at all in the marine. The ores are 
found principally in Saxony. It is a ftrong poifon, and 
is foluble in 80 times its weight of water. 

^93. Bifmuth has its fpecific gravity from 9,6 to 9,7. Its 
colour is reddilli, or ycllowiili white, and it is very brittle. 
It is foluble in aqua regia ; fearccly in the vitriolic acid ; 
and ftile lefs In the marine. Its ores are generally found 
mixed with cobalt. 

394. Cobalt has Its fpecific gravity about -,7. It is 
of a blueilh grey colour ; is very brittle ; and its fufibility 
is nearly as that of copper. Its calx melted wi(h liorax, 
pot-afh, and white filiceous fand, gives a bhic glafs. It i? 
never found native. 

795. Kickelh--, its fpecific gravity tiom 7,421 to 9. 
Its colour is reddiftr white, and it is very hard ; and its 
fufibility Is nearly as that of copper. It diifolves in ni- 
tious acid, and aqua regia. It is found native, and alfo 
with other metals. 

396. Regulus cf mungancfe has its fpecific gravity 
6,85. Its colour is dulky white ; It is harder than Iron, 
and very brittle ; and is foluble in acids. It is not found 
native. If a glob\de of miciocolnuc lalt be melted on 
a piece of charcoal, and a imall piece of the black calx 
of tills nietal be added, it foi ms a blucifli red glafs. 

1 2 jtyy. Mohh- 



Ixxvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



;597. Molyldeiia has its Ipecitic gravity 5,69. It is 
of a lead colour, refembling plumbago. No acids aft on 
it, but the arfenical and nitrous. 

398. Chrome, fylvanite, titanium, and other newly 
difcovtred femi-raetals, are rather objtcls of curiofity 
than of utility. 

399. Mr. KiRWAM divides mountains into iutlre, 
ftraiifiid, confiiftti, and volcanic, 

400. Iniirc mountains are tormcd of done, without 
aay regular lifTure, and raollly homogeneous. They 
ronfift. of granite, llagftone, limcllonc, gypfuiii, &c. 
and of iron ore. 

4c I. Stra:ifici{ mountains are thofe which are regu- 
larly divided by joints or filTures. 

402. Confufed mountains, are thofe of a confufed 
ftvutture, confining of all forts of ftones heaped toge- 
ther, with fand, clay and mica; but with fcarcely any 
ores. 

403 The ftrata of which mountains coruift, are either 
lomogeneovs, or heterogeneous. 

4C4. Homogeneous confift chiefly of argillaceous ftonea, 
or fdiceous ; or of both, the one behind the other. 
Sometimes of limftone ; and i'ometimes the argillaceous 
are covered with granite, and lava. Thefe mountains 
ire alfo, the chief feat of mctalic ores, running in veins 
and not in ftrata. 

405. Heterogeneous confift of alternate ftrata of ftones, 
earths, metalic ores, and fometimes lava, coal, bitumen 
.and peirifaflions are here found. Alfo, falts, gold in 
fandy ftrata, iron and copper in ftrala, lead ore, &c. 

406. Volcanic mountains appear to have fome connec- 
tion with the fca, for they are generally in i:5 neigh- 
bourhood. On the top there is a hollow like an inverted 
cone, called the crater, through wliich the lava gene- 
rally pafFes ; though fometimes it burfts out on the 
fides, and runs a led hot river of matter, or lava. Thcfe 
eruptions are frequently attended with thunder, light- 
ning, and earthquakes. In 1779 the lava of iVJount' 
Veluvius almoft deftroyed the town of Torre del Greco, 
the inhabitants of which had fcarcely time to fave 
themfclves. From the immenfe quantity of matter 
thrown up at different times, without dlminifliing their 
apparent bulk, we may conclude the feat of tlicie fires 
to be many miles under ground. The exploliou and 
eruption of the melted matter probably arife fiom water 
getting down upon the fiic, and then being converted 
into an elaftic vapour, the force of which is known to 
be fevcral ihoufand tinias greater than that of gunpow- 
der. If the fuperincumbent weight be too great for the 
force, it then may produce earthquakes without an 
erupiion. The. fubftanccs ejefted are, phlogifticated, 
fixed, and inflammable air, water, afties, pumice ftones, 
ftones that have undergone no fulion, and lava. Stones 
of 10 feet diameter are fometimes thrown to great dif- 
lances. 

407. Petrifadicii! are of Ihells found on or near the 
furface of the eartli ; of fi(h deeper, and of wood the 
dceptft. Thofe fubilances which refift putrefaction the 
moll, are fre(][U€ntly found petrified ; and thofe that are 



moft apt to putrify are feldom found petrified. Pctri- 
fadlions are moft commonly found in ftrata of marl, 
chalk, or clay ;but they fometimes are found in gypfum, 
pyrites, ores of iron, copper and filvcr. They are 
formed in climates where their originals could not have 
exiftcd. 

408. Water, perfedlly pure, is tranfparent, without 
colour, tafte, or fmell. Wlien cxpofed to a certain de- 
gree of cold, it becomes a folid ; and when expofed to 
a certain degree of heat, it is diftipated in vapour. It 
is incompreliible by any liuman force ; but by heat and 
cold its bulk is increafed and dimiiiiflied. In an open 
veflel, it is incapable of receiving above a certain degree 
of heat ; but in a confined veffel, the heat may be in- 
creafed beyond that. Till lately, water was thought a 
fimple fubitance, but Mr. Cavendish has dilcovered 
that it is a compound of two airs, inflammable and de- 
phlogifticated, or vital air ; for if theft airs be burned 
together, water is produced, which is faid to be equal 
in weight to that of the quantities of air made ufc of ; 
it is therefore fuppofcd, that during combuftion, the la- 
tent heat that maintained the arial form is given out. 

409. Rain is the pureft natural water. But water 
has the capacity of holding in folution a variety 
of fuhftances, as earths, falts, and ir.etals ; and the water 
of fprings receives its name from the fubftance it holds 
in folution. Thefe v.'aters however may be obtained 
pure by diftiilation. The fubftances held in folution by 
water, are ; 

410. Fixed air. This gives a brifknefs to waters, 
fimilar to that of fermenting liquors, which is chiefly 
obierved when the water is poured from one veffei to 
another It is very volatile, and efcapes when the water 
is expofed to the air. 

411. Vitriolic, nitrous, and muriatic acid. One or 
otlier of thefe exift in almoft all mineral waters ; but 
fometimes the vitriolic cxifts in a feparate ftate, and gives 
the water an acidity. 

412. Alialinefalt. This is found in many waters in 
Hungary, Tripoli, and other countries. It is ufually 
the foffil alkali which is combined with fixed air in the 
Seltzer -waters; and with the mineral acids in oth.ers. 
The vegetable and volatile alkalis rarely are found in 
mineral waters. 

413. Neutral falts. Thefe are not uncommon in 
fprings. Common falts, nitre, and vitriolated magncfia, 
are moft ufual ; the latter abounds in a fpring at tpfom, 
and is called Epfom fait. Sal amoni.ic is found in 
fprings ill the neigh; ourhood of volcanoes, and burning 
coal mines. 

414. Earthy fuhjlances- The calcarec.is earth is 
commonly found united with the vitiioHc acid. Cal- 
careous nitre and muriated calcareous earth are alfo 
found in fprings. Waters containing only earth, or fe- 
Icnites, are called hard, and do not diflolve foap well. 

415. Sulphur. Many waleis by their fmell feem to 
contain fulphur, though very few of them are found to 
afford it. Thele waters are generally impregnated with 
a fulphureous gas. 

416. Metals. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxvii 



416. Mctah. Of ihefe, iron is moil frequent, nnd forms 
what is called the Chalybeate waters, and tliefe ari; very 
common. Some waters contain copper, and more rare- 
ly zinc. Sea water contains, befides earthy and Itle- 
nitic matters, a Jnrge quantity of mineral falls. 

41 7. Of fpiings containing thefe waters, fomc are rolil, 
and fomc a e hot, fometimes almoll to a degree of boiling. 
Mr. TissiNGTON obferve'-, that waters flowing through 
a bine marl lilkd with pyrites, are warm; and Mr GuoT- 
TARD has remarked, that all the hot mineral fprings m 
France P.ow throngli fliilhis. fience, there isno occafioiito 
derive their heat from any fubterraneoiis volcano, as the 
heat may be acquired by the waters wadiing the py- 
rites, and other like minerals, in a ftate of f]>ontaneons 
dccompofiticn, during which they always acquire a con- 
fidcrable heat. 

4rH. Sea water has been obferved to contain more 
fait in hot than ui cold climates. The quanti.y of common 
fait in fea water, is to tli- quantity of water, as 3 or 4 to 
100; the water is tlierefore far from being faturated, 
for water is capable of diilolving nearly a fourth part or 
its weight of fait. Common i'alt is obtained from fea 
water by evaporation, the water thus efcaping and leav- 
ing the fait behind. The water which efcapes is frefh. 
Hence, fea water may be rendered frefh, by adapting a 
tube to the lid of a common kettle, and condtniing the 
ifeara in a hogfhead as a receiver. Thus frefh water 
may be obtained at fea. 

419. We will briefly note the compofuion of the wa- 
ters in fome of tlie molt remarkable fprings. 

42c. /-ix-la-Chapelle. The waters here are hot and 
fulphureous. Their talle is faline, bitter, and urinous. 
A gallon of this water contains 2 fcruples of fea fait, the 
fame quantity of chalk, and 1 \ dram of foffd alkali. They 
are generally cathartic and diuretic, and promote per- 
fpiration. Their heat is from 106° to 130° of Tah- 
renhiit's thermometer. 

421. Bath. The waters here are hot ; but have dif- 
ferent degrees of heat in the different baths, of which 
there are fix ; the nature of the water however is the 
fame in all. The principal baths are the King s bath, 
the ^leen'i bath, and the Crofs bath. The two former 
raife the thermometer to 1 16°, and the latter to .' 1 l". 
The water has a flight faline, bitterifli, and chalybeate 
tafte, and fometimes a fmall degree of fulphureous fmeil. 
One gallon of this water contains 23 grains of chalk, 
the fame quantity of muriat tf magnefia, 3 i grains of 
fea fait, and 8,1 grains of aerated iron. The water ope- 
rates powerfully as a diuretic, and promotes pcrfpira- 
tion. If drunk at once in large quantities, it fometimes 
purges; but in fmall quantities it has a contrarv efTeft. 

422. Br'i/lol. The fprings are here called the / ot- 
•wel/s. The water at its origin is warm, and iparkling. 
It has no fmell, and is pleafant to the talle. It raifes 
the thermometer from 70° to 80°. One gallon con- 
tains I2| grains of chalk, 5 J grains of muriat of mag- 
r.efia, and 6i- grains of fea fait. 

423. Buxton. The hot bath here raifes the thermo- 
meter to 8i° or 82°. It has a pleafant taftc, and con- 
tains a Utile calcareous earth, with a fmall qagniity of 



fea fait, and a very fmall portion of cathartic fait. There 
isalfo a cold chalybeate water. 

424. Cheltenham. The water here is a cathartic 
chalybeate, a gallon of which contains 8 drams of cath- 
aitic fait, partly vitrlolatcd natron, partly viiriolated 
magnefia ; 2J grains of magnefia, partly united with 
marine, and partly with aerial acid ; and nearly 5 grains 
of Iron combined with aerial acid ; it yields alio 24 
o.unce meafnres of fixed air, and? of azotic and hepatic air. 

425. Harroii'gate. Mere are four fprings nearly alike, 
except in the faline matter ; of the three old ones, the 
highell contains 3 ounces of folid matter, the lovvefl 
I j ounce, and the middle one t ounce; of the fourth, 
140 grains are earth. The water is clear and Iparkling, 
and has a llrong fmell of fulphur, with a lalt talle, as it 
contains fea fait, a little marine fait of magnefia, and 
calcareous earth. When taken plentifully, the water is 
cathartic. 

426. Matlock. Here are feveral fprings of warm water 
flightly impregnated with iron. Its heat is about 69°. 

427. Scarborough. The waters here are chalybeate 
and cathartic. There are two wells. In one, one gal- 
lon of water contains 52 grains of calcareous earth, 2 of 
ochre, and 266 of vitrlolatcd magnefia; in the other,., 
it contains 70 grains of calcareous earth, 139 of vitrio- 
lated magnefia, and 11 of fait watei_. The waters have 
abrilk, pungent, chalybeate tafte, at both the fountains ; 
but at one, called the cathartic, the water talles bit- 
terifh, which is not the cafe with the other, called the 
chalybeate. 

4^8. Pyrmo?it. This Is a brillc chalybeate, abounding 
in fixed air; and when taken from the fountain, 
fparkles very much ; It has a 'ane, pleafant, vinous tafte, 
and a little fulphureous fmell. A gallon contains 46 
grains of chalk, 15,6 of magnefia, 30 of vitrlolatcd mag- 
nefia, 10 of fea fait, and 2,6 of crated iron. This 
water is diuretic, fudorific, and in large quantity it is 
cathartic. 

429. At Geyfer, in Iceland, there fprings up a hot 
water, which, upon cooling, depofits filiceous earth ; 
the water Is thrown to the height of 90 feet, and after 
its fall, its heat is 212°. 

4^0. About 60 yards from the fliore of the ifland of 
Jfchia, at a place called St. /■.•..gelo, a column of boiling 
water bubbles on the fea, and communicates its heat to 
the waters about it. It boils In winter and fummer, and 
is of great nfe to the inhabitants in bending their planks 
for fliip building I'he fifhermen alfo h.ere boil their 
filh. Near the ihore of this ifland. Sir. W. Hamilton- 
found, when bathing in the fea, ".laiiy fpqts where the 
land was fo intenfely hot, aa to oblige him to retire 
quickly 

431. Water heated 10212", when the barometer is 
at ,()\, flies off in fteam, and becomes an elaftlc fluid, 
at Icaft 800 times rarer than air. This elaftlc fluid Is 
the moft powerful agent that can be employed In work- 
ing machines. The ileam may he rcdifced back to 
water, by projefling cold water amongft it. Upon • 
the principle of generating fleam and then dtf- 
troying it, the fteam engine is founded. When 

the 



Ixxvili 



INTRODUCTION. 



the fleam is admitted under tlie pifton, the pillon 
is forced up ; and when the ileam is deftroyed by pro- 
jefting water up into the tube in which the pifton workf, 
the pilton defcends by the weight of the atniofphere 
prefiing upon it. And fo akernately, as long as llie 
engine works. 

432. Air. Common atmofpherieal air is an elaftic 
fluid, invifible, infipid, inodorous, and fonorous. Ac- 
cording to the prefent doArine of cheniiftry, it is prin- 
cipally compofed of two airs, tJrphlogiJlicaleil, or vital 
air, and phlogl/licaled aij. But bcfides tliefe, the com- 
mon air mult be combined with other airs ariliiig from 
fermentation, putrefaction, 5;c. and various other fnb- 
ilances. Dcphlogifticated air was difcovered by Dr. 
Priestly, and is the pure part of the atniofphere, or 
that part which is fit for refpiration. PiilcgilHcated air 
IS totally unfit for refpiration, as no animal can live in it. 
Dr. Priestly moillened various eartiiy fiibllances, as 
miniimi, dialJc, clay, Sai. w'llh. fpiiits of nitre, and by 
dillillation he produced an air; and he confiders this 
air, which he calls dephhgilVicoied air, as one of the con- 
ilituent parts of the atmofphere ; and that the other con- 
ftituent parts are earth and as rnwch. phlogijlon as is necef- 
fary to its elafticity, and to render the air as pure as it 
is ufually found. M. Lavoisier found, that a mix- 
ture of 72 parts of phlogifticated, and 28 parts of 
dephlogiilicated air, made a fluid like to our atmof- 
pherieal air ; and he concluded that the atmofphere was 
a mixture of thcfe two airs : for by applying fub- 
ilances which have an affinity to vital air, the portion of 
this fluid which is in the atmofpherieal ai', is abforbed, 
and the refidium is phlogifticated air. Other chemifts 
fuppofe that it is not a mere mixture, but a chemical 
compound ; for as the vital air is of greater fpecific 
gravity rfian the phlogifticated, they ought to feparate, 
if it was only a mixture, the vital air remaining below, 
being of the greater fpecific gravity, and the other af- 
cending. But this is not found to take place. The 
French chemifts confider dephlogillieated air as confift- 
ing of a bafis called oxygenc, or the acidifying principle, 
combined with fire. That an acid is contained in the 
air, is probable from the change of colour induced on the 
tincture of turnlole by the electric fpark paffing through 
air in contaft with that li.^uor. And this alfo ftiows, 
that the eleftric fpark decompofcs the air, and dilen- 
gages the acid. Common air is alfo found to diflTolve 
feveral earthy and metalic fubftances ; indicating thereby 
an acidity. 

433. Vital air is fo called, becaufe it is peculiarly ne- 
ceft'ary for refpiration ; for animals will live much longer 
in th;s air than in the common air. All perfons who 
have refplred vit;il air, agree, that it commu.iicates a 
gentle vivifying heat to the lungs, which infenfibly ex- 
tends to all parts of the body. And animals will live 
four or five times as long in this air, as in common air. 
But all animals die in phlogifticated air. Vital air is 
alfo neceffary for combuftion ; for when bodies burn in 
common air, it is the vital part ^^hich afllfts combuftion ; 
for there is no cor.ibuftion without this air. If you 



plunge a lighted candle into a reflcl filled with this air, 
the flame becomes more ardent and bright, and the com- 
buftion it tour times more rapid. Phlogifticated air is 
unfit for combuftion. That air therefore which is iie- 
ccflaiy for the iupport of life, is alfo necefi'ary for the 
fupport of fire ; and that air which is deftruftive of the 
former, is alfo unfit for the latter. ■ 

434. Air is neceflary for vegetation, or the life of 
plants. For plants will not grow in vacuo. Dr. 
Prifstly difcovered, that plants will rot only grow in 
confined air, but alfo in aii vitiated by burning and re- 
fpiration, and that luch air was meliorated by vegeta- 
tion, and thence concluded, that vegetation was employ- 
ed by nature as one mear. of purifying the air, which 
mult be continually corrupted by refpiration, putrefac- 
tion, and combuftion. M. Ingenhousz has pu"fiied 
this fiibjeiit by a courfe oi expcnmentf, andeftabliftied 
the following fafts : 

435. All plants poftefs a power of correAing foul air 
unfit for refpiration ; but tiiis happens only in clear day 
light, or in the fiin-fhine. 

436. All plants yield a certain quantity ofdephlo- 
gifticated air in the day time, when growing in the open 
air, and free from fliade. 

437. Plants evaporate bad air by night, and fouls 
the common air which furrounds them ; but this is far 
over-balanced by their beneficial operation in the day. 

438. Hence he concludes, that the facidty which 
plants have of yielding dcphlogifticated air, of correifting 
foul air, and improving ordinary air, is not owing 
to vegetation, as luch : for if it were, plants would exert 
this faculty at all times, and in all places, where vege- 
tation goes on ; which is not the cale. A plant may thrive 
well in darkneis, and fpread round its deleterious exhala- 
tions, and have no power to correct the badnefs of the 
air. This operation of correcting bad air, he imputes 
to the influence of the light of the fun upon the plant. 
He (hows, however, that the light of the fun by itfelf, 
without the affiilance of plants, does not improve air, 
but rather renders it woile. He found alio, that 
plants have the faculty of abforbing air, then of elabora- 
ting it, and pouring out pure vital air ; but that this 
takes place only in the day. He alfo eftabliflied thefe 
fafls : 

439. That flowers ooze out an unwholefome air by 
day and bv night, and ipoil a eonfiderable body of air 
about them. 

440. That all fruits exhale a deleterious air by day 
and by night, and fpread a poifonous quality through 
the furroimding air. 

441. That the roots of plants, when kept out of the 
ground, yield, in general, bad air, and Ipoil common air 
at all times, fome few excepted. 

442. Tiiat dcphlogifticated air from the leaves of 
plants, does not exill in tiiat ftate in the plant, but that 
the air within the leaves is purified, and the pure par-t 
efcapes. 

443. It appears probable, that one of the great labo- 
ratories of nature for purifying the air, is placed in the 

leaves 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxix 



leaves of trees anil vegf t:il)les, and put in aftion by tlie 
influence of tlie light ; and that the air thus puriiicd is 
grown nfclcfs or noxious to the [jlant, and is thrown out 
principally by the excretory duels, placed, for the moit 
part, on the under fide of the leaves ; and this air being 
heavier than common air, it defcends, and meliorates the 
air in which we breathe. Buc moli; funl airs are lighter 
than common air, and therefore they alcend, and efcape 
us. Thefe are llriking iiillances of the wifdom and be- 
nevolence of Providence. The infiuence of the vege- 
table creation ccafca in winter ; but this lofs is amply 
coinpenlated by the diminution of the general caule of 
corruption, vi^. Heat ; as heat greatly promotes putre- 
fatlion. 

444. Dr. Priestly dif-jovered that plants thrive 
better in foul than in vital air ; and by their having the 
power to correft bad air, and give out again the pure 
part, it follows, that the vegetable kingdom is fubfer- 
vient to the animal ; and that air rendered noxious by 
animal rcfpiration, ferves to plants as a kind of nourifli- 
mcnt. 

445. The air which we breathe is rendered unfit for 
refpiration, by receiving a portion of fixed air, which is 
generated in our body. We confume, by each infpira- 
tion, about 30 cubic inches of air. 

446. By the experiments of Dr. Hales, we know 
that all bodies contain a great quantity of air in a fixed, 
non-elallic Hate ; and this air is rendered elallic, and ex- 
pelled from the body, by heat. He found, that from a 
cubic inch of heart of oak, was generated 216 cubic 
inches of air, the weight of which was \ of the weight 
of the oak. A cubic inch of NewcalUe coal gave out 
360 cubic inches of air, which is nearly j- of the weight 
of the coal. As air therefore conditutes fo confiderable 
a part of fome bodies, it fec-ms that the ilatein which it 
exiits in tlie body, may be that of a folid, and may ferve 
as a cohtfion for the other parts. There feenis to be 
nothing in this fuppofition inconfillent with other pro- 
perties of air, as we know that the mixtures of two airs 

»\vill produce water. That the air iu the body mud 
have been in a non-claftic ftate, is manifeft from hence, 
that, in the laft inftance, if the air which was expanded 
into an elaftic fluid ot at leaft 360 times its original 
bulk, ftiould he compreiTed again into its oiiginal bulk, 
its elallicity would be increaled 360 times, in which 
ilate, its force would be fufficieut to rend a body, in 
which it might be confined, to atoms. With the ori- 
ginal denfity, therefore, it muft have exilled in a ilate of 
non-elalticity. 

447. The airs thus produced from bodies by diililla- 
tion, fermentation, &c. have different properties accord- 
ing to the diiferent bodies. There is what is called the 
vinous air, ariling from vegetables ; calcareous air, or air 
from calcareous earths ; this is called fixed air ; in/rio/ic 
acid air, ariling from a mixture of vitriolic acid and in- 
flammable fubltance.s ; inJJanunalls air, arifing from a 
mixture of water, vitriolic acid, and zinc, iron, &c. 
And airs are formed from various other combinations 
of iubftantfes, from which the airs take their name. 

8 



The inflammable air is that with which balloons are 
filled. A mixture of this and common air will take 
fire. It io 10 times lighter than the common air. All 
the airs thus generated, cwWkA fadil'tous airs, arc noxi- 
ous; but mod of them being lighter than common air, 
they afcend in the atmofphere as foon as they arc 
formed. 

448. Vegetation-. Mr Hales, in his vegetable 
Jlnlics, has made a grrat number ot experiments in order 

to eltablifh the principles of vegetation; we ihall therefore 
hcie give the refult of his enquiries ; wiili fome fuither 
obfervations on plants, and the analogy between them 
and the animal creation. 

449. The fubflancc of vegetables is compofed of ful- 
phur, volatile fait, water, earth, and air. 

450. Water and air enter by the roots and afcend in 
the refpcSive tubes, the water forming the fap; and na- 
tiu'e has taken care to cover the roots with a very fine 
thick ilrainer, that nothing can be admitted into them 
but what can readily l:c carried off by perfpiration, ve- 
getables having no other provifion for difcharging their 
recrement. 

45 1 . The elaftic aereal fluids diftend each dutlile part, 
and by enlivening and invigorating the fap, and mixing 
with the other principles, they, by heat and motion, 
affimulate into the nourifhment of the refpeiSfve parts. 
While in this nutritive ftate, by the gradual cohefion of 
the conftituent particles, they arc at length formed into 
a firmly corapatted body. 

452.. The fap riics all winter, but in a fmallcr degree 
than in the funmier. And the perfpiring matter of treee- 
is rather, adluated by \varmth, and fo exhaled, than pro- 
truded by the faip upwards. 

453. The air enters into the vegetable, r«vt v.ily by 
the roots, but alfo by the trunk and leaves, efpecialiy at 
night, when they are changed from an expiring to an 
imbibing ftate. Part of the nourifhment of vegetables 
arifes alfo from the leaves plentifully imbibing dcw« 
and rain, which contain fait, fulphur, &c the air being 
impregnated with thefe fubilances. 

454. Leaves are alfo inftrumental in drawing nom'ift.-- 
meiit from the roots, and furnlfhing the young llioots 
with nutriment. They alfo contain the main e.scretcrjr. 
dufts, and feparate and carry off the redundant watery 
fluid, which by being long detained, would turn lancid^ 
and be prejudicial to the plant ; thus leaving the mere 
nutritive jjarts to coalcfce. 

455. The ufe of leaves, which are placed juft where- 
the fruit joins to the tree, is to bring nonriflimcnt to the. 
fruit ; accordingly we find that tiie leaves, next adjoin- 
ing to bloflbms, are, in the ipring, very much expanded, 
u'lien the other leaves on barren flioots are but begin- 
ning to fhoot : So provident is nature in making time- 
ly provifion for nouriftiing the eiribryo fruit. The 
pedals of leif-llalks are alio placed where nouriftiment 
Is wanted to produce leaves, ftioots, and fruit ; and fome 
fucli thin leafy expanfion is fo necefl^ry for this purpofe, . 
that nature provides fmall thin cxpanfions, which may 
be called primary leaves, that ferve to protedl and draw 

nouriftiment 



•Ixxx 



INTRODUCTION. 



iioiiri'.liment to tl'.e young fiioot and L'af-budo, before 
tl-ie leaf itfclfis expanded. 

456. A dilating fpongy fubftance, by equally ex- 
panding itfelf every \vay, would not produce a !(T!i(|; 
fiendcr flioot, but rather a globofe one ; to prevent 
which, nature has provided feveral dinphragir.s, befidos 
ttiofe at each knot, which are placed at fniall diiiances 
acrofs the pitii, thereby preventing its too great lal'er^.l 

.dilatation. We may alfo obferve, by the bye, that na- 
ture makes ufe of the fame artifice in the giowth of the 
feathers of birds. 

457. The great quantity of moifture perfpired by 
the branches of trees, during the cold winter rca.'"on, 
fljows the reafon why along ferics of cold north-eallerly 
winds blafts the blofToms and tender fruit, the moilhire 
exhaling faflcr tlian it can be fupplied by the trees. 
Hence the ufe of fnow in covering the leafy fpires of 
corn, in fuch weather. 

458. The proof we have of the utility of leaves in 
drawing up the fap, and the care nature takes In fur- 
iiifliing the twigs with plenty of them, principally near 
the fruit, may inflruft us, on one hand, not to be too 
lavilh in pruning them off, and to be careful to leave 
fomc on the branch beyond the fruit ; and on the other 
hand, to be careful to cut oft all fuperflnous fhoots, as 
they draw away a great quantity of nourifnment. 
Thus far Mr. Hales. 

459. When a feed is fown in a reverfed pofition, the 
young root turns downwards and enters the earth, and 
the ftem bemls upwards into the air. Confine a flem to 
an inclined pofition, and its extremity will foon afTume a 
pei-pendicular pofition. Tui-n a bi^anch fo that the 
under iide of the leaves may be upward, and the leaves 
will foon regain their natural pofitions. Many leaves 
follow the motion of the fun ; in the morning their fu- 
perior furfaces are towards the eaft ; at noon, towards 
thefouth; at evening, towards the weft; and duinng 
the night, or in rainy weather, thefe leaves are horizon- 
tal, with their inferior furfaces towards the earth. What 
13 called the Heep of plants, affords another inftauce of 
vegetable motion. The leaves of many plants fold up 
in the night, and open again in the day. And it is 
ivorthy of remark, that they all diipofe themftlves fo as 
to give the belt pi-otedlion to the young ftems, flowers, 
buds, or fruit. Many flowers have alio the power of 
moving. Dui'ing the night, many of them are cnclofed 
in their calixcs. Some flowers, when afleep, hang their 
mouths towai'ds the earth, to prevent the noxious etfecls 
of rain or dew. If a veffel of water be fet within fix 
inches of a growing cucumber', the diieftion of its 
branches will foon tend towards the water. When a 
pole is placed at a confiderable diftance from an unfup- 
ported vine, the bi-anches will foon tend towards the 
pole, and tivift about it. The fenlitive plant poffeifes 
the faculty of motion in a remarkable degree ; the 
(lighten touch makes its leaves fuddenly flirink, and, 
together with the branch, bend towards the earth. 



Thefe circumftanccs tend to prove, that plants ar'c en^ 
dowed with irrilulii/'ny . 

460. Tlie ilrufture of plants, like that of animals, 
confifts of a feries of veflels dilpoied i:i a regular order. 
The occonomy and funftionj of vegetables, as well as 
thofe of animals, are the refults of a vafcular texture. 
The pith, or medullary fuhltance of plants, i-efembles 
the fpmal marrow of animals ; and when the texture of 
eitiier Is deftroyed, the plant or animal dies. The round 
bones of animals confift of concentric ftr'ata, which are 
eafily to be ftpar-ated : and the wood of plants confills 
of concentric layers of hardened vclfels, which feparatc 
when macerated In water. A tree acquires an addition- 
al ring every year, and thus'lts age may be pretty ac- 
curately obtained. Anhnils and vegetables gradually 
expand from an embiTo ftate, and fooner or later arrive 
at perfeftlon. Some parts of animal bodies pai'take of 
the nature of vegetables. Thus, the hair, the nails, the 
beak, and the horn, are a fpecies of vegetables, as ap- 
pears fi'om their total Infeirfiblllty. There is a ftrikli'g 
analogy between the eggs of animals and the feeds of 
plants. When placed In proper fituatlons, thev both 
produce young, fimilar to their parents There is alfo 
a gi'eat fimllarity In the ftrufture and ufes of their re- 
fpe£llve organs. Many animals have fcafons peculiar to 
their refpeftlve kinds. Some animak produce in the 
fpring ; others in autitmn ; and others Iir winter And 
pai'tlcular vegetables alfo have their refpeclive feafons. 
And thus nature has wifely or-d.ilned, that the cai-th 
ftiould always be covered with plants. Hence, by tak- 
ing a general fui'vey of the vegetable and animal king-- 
doms, it appear"s, that nature In their formation has 
operated irpon one and the fame great principle and 
model. 

On Meqfures. 

461. In fettling the meafures of different nations In 
refpeft to their relative values, we have folioned what 
we judged to be the beft authorities, and where we 
could procure diff'erent meafincs to which we could at- 
tach equal cr'edit for accuracy, we have taken the mean ; 
we trull therefore that the following tables will exhibit 
the values of ancient and foreign meafures with as much 
accuracy as the natur-e of the fuljjeft will admit of. The 
Grecian long meafures were principally taken from the 
human body. Thus Aaxli'Xi; is a finger's breadth ; 
Ai'fcv a hand's breadth, or four fingers ; O^So^ijjjov the 
length of the hand fi-om the upper part to the exti-emity 
of the longeft finger ; SctivKjuh the length of the hand 
between the thumb and little finger ; ITa; the foot ; 
n>i;)/u; from the elbow to the cxtr-emlty of the fingers; 
Yluyiov fr-om the elbow to the fecond joint of the fingers; 
Xl\jyu.yt from the elbow with the fingers clapfed ; 0,i)ni» 
from the extixmlty of one middle finger to the extremi- 
ty of the other-, the arms being extended. In thefe 
irreafures they wer-e followed by the Romans, who have 
digitus, pabmpest palmm, pes, pajfus, it!na, cubitus, &c. 



EiJGI 



INTRODUCTION. 

English Meafures of Length. 



Ixxxi 



Inches. 



3 


Palms. 


Spans. 


Feet. 


Cubits. 




9 


3 




12 


4 


It 




i8 


6 


2 


1 1 




36 


12 


4 


3 


2 


Yardj. 




60 


20 


6| 


5 


3J- 


'1 


Paces. 




72 


24 


8 


6 


4 


2 


'i 


Fathoms. 


198 


66 


22 


161 
660 


II 


5i 


3.i 


2i 


Pole 


.1. 


7920 


2640 


880 


440 


220 


132 


no 


40 


Furlo 


63360 


21120 


7040 


5280 


3520 


1760 


1056 


880 


20 


8 



Alfo, 4 inches =1 hand; 3 miles=i league ; and 60 geographical miles=i degreer:69,2 Englifli miles. 



462. The Scotch ElwanJls divided into 37 inches, 
and is found equal to 37 1 Englifh inches ; therefore a 
Scotch inch and foot are to the Englilh, as 185 to 180. 
Itinerary meafure is the fame in Scotland as in Eng- 
land. The length of the chain is 4 poles, or 22 yards ; 
and 80 chains make a mile. The old Scotch computed 
znEes were about ij Englifh miles. 



463. The Englifh .E//is i J yard and is ufed in meafuring 
linens imported from Germany and the low countries. 
464. An Englifh fathom is to a French toife, as loco 
to 1065,75. The toife contains 6 feet i the foot con- 
tains 12 inches ; and the inch contains 12 lines. As the 
fathom and toife contain the fame number of feet, an 
Englifh foot is to a French foot, as 1000 to 1065,75. 



Inches. 



English Square Meafures. 



'44 


Feet, 




1296 


9 


Yards. 




3600 


25 


H- 


Paces. 




39204 


272^. 


s°i 


10,89 


Pole 


s. 


1568160 


10890 


1210 


435.f> 


40 


Rooc 


is. 


6272640 


43560 


4840 


1742.4 


160 


4 


Acre. 



¥0L> I, 



«1 



465. I<and 



Ixxxti 



INTRODUCTION. 



465. Land is meafured by a chain, called Gunter's 
chain, from the inventor ; its length is 4 poles — 22 yards 
r:66 feet- It confifts of ico equal links, each of 
which is therefore 7,92 inches. Land is eftimated in 
acres, roods and perches. An acre contains 10 iquare 
chains ; therefore 10 chains in length, and I in breadth, 
make an acre, the form being fuppofed that of a ree- 
tangled parallelogram. A rood is one-fourth of an 
acre ; and a perch is the fortieth part of a rood, or it is 
a fquare pole. Hence, an acre contains loXimo 
fqusj-e chains=:4oX4=l6o fquare poles:=22oX22r=: 
4840 fquare yardsrzloooX ioo=:iooooo fquare links. 
Alfo. ^25 fquare linksr:! fquare pole, or a peich ; 
40 perches=:l rood; 4 roodsm acre. A fquare mile 
contains 1^40 acres. A bide of land, mentioned in the 
earlier part of our hiftory, contained about lOG acres. 

466. In Scotland, the meafure of the land is regulated 
by the ell : 36 fquare elisor I fall; 40 falls-—! rood ; 4 



roodszTi acre. The Scotch acre is to the Englifli, as 
1 0000 to 7869. The length of the chain ufed in 
Scotland for meafuring land, is 24 ellsn72 feet. 

467. In folid meafure, 1 728 inches^zl foot; and 
46656 inches:r27 fcctm yard. 

468. In 'wine meafure, 28 J folid inchesni pint ; and 
231 inches = 8 p!nts=:i gallon. 

469. In ale meafure, ^^\ folid inches— I pint ; and 
282 inchesrzS pintsm gallon. 

470. In dry meafure, 33^ folid inches— i pint ; and 
268'J inches=z8 pintszzi gallon. 

471. In IVincheJler corn meafure, 345', folid inchest: i 
pint ; and 272T inches n 8 pints — i gallon ; alfo, '! gal- 
lons =1 bufhel. 

472. The Scotch quart contains 210 folid inches. 

473. i^nr/y feet of hewn, and Ji/ly of unhewn tlm- 
ber, make a load. 



Ancient Roman Meafures of Length, 



Digitus 


tranfverfus. 


minor. 
Pes, 


- 


Ij 


Uncia, 


- 


- 


4 


3 


Palmus 


... 


i6 


12 


4 





20 


'^ 


5 


•t 


Palmipes, - - - 


24 


i3 


6 


1 4 


I? 


Cubitus 


, - . • 


40 


30 


10 


2^ 


2 I3 


Gradus 


" " 


80 


60 


20 


5 


4; 3i 


i 


Paffus, 


- 


10000 


7500 


2500 


625 


500 1 416I 


250 


125 


Stadium, 


8coco 


6cooo 


2 coco 


5000 


4c 00 


3333 f 


2000 


ICOO 


8 


MilJ 



Engl. Yds. Ft. Inches. 

o. o. 0,7265 

o. o. o,968& 

e. o- 2,90639 

o. o. 11,62556 

o. I. 2,53 r9^ 

0. I. 5.4383+ 
. o. 2. 5,0639 

1. I. 10,1278 
201. 2. 5,975 

. 1614. I. 11,8 



Of th«fe meafures, the digit, inch, palm, foot,. cubit and pace, were in ufe amongft the architefts ; the foot, 
pace, ftadium and mile, amongft the geographers. 



474. Of the ancient Roman fuperjicial meafure, the 
jugenim, or acre, was the unit ; and this, like the A, 
Libra, or any other integer, they divided as fellows, the 



jugerum being a unit anfwerlng to the Jls, and contaia- 
ing in Roman and Englilh fquare meafure 



As 



INIRODUCTION. 



Ixxxiii 



As 


Fett. 


Scruples. 


Engl. Roods. 


Poles. 


KetT'- 


2B800 


288 


2 


18 


250,0V 


Deunx - 


26400 


264 


2 


10 


183,85 


Dextans - 


24000 


240 


2 


2 


117,64 


Dodrans - - 


2 1 600 


216 




34 


51,42 


Bes 


19200 


192 




25 


257,46 


Septunx - 


16800 


168 




17 


191,25 


Semis 


14400 


144 




:9 


125.03 


Qiiincunx - 


12000 


120 




I 


58,82 


Triens - 


9600 


96 





32 


264,85 


Quadrans 


7200 


72 





2f 


198,64 


Sextans 


4800 


4S 





16 


132.43 


Uncia - 


2400 


24 





8 


66,21 



The A^us major was 14400 feet equal to a funis. The Clima was 3600 feet equal to a fefamda. The /idut 
mhimus was 4S00 feet equal to 3. fexlans. Athis is the length of one funow, or fo Car a« the plough goes before 
it turns, in length 120 fett. A Scruple contains 100 fquaie feet. 



The Grecian Meafures of Length. 



Digit, 



Engl. Yds. Ft. Inches, 
o. o. 0,75581 



4 


Doron, 


Dochme, . _ . 


10 


2' 


Lichas, 


- 


II. 


2; 


^\-o 


Orthodoron, • - - - 


12 


3 


'i 


"T'r 


Spith 


ame, - - - 


16 


4 


1t\ 


^4r 


H 


Foot 


. 


18 


4l 


If 


H't 


U 


li 


Cubit, 


- 


20 


5 


2 


'^ 


I7 


, I 

' 4 


If 


Pygon, - • - 


24 


6 


x\ 


2A 


2 


i| 


M 


'3 


Cubit larger. 


96 


24 
2400 


9l 


8.*r 


8 


6 


5'r 


4-; 


4 


Pace 


• 


9600 


960 


872/T 


800 


600 


533t 


480 


400 


ICO 


Stadium, 


76800 


19200 


7680 


698 1 „ 


6400 


4800 


4^661 


3840 


3200 


800 


8 


Mile, 



0. 


0. 


3.02324 


0. 


0. 


7.5531 


0. 


0. 


8.51392 


0. 


0. 


9,0697} 


0. 


I. 


0,09297 


0. 


I. 


1 ,60459 


0. 


I. 


3,11621 


0. 


I. 


6,13945 


2. 


0. 


0,5578 


201. 


1. 


7.78 


1612. 


I. 


2,24 



475. The ftadium contained 125 geometrical paces, 476. The GrecianyyiM/v meafure was the//t/Zi;w;, or 

or 625 Roman feet, and anfwered to our furlong. There acre, containing, according to fome, 1444, or according 

were however ftadia of different lengths, according to to others, loooo fquarc feet ; and the aroura, which was 

different times and places. This has rendered many ot half the plethron. The JEg\'pt!an aroura was llie fquare 

the recorded Grecian meafures fubjecl to uncertainty, of 100 cubits. 
They had a ftadium of 10 to the m.ile, equal to 
161,0348 yards, and another, or Macedonian, equal to 

"5.9595 y"ds. 

taz jiCRir- 



Ixxxiv 



INTRODUCTION. 



Scripture Meafures of Length. 



Digit 


1 

Palm, 


• - - - - - 


Engl. Yds. 

0. 

0. 

0. 

0. 
2. 

3- 

4. 

Line, 48, 


Ft. 
0. 

0. 

0. 

I. 

I. 

I. 

2. 
I. 


Inches. 
0,9 U 

3.648 


12 


3 


Spanj 


K • * ■ « • 


10,944 


24 


6 


2 


Cubit 


.,-•"• " 


9,888 


96 


24 


8 


4 


Fathom, ... 


3.553 


144 


36 


12 


6 

8 


i^ 


Ezekiel's Rod, 


11,328 


192 


48 


16 


2 


•i 


Arab 


ian Pole, 


7.104= 


1920 


480 


160 


So 


20 


i3i 


10 


Schsenue, or Meafurliig 


11,04 



The longer Scripture Meafures. 



Cubit, 





Eng. Miles, 

- 0. 

0. 
0. 
I. 

- 4. 
33- 


Yards. 
0. 

243- 
1216. 
672. 
256. 
288. 


Feet, 
1,824 


400 


Stadium, - . • . 


0,6 


2000 


5 


Sabbath Day's Journey, 


0, 


4000 


10 


2 


EafternMile, 


0, 


12000 


30 


6 


3 


Parafang, 


0, 


96000 


240 


48 


24 


8 


A Day's Journey, 


0, 



477. The Eaft ufed another fpan equal to one third tainty. Arbuthnot makes the facred cubit=:i,7325 
of a cubit. feet. He alfo obferves, that the Jews fometimes made 

478. The above are facred meafures, in the lengths of ufe of a profane cubit, the length of which he detei- 
which there muft neceffarily be fome degree of uncer- mined to be 1,485 feet 



rit 



INTRODUCTION. 



litXXV 



The Length of Long Meajures of Various Countries, in Therms of EngUfi Feet and Inches. 



Ancient Roman 

Greek 

Arabic 

Alexandria 

Paris 

Ryiiland, or Leyden 

Amfterdam 

Antwerp 

Dort 

Bologne . 

Turin 

Venice 

Padua 

Vienna 

Sweden 

Lorrain 

Middleburgh 

Stralburgh 

Bremen 

Cologn 

Frankfort ad Msnum 

Spanlfh 

Toledo - • 

Bononia 

Mantua 

Dantzic 

Copenhagen 

Riga 

Prague 

Lyons - 

Bologna 

Amfterdam 

Antwerp 





Ft. 


Inches. 


1 


Foot 


o. 


11,626 


Rynland, or Le 


do. 


I. 


0,090 


Frankfort 


do. 


o. 


io>544 


1 Hamburgh 


do. 


I. 


2,112 


I Leiplic 


do. 


I. 


0,789 


Lubeck 


do. 


I. 


0,361 


Noremburgh 


do. 


0. 


11,304 


Bavaria 


do. 


o. 


ii,3S2 


Vienna 


do. 


I. 


2,208 


Bononid 


do. 


I. 


2.974 


Dantzic 


do. 


I. 


8,222 


Florence 


do. 


I. 


1,677 


Spanish 


do. 


I. 


4,866 


Genoa 


do. 


I. 


0,444 


Naples 


do. 


I. 


2,701 


Modern Roman 


do. 


0. 


11,496 


Spanilh 


do. 


0. 


11,892 


Lifbon 


do. 


o. 


1 1,040 


Gibralter 


do. 


o. 


11,568 


Toledo 


do. 


o. 


11,448 


Caftilc 


do. 


o. 


11,376 


Naples 


do. 


I. 


0,012 


Naples 


do. 


o. 


10,788 


Milan 


do. 


I. 


2,448 


Florence 


do. 


I, 


6,838 


Ruffia 


do. 


o. 


11,328 


Rome 


do. 


o. 


11,580 


Parma 


do. 


I. 


9.972 


China 


do. 


I. 


0,312 


Cairo 


EU 


?,■ 


1 1 ,604 


Old Babylonian 


do. 


z. 


0,912 


Turkidi 


do. 


2. 


3,228 


Turklfh 


do. 


2. 


3.276 


Periian 



eyden - - Ell 

- do. 
- do. 

- do. 
do. 

- do. 
do. 
do. 

I - do. 

- do. 
Brace, or Ell 

Palm 
do. 
do. 

- do. 
Vare! 
do. 
do. 
do. 

- do. 
- - Brace 

Canna 
Calamus 
Braccio da Panna 
Archine 
Palmodi Archtetti 
Cubit 
do. 
do. 
- do. 
Pike larger 
Pike fmaller 
Arifh 



Ft. 


Inches. 


2. 


3. '20 


I. 


9,912 


I. 


10,860 


2. 


3.IZ0 


I. 


10,896 


2. 


2.724 


0. 


11,448 


I. 


0,636 


2. 


1,764 


1. 


10,836 


1. 


10,956 


0. 


9.012 


0. 


9.960 


0- 


10,316 


0. 


8,798 


3- 


0,040 


2. 


9,000 


2. 


9,120 


2. 


8,220 


2. 


'■'■.949 


2. 


1,200 


6. 


10,560 


6. 


6,528 


I. 


10,954 


2. 


4.242 


0. 


8.784 


I. 


10,392 


I. 


0,192 


I. 


9,888 


I. 


6,240 


2. 


2,fOO 


2. 


1.572 


3- 


2,364 



'The Length of Miles, Leagues, (s'c. Ancient and Modern, in Englifb Tards. 



Ancient Roman mile - ... 

Olympic ftadiumzrj of ancient Roman mile - . . 

Stadium zz,'^ of ancient Roman mile - . . . 

Stadium:=to the iioothpart of a degree - - _ 

Jewifh rifin, of which 7i=:ancient Roman mile - . - 

Gallic leuca:^!^^ ancient Roman mile - - . . 

German raft, or common league in France,=:2 Gallic leuca 
Perfian parafang=:2 Gallic leagues ... 
.(Egyptian fchiEne=:.4. ancient Roman miles - . 

German league, or that of Scandinavia, :r 2 rafts 
The mile or league of Germanyz:2oo Rhenifti yards 
Great Arabian mile, ufcd in Paleftine in the time of the Crufades, rated 

ancient Roman mile - - - . 

Modern Roman mile - - - . . 

Modern Greek mile of 7 olympic ftadia . - _ 

Modern French lcague = 2500 toifes - - 

Mile of Turkey, and the common werft of RulTia, fuppoGng il 7 olympic 
League of Spain =14 ancient Roman miles . _ _ 

Large league of Spain r; 5 ditto ..... 



at 



"\ 



ftadia 



Yards. 
1610,348 
201,2935 
161,0348 
I I 1,2 

2>4.7'3 
2415,522 
4831,044 
4831,044 
6441,392 
9662,088 
8239,846 

24'5.7'3 

1628,466 

1409,0545 

5328,75 

1409,0515 

6441,392 

^051.74 



The 



Ixxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

The mile deployed by llic Romans in Great Britain, and rcftored by Henry VII. was our prefent Englifii 
mile. 

The ancient Roman mile is here eftimated at 755 French fathom, 3 feet, upon the authority of d'Anville. 
This differs a little from the mile ufed in the preceding table. 



The pre/enl French Meajures. 

479. The meafure of length is the nif/iv ; the mea- 
fiire of capacity is the litre ; the meafure of weight is 
x.\\e. gramme ; and the Agrarian meafure is the are. 

■ 480. A metre is the 40 millionth part of a meridian 
of the earth, which, according to the laft French mea- 
furement, is 39,3702 Englilh inches; and this is the 
unity of length. A decimetre is y^ of a metre; a cen- 
timetre is -J-' of a metre; a millimetre is -j-Ac °f ^ 
metre, &c. and a decametre is 10 metres; an hefto- 
metre is 100 metres; a kilometre is 1000 metres, &c. 
Thus all the multiples and fubmnltiples are taken in a 
' tenfold proportion ; and the fame for the other meafures. 

48 I. A litre is a cube whofe fide is ts of a metre ; it 
contains tiierefore 61,0242. cubic inches ; and this is the 
unity of folidity. A decilitre is ts of ^ 1'"'^ > ^ centi- 
litre is t's of a litre ; a millilitre is ,j'<jo of* ^Ax^, &c. 
And a decalitre is 10 litres ; an heftolitre is 100 litres; 
a kilolitre is tooo litres, S:c. 

4>)2. A gramme is the weight of a cube of diftiUed 
water, the fide of which is iJj of a metre ; it weighs 
therefore 15,45 ounces troy; and this is the unity of 



weight. A decigramme 



of a gramme ; a centi • 



gramme is ^.'^ of a gramme : a milligramme is ,-oao of 
a gramme, &c. And a decagramme is lo grammes ; 
an heclogiamme is 100 grammes ; a kilogramme is 1000 
grammes, &c. 

483. An are is the fquare of the decametre, or 100 
fquare metres ; and this is_the unity. A declare is -/^ 
an are ; a centiare is -j-Jj of an are ; a miUiare is ^ctj-e °f 
an are, &c. And a deca-are, or decare, is 10 ares ; an 
htdtare is 100 ares ; a kilare is 1000 ares, &c. 

On thi Logline. 

484. A log is a piece of board in the form of the 



quadrant of a circle, having its circular fide loaded with 
weights to make it fwim upright. To this log is faft- 
ened aline of about 150 fathoms, called the log line; 
this is divided into equal fpaces, called knots, each of 
which ought to bear the fame proportion to a nautical 
mile, as 4 a minute bears to an hour. Tliey are called 
knots, becaufe at the end of each of them there is fixed 
a piece of twine with knots in it ; and tliefe are fubdivi- 
ded into tenths. Now a nautical mile=6i20 feet, and 
the tIo part=:5l feet; now 4^': i hour :: 51 feet: 
6120 feet, or a mile ; therefore if 51 feet of the log- 
line run off in -J', I mile will be run of!" in an hour; 
hence, as may knots as are run off in an hour, fo many- 
miles the fhip fails in an hour. But as the fhip's run is 
found to be rather mote than that giv;n by t'.ic lc;g, ow- 
ing to the log being drawn forward, they generally allow 
only 50 feet for a knot ; and fome commanders allow 
lefs. And to meafure the time, they have a fand glafs 
which runs out in half a minute. 

485. The line runs off a reel which turns very eafily ; 
and the log is thrown from the poop, or lee quarter; 
and they generally let it run 12 or 15 fathom, fo as to 
be out of the (hip's wake, and then begin to count. 
There is commonly faftened a piece of red rag, to fhow 
where you are to begin to reckon. Care mnft be taken ~ 
to have the hour glafs and log line correct, otherwife an 
allowance muft be made. 

486. If the log line and the time of the running out 
of the glafs bo both altered in the fame proportion, the 
number of knots run out in j glafs will ftill iliow the 
number of miles run in an hour ; for if tiie knots be 40 ft^ 
and the glafs run out in 24", then 24" ; 30" :: 40 ft: : 
50 ft. fo that 50 feet Is flill run out in half a minute. 

487. In King's fhips, India fliips, and fome othera, 
the log is hove every hour ; but in coafters, and thofe 
ufing^ort voyages, every two hours. 



A TABLE 





A 

TABLE 

OF THE 






LATirUDES and LONGITUDES 






OF THE 






PRINCIPAL PLAGES ON THE EARTH's SURFACE. 

A. 




Names of Places. 


Cont. 


Sea or Country. 


Latitude. 


Long 
In Degrees. 


itudc. 

In Time. 


H. Wat. 








O 1 It 


' 11 


h ' " 


h 


Abbeville 


Eur. 


France 


50 7 4N 


I 49 43 E 


7 19 E 




Abo 


Eur. 


Finland 


60 27 10 N 


22 13 30 E 


I 28 54 E 




1 Acbem 


Afia 


Sumatra 


522 N 


95 34 oE 


6 22 i6 E 




1 Adventure (Bay) 


Afia 


New Holland 


43 23 S 


147 30 E 


9 50 E 




1 Adventure (Ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


17 <r '5 s 


144 17 45 W 


9 37 11 W 




! Agde 


Eur. 


France 


43 '8 43 N 


3 27 55 E 


13 52 E 




1 Agtn 


Eur. 


Era nee 


44 12 22 N 


36 20 E 


2 25 E 




1 St. Agnes (Lights) 


Eur. 


Scillies 


49 56 N 


6 46 oW 


27 4 W 




1 Agra 


Afia 


India 


26 43 N 


76 44 E 


5 6 56 E 




1 Aire 


Eur. 


France 


43 41 5z N 


4 55 51 E 


19 43 E 




Aix 


Eur. 


France 


43 3 ! 48 N 


5 26 32 E 


021 46 E 




'■ A!bv 


Eur. 


France 


43 55 36 N 


2 « 18 E 


8 33E 




i Aleppo 


Afia 


Turkey 


35 I' 25 N 


37 10 E 


2 28 40 E 




Akxandretta 


Afia 


Syria 


36 35 27 N 


36 15 E 


2 25 E 




Alexandria 


Africa 


Egvpt 


SI 11 28 N 


30 10 22 E 


3 41 E 




Algiers 


Africa 


Algiers 


36 49 30 N 


2 12 45 E 


8 51 E 




Aniboife 


Eur. 


1' ranee 


47 24 54 N 


59 7 W 


3 56 W 




1 Ambry m (Me) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


16 9 30 S 


ifiS 12 30 E 


11 12 50 E 




1 Amiens 


Eur. 


France 


49 53 43 N 


2 17 56 E 


9 IS E 




1 Amftcrdam 


Eur. 


Holland 


52 21 56 N 


4 51 30 E 


19 26 E 


3 


1 Amllerdara (Ille) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


21 9 S 


1 74 46 W 


II 39 4W 


8 30 


1 Ancona 


Eur. 


Italy 


43 37 54 N 


13 2!) 52 E 


53 56 E 




j| Angers 


Eur. 


France 


47 28 9 N 


33 '5 W 


2 ijW 




! Angoi'cme 


Eur. 


France 


45 38 57 N 


9 15 E 


26 E 




firaassEaessEEsaacsaai^sa 


m^^s^ss 


ajtiM.j]iiuiaiava«jmjg 


m'Oir^a.iiufs^ftu^, 









rht 



Ixxxviii 



INTRODUCTION, 

The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



: — ■ — ^^ 












„ __ -i 


1 Names of Places. 


Cont. 


Sea or Country. 


Latitude. 


I^ongi 
In Degrees. 1 


tude. 
In Time. 


H. Wat. 


Arigra 


Eur. 


Tercera 


38 39 N 


t It 
27 12 15 W 


I 48 49 W 


h ' 


Annamocka 


Afla 


Pacific Ocean 


20 16 30 S 


174 30 30 w 


II 38 2W 


St. Anthony's (Cape) 


Amer. 


Staten Land 


54 4^^ 45 S 






Antibes 


Eur. 


France 


43 34 43 N 


7 7 20E 


28 29 E 




Antigua (St. John's) 


Amer. 


Carib. Sea 


17 430N 


62 9 oW 


4 8 36W 




Antwerp 


Eur. 


Flanders 


51 13 15 N 


4 22 45 E 


17 31 E 


6 


Anvers 


Eur. . 


Netherlands 


51 13 15 N 


^ 4 24 15 E 


17 37 E 




Apse (Ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


i6 46 15 S 


168 27 30 E 


II 13 50 E 




Arada 


Af.a 


Turkey 


36 I N 


38 50 E 


2 35 20 E 




Archangel 
Arica 


Eur. 


Ruflia 


64 33 36 N 


38 59 15 E 


2 35 57 E 


6 


Amer. 


Peru 


18 26 38 S 


70 2 J oW 


4 41 40 W 




Aries 


Eur. 


France 


43 40 28 N 


4 37 24 E 


18 30 E 




Arras 


Eur. 


France 


50 17 30 N 


2 46 12 E 


II 5 E 




Afcenfion (Ifle) 


Africa 


S. Atl. Ocean 


7 57 S 


13 59 oW 


55 56 W 




1 Athens 


Eur. 


Turkey 


38 5 oN 


23 52 30 E 


I 35 30 E 




1 Auch 


Eur. 


France 


43 38 39 N 


34 56 E 


2 18 E 




1 St. Auguftin 


Africa 


Madagafcar 


23 35 29 S 


43 8 E 


2 52 32 E 




1 Aurillac 


Eur. 


France 


44 55 »o N 


2 27 oW 


9 48 W 


. 


Aurora (Ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


15 8 S 


168 17 oE 


II 13 8 E 


Autun 


Eur. 


France 


46 56 48 N 


4 17 44 E 


17 II E 




Auxerre 


Eur. 


France 


47 47 57 N 


3 34 6E 


14 16 E 




Auxonne 
Avignon 


Eur. 


France 


47 11 24 N 


5 23 35 E 


021 34 E 




Eur. 


France 


43 56 58 N 


4 48 lo E 


19 13 E 




Avranches 


Eur. 


France 


48 41 21 N 

B. 

12 50 N 


I 21 51 W 


5 27W 




Babelmondel Straits 


Africa 


Abyfllnia 


43 50 E 


2 55 20 E 




Babylon (Ancient) 


Afia 


Mefopotamia 


33 N 


42 46 30 E 


2 51 6 E 




Bagdad 


Afia 


Mefopotamia 


33 >9 40 N 


44 24 30 E 


2 57 38 E 




Balafore 


Afia 


Ipdia 


21 20 N 


86 E 


5 44 E 




Ballabea(ine) 


Afia 


N. Caledonia 


20 7 S 


164 22 E 


10 57 28 E 




Banguey (Peak) 


Afia 


Malacca 


7 18 N 


117 17 30 E 


7 49 10 E 




Bantrey Bay 


Eur. 


Ireland 


51 26 N 


10 10 oW 


40 40 W 




Barbadoes, Bridge Town 


Amer. 


Atl. Ocean 


f3 N 


59 50 W 


3 59 20 w 




Barbas (Cape) 


Africa 


Sanhaga 


22 15 30 N 


16 40 oW 


I 6 40W 




Barbuda (Ifle) 


Amer. 


Atl. Ocean 


J7 49 45 N 


61 50 oW 


4 7 20W 




Barcelona 


Eur. 


Spain 


41 23 oN 


2 13 E 


8 52 E 




Barnevelt's (Ifle) 


Amer. 


Terra del Fuego 


55 49 S 


66 58 oW 


4 27 52 W 




St. Bartholomew's (Ifle] 


Afia 


N. Hebrides 


15 42 S 


167 17 30 E 


II 9 10 E 




Bafil 


Eur. 


Switzerland 


47 35 N 


7 29 30 E 


29 58 E 




BafTa Terre 


Amer. 


Gaudaloupe 


15 59 30 N 


61 59 15 W 


4 7 57W 




Batavia 


Afia 


Java 


6 12 oS 


106 53 46 E 


7 7 35 E 




Bath 


Eur. 


England 


51 22 30 N 


2 21 30 W 


9 26W 




B Bayeux 


Eur. 


France 


49 16 34 N 


42 1 1 W 


2 49W 




B Bayonne 


Eur. 


France 


43 29 15 N 


1 28 41W 


5 55 W 


3 30 


1 Bcachey Head 


Eur. 


England 


50 44 30 N 


19 40 E 


I 19 E 






vj^iasa 



lit 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Latitudes and Lcfigitudes of Places, 



Ixxxix 



"""^ 




1 




Lon 


gitude. 


"""^ 




Names of Places. 


Cent, 


Sea or Cou^itry. 


Latitude. 


In Degrees. 


In Time. 


H.Wat. 




Bear (lile) 


Amer. 


Hudfon's Bay 


O / It 

54 34 o N 


1 II 
79 56 oW 


h ' ■' 
5 '9 44 W 


li ' 
12 




Bcauvois 


Eur. 


France 


49 26 N 


2 4 42 E 


8 19 E 






Belle Ille 


Eur. 


France 


47 17 17 N 


3 5 oW 


12 20 W 


2 30 




Bembridge Point 


Eur. 


inc of Wight 


50 40 15 N 


I , 45 W 


4 19W 






Bciicoolen 


Alia 


Sumatra 


3 45 16 S 102 10 30 E 


6 48 42 E 






Berlin 


Eur. 


Germany 


52 31 30 N 13 22 E 


53 28 E 






Bermudas (Ifle) 


Anicr. 


Atl. Ocean 


32 7,^ Ni 63 28 W 


4 13 52 W 


7 "3 




Befall foil 


Eur. 


France 


47 14 12 N 6 2 46 E 


24 1 1 E 






Beficrs 


Eur. 


France 


43 20 23 NI 3 12 24 E 


12 50 E 






Blanco (Cape) 


Africa 


Negroland 


20 55 30 N 17 10 W 


1 8 40 W 


9 45 




Blanco (Capej 


Amcr. 


Patagonia 


47 20 S 64 42 W 


4 i8 .t8W 






Blois 


Eur. 


France 


47 35 20 N I 20 10 E 


5 20 E 




f 


Bojndor (Cnpej 


Africa 


Negroland 


26 12 30 N 14 27 W 


57 48 W 





g 


Bolabola (lilc) 


Alia 


Pacif. Ocean 


16 32 30 S 151 52 oW 


10 7 28 W 




H 


Bologne 


Eur. 


France 


50 43 33 N| I 36 33 E 


6 26 E 


10 30 


■ 


Bologna 


Eur. 


Italy 


44 29 36 N II 21 15 E 


45 25 E 




i 


Bolfcliereikoi 


Afia 


Siberia 


52 54 30 N ij6 37 30 E 


10 26 30 E 




■ 


Bombay 


Afia 


India 


18 56 40 N 72 38 E 


4 50 32 E 






Bonavilla (ine) 


Africa 


Atl. Ocean 


16 6 NI 22 47 15 W 


I 31 9W 






Bollon 


Amcr. 


New England 


42 22 1 1 N 70 59 W 


4 43 56 W 






Botany Bay 


Af.a 


New Holland 


34 S 


151 21 E 


10 5 24 E 






Botany (liland) 


Afia 


New Caledonia 


22 26 40 S 


167 i6 45 E 


II 9 7 E 






Bourbon (Iflf) 


Africa 


Ind. Ocean 


20 51 43 s 


55 30 £ 


3 42 E 






Bourdeaux 


Eur. 


France 


44 50 14 N 


34 14W 


2 17W 


3 




Bourgcs 


Eur. 


France 


47 4 59 N 


2 23 45 E 


9 3j E 






Breflaw 


Eur, 


Silefut 


51 3 oN 


17 8 45 E 


I ;; 35 E 






Bred 


Eur. 


France 


4S 22 42 N 


4 29 19 W 


17 57 AV 


3 45 




Bridge Town 


Amer. 


Barbadoes 


13 5 N 


5« 35 oW 


3 54 2-0 W 






St. Brieux 


Eur. 


France 


4^ 31 21 N 


2 43 17 W 


10 53 W 






Briglitori Starting-houfe 


Eur. 


England 


50 49 48 N 


6 28 W 


zr.w 






Br!ftol(Cape) 


Amer. 


Sandwich' Land 


59 2 30 S 


26 51 oW 


I 47 24 w 






BrufleU 


Eur. 


Brabant 


50 ;o 59 N 


4 21 15 E 


17 25 E 




1 


Buenos Ayres 


Amcr. 


Brafil 


34 35 26 S 


58 31 15 w 


3 54 5^^' 




i 


Buk;iroll 


Eur. 


Walachia 


44 26 4; N 26 8 E 


I 44 32 E 




1 


Bnller (Cape) 


Amer. 


S. Geoigia 


53 58 30 S 1 37 40 W 


2 30 40 W 




1 


Burgeo (Hies) 


Amcr. 


Newfoundland 


47 36 20 N 57 36 30 W 


3 50 24 W 






Bur ings 


Eur. 


Portugal 


39 20 N j 9 36 45 W 


38 27 W 






Cabello (Port) 


Amer. 


Terra Firma 


C. 

10 30 50 N 


'67 32 oW 


4 30 8W' 






Cadiz 


Eur. 


Spain 


36 32 N 


6 16 15 W 


2s 5 W 


4 30 




Caen 


Eur. 


France 


49 H I 2 N 


21 53 W 


I 2 h W 


9 ^ 


I 


Cahors 


Eur. 


France 


44 26 49 N 


I 26 22 E 


5 45 E 


1 


Cairo 


Africa 


^gypt 


30 3 12 N 


, 31 iS 16 E 


2 5 4V !•' 




1 


Calais 


Eur. 


France 


5Q 57 3= N 


1 I 51 J E 


7 24 E 


u 30 


1 


Callao 


Amer. 


Peru 


12 I 53 S 


•jr, 58 oW 


5 7 52 \V i 


i 


Calcutta (F. Will.) 


A Ha 


India 


22 34 45 ?-! 


£8 29 30 E 


5 53 5*^ !■' ' 


^^^^_ -J 




TOL. I. 








n 




7,V 





x« 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



Names of Places. 


Cont. 


■ 'ea or Country. 


Latitude. 


Long 
In Degrees. 


tude. 

In Time. 


H. AA-at. 




" 


' " 


' " 


h ' " 


h ' 


Caln-ar 


Eur. 


Sweden 


56 40 30 N 


16 21 4j E 


I 5 27 E 




Cambray 


Eur. 


France 


50 10 37 N 


3 '3 32 E 


12 54 E 




Cambridge 


Eur. 


England 


$2 12 ,35 N 


4 15 E 


17 E 




Cambridge 


Amer- 


N. England 


42 23 28 N 


71 4 oW 


4 44 16 W 




Canary (Ille) NE Point 


Africa 


Canaries 


2813 N 


15 38 45 W 


I 2 35 VV 


3 


Candia (Me) 


Eur. 


Medit. Sea 


35 '8 35 N 


25 18 E 


I 41 12 E 




Candlemas liles 


Amer. 


Sandwich Lan. 


57 10 S 


27 13 oW 


I 48 52 AV 




Canfo (Port) 


Amer. 


Nova Scotia 


45 20 7 N 


60 ss °^^ 


4 3 40 W 




Canterbuiy Cathedral 


Eur. 


Engl-ind 


51 18 26N 


I 4 53 E 


4 19 E 




Canton 


Afia 


China 


23 8 9 N 


113 2 30 E 


7 33 10 E 




Cape Capricorn 


Afia 


N. Holland 


23 26 40 S 


208 54 20 W 


13 SS SI w 




Cape Clear 


Eur. 


Ireland 


ji 15 N 


9 50 oW 


39 20 \v 


4 30 


Cape Colenet 


Alia 


N. Caledonia 


20 30 S 


164 s^ E 


10 59 44 p 




Cape Comerin 


Afia 


India 


7 56 N 


78 5 oE 


5 22 20 E 




Cape Coronation 


■Alia 


N. Caledonia 


22 5 S 


167 8 oE 


II 8 32 E 




Cape Cumberland 


Afia 


N. Plebrides 


14 39 30 s 


166 47 E 


II 7 8 E 




Cape Florida 


Am. 


Florida 


25 44 N 


80 44 oW 


5 22 56W 




Cape How 


Afia 


N. Holland 


57 31 57 S 


210 39 3W 


14 2 36W 




Cape Table 


Afia 


New Zealand 


39 6 40 S 


181 57 41 W 


12 7 5'W 




Carlefcroon 


Eur. 


Sweden 


56 6 57 N 


15 26 15 E 


I I 45 E 




Carthagena 


Eur. 


Spain 


37 37 N 


I 8 30AV 


4 hW 




Carthagena 


Amer. 


Terra Firma 


lo 25 i9 N 


"75 42 54 W 


5 2 52 AV 




Cafan 


Afia 


Siberia 


55 43 5^ N 


49 8 15 E 


3 16 33 E 




Caffel 


Eur. 


Germany 


51 .9 20 N 


9 35 3 E 


38 20 E 




Cadres 


Eur. 


France 


43 36 II N 


2 14 16 K 


8 57 E 




St. Catherine's (Ifle) 


Am. 


Atl. Ocean 


27 35 S 


49 17 oW 


3 '7 30 W 




Cavan 


Eur. 


Ireland 


54 5' 41 N 


7 23 oW 


29 32 AV 




Cayenne 


Amer. 


Ifle Cayenne 


4 J6 '5 N 


52 15 o\V 


329 A V 




Ceylon, S. Point 


Afia 


India 


5 47 oN 


81 2 oE 


5 24 ' E 




Cette 


Eur. 


France 


43 23 5' N 


3 42 7 E 


14 48 E 




Challon 


Eur. 


France 


46 46 54 N 


451 27 E 


19 24 E 




Chalons 


Eur. 


France 


48 57 28 N 


421 29 E 


17 26 E 




Ch.indcrnagor 


Afia 


India 


22 51 26 N 


88 29 15 E 


5 5=! 27 E 




Q_^Charlotte Sound 


Afia 


N. Zealand 


41 5 58 s 


174 13 32 E 


II 36 54 E 


9 


Q_Charl. Foreland 


Afia 


N. Caledonia 


22 15 s 


167 12 45 E 


11 8 51 E 




(^Charlotte's Cape 


Am. 


Sou. Georgia 


54 32 s 


36 II 30 W 


2 24 46 AV 




Charlton Me 


Am. 


Hudfon's Bay 


52 3 N 


79 5 oW 


5 16 20 A\' 




Chartres 


Eur. 


France 


4S 26 54 N 


I 29 35 E 


5 56 E 




Cheibourg 


Eur. 


France 


49 38 3^ N 


I 37 18 W 


0629 \X 


7 30 


Chriftmas Soimd 


Am. 


Terra del Fucgo 


5S 21 57 S 


70 2 50W 


4 40 1 1 AA'^ 


2 30 


St. Chriftopher's (Iflc) 


Am. 


Cai ib. Sea 


17 15 N 


62 43 oW 


4 10 52 AV 




Churchill River 


Am. 


Hudfon's Bay 


Si 47 32 N 


94 7 30 W 


6 16 30 W 


7 20 


Civita Veccliia 


Eur. 


Italy 


42 5 24 N 


15 46 15 E 


47 5 E 




Clerkc's Illes 


Am. 


Atl. Ocean 


'55 5 30 S 


34 42 AV 


2 18 48 AV 




Cler:r.o;;t 


Eur. 


France 


45 46 44 N 


3 5 2 E 


12 2C E 




Coehiu 


Afia 


India 


9 33 oN 


75 35 oE 


5 2- 20 E 





1 N T 11 O D U C T I O IT. 



xci 



The Latitudes and Longitudes of PImcs. 



Names of Places. 



' Colmar 
; Cologne 
' Compicgnt 
; Conception 
' Conftantinople 

Cooper's Ifie 
1 Copenhagen 
I Coquimbo 
] Cork 
; Coivo 



iCountances 

I Cowes Weft, Fort 

I Cracow 

I Crcmfmunfter 

; Croific 

Cummin ( Ifle) 

Cyprus 



Cont. 



i.ur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Am. 
Eur. 
Am. 
Eur. 
Am. 
Eur. 
Eur. 



Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Aiia 
Afia 



Sea or Country. ' Latitude. 



France 

Germany 

France 

Chili 

Turkey 

Atl. Ocean 

Denmark 

Chili 

Ireland 

Azores 



France 

Hie of Wight 

Poland 

Germany 

France 

Pacific Ocean 

Syria 



48 4 44 N 

50 55 2) N 

49 24 59 N 
3<5 42 53 ^^ 
41 I 

54 57 

55 41 



29 52 

5' 53 

39 42 



27 N 
oS 
4N 
oS 

54 N 
oN 



Longitude. 
In Decrees. In Time. 



49 2 

50 46 

49 
48 

47 
3' 
34 



50 N 
18 N 
59 20 N 
3 29 N 
17 40 N 
40 o N 
20 o N 



7 22 
6 SS 



ti E 
oE 



2 49 41 E 
72 40 oW 



28- 55 
36 4 
12 35 
71 19 



oE 

20 W( 

«5E' 
oW 



8 28 15 W 
31 6 o W 



I 27 25 W 

1 17 1 7 w 
19 50 o E 
14 7 o E 

2 31 42 W 
12 t 4 o E 

33 16 o E 



1 H. Wat. 



roE 
c 27 40 E 
oil 10 E 
4 50 40W 
I 55 40 E 



2 24 



W 



o 50 21 i:. 
4 45 3^^' 
o 33 Si"^'^ 

2 4 24 ^v 



o 5 50 w 

5 9W 

1 19 20 E 
o 56 28 E 
010 7 W 
8 4 16 E 

2 13 4 E 



6 30 






10 



D. 



il Dantzic 

Dardenels Straits 
Daffen Ifland 
Dax 

Deal Caftle 
St. Dennis 
Diego (Cape) 
I Dieppe 
Dijon 
DiUingen 



; Difappointm. (Cape) 
Dineada (Cape) 
Dol 

Domingo, Mole, 
ji Dominique (Ifle) 
Dorchefter Church 
Douay 
Dover 
Dreux 
Dronthiem 



Eur. 

Eur. 

Africa 

Eur. 

Eur. 

Africa 

Am. 

Eur. 

Eur. 

Eur. 



Am. 
Am. 
Eur. 
Afm 
Am. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eiir. 
Eur. 
Eur. 



Poland 

Turkey 

CafFers 

France 

England 

I. Bourhon 

Terra del Fuego 

France 

France 

Germany 



So. Georgia 

Terra del Fuego 

France 

Atl. Ocean 

Windward Ifles 

England 

Flanders 

England 

France 

Norway 



54 

40 

33 
43 
51 
20 

54 
49 

47 
48 



21 

10 

25 
42 
'3 
5' 

33 
55 
19 
34 



9N 
o N 
o S 

19 N 

5N 

43 S 
o S 

34 N 
25 N 

22 N 



54 58 o S 

55 4 15 S 
48 33 8 N 
19 49 o N 
15 18 23 N 
50 42 5K N 
50 22 12 N 
5 ' 7 47 N 
48 44 17 N 
63 26 2 K 




18 38 

26 26 

18 

I 



I 
SS 
65 

I 

5 

10 



2 
3 

23 

30 

14 

4 



o E 

oE 

o E 

i6 W 

59 E 
o E 
oW 

29 E 



I 50 E 

14 30 E 



36 15 
74 >8 

1 45 
73 25 
61 27 

2 25 



o W 

oW 

18 W 

oW 

55 W 

40 W^ 

47 E 
30 E 

24 E 

oE 



I 14 32 E 
I 45 4+ E 
. 12 8 E 
o 4 13W 
o 5 36 E 

3 42 o E 

4 20 56 W 
o 4 iS E 
o 20 7 E 
o ^o 58 E 



2 2; 



o W 



4 57 '2W 
o 7 2 W 
4 S3 40 W 
4 5 52 AV 
o 9 43 W 
12 19 E 
5 14E 
5 26 E 



10 30 



n 2 



rif 



xcu 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places, 



i MMaa i aafUfesgaat 



i^SBtf^Enu a f Ui/mis am- ' i 



E. 



Names of Places. 



Eaoowe (Ifle) 

Eafter Ifland 

Edinburgh 

Edyftone 

Eliinore 

Embden 
' Embrun 
I Enatum (ine) 
' Endeavour River 
, Englifh Road 



i Erramanga (Ifle) 
] Erzeruiu 
JEuftachia (Town) 

Evout's Ifles 

Everoux 

Exeter 



Cent. 



Afia 
Am. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Afia 
Afia 
Afia 



Afia 
Afia 
Am. 
Am. 
Eur. 
Eur. 



Sea or Country. 



Pacific Ocean 
Pacific Ocean 
Scotland 
Eng. Channel 
Denmark 
Germany 
France 
Pacific Ocean 
N. Holland 
Eaoowe 



Pacific Ocean 
A rmenia 
Carib. Sea 
Terra del Fuego 
France 
Eii<rland 



Latitude. 



21 24 o S 
27 6 30 S 

55 57 51 N 
8 oN 
o 
5 



50 
56 
53 



44 34- 
20 10 
15 27 



oN 
o N 
oN 
oS 
II S 



Longitude. 
In Degrees. In Time. 



21 20 30 S 



174 30 oW 

1 09 46 45 W 

3 12 1 5 AV 

24 

35 

26 

29 

4 
50 
34 



4 
13 

7 

6 

170 

2 14 

1174 



oW 
oE 
o E 
o E 
o E 
oW 
oW 



18 46 30 S 

39 56 35 N 
17 29 o N 

55 34 30 S 

49 I 30 N 

50 44 o N 



169 18 30 E 

4« 35 45 E 

63 1 o o W 

66 39 oW 

I 8 54E 

3 34- 30 W 



h 
1 1 

7 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
1 1 

14 



38 oW 

19 7W 
1 2 49 W 
17 24 W 
54 20 E 
29 44 E 

25 56 E 

20 16 E 
19 20 W 

II 38 16 W 



II 17 14 E 

3 14 23E 

4 12 40 W 
4 27 56 w 
o 4 35 E 
o 14 36 W 



H. Wat. 



h ' 

2 

4 3'3 

5 30 



F. 



Falmouth 


Eur. 


England 


50 8 


oN 


5 


2 30W 


20 


loW 


5 30 


Falfe (Cape) 


Afric. 


Caffres 


34 16 


S 


18 


44 E 


I 14 


<;6E 




Falfe Bay 


Afric, 


Caffres 


34 10 


S 


18 


33 E 


I 14 


12 E 




Farewell (Cape) 


Am. 


Greenland 


59 38 


oN 


42 


42 oW 


2 50 


48 W 




Farewell (Cape) 


Afia 


N. Zealand 


40 37 


oS 


172 


41 30 E 


u 30 


46 E 




Fayal Town 


Eur. 


Azores 


38 32 


20 N 


28 


41 5W 


I 54 


44W 


2 20 


Ferdinand Noronlui 


Am. 


Brazil 


3 56 


20 S 


32 


38 oW 


2 10 


32 W 




Ferrara 


Eur. 


Italy 


44 49 


■56 N 


11 


36 10 E 


46 


2^E 




Ferro I fie (Town) 


Afric. 


Canaries 


27 47 


20 N 


17 


45 50 W 


I II 


3W 




Finifterre (Cape) 


Eur. 


Spain 


42 54 


N 


9 


17 10 W 


37 


9 W 




Flamborough Head 


Eur. 


England 


54 8 


oN 





II E 





44 E 




Florence 


Eur. 


Italy 


43 46 


30 N 


1 1 


3 30 E 


44 


14 E 




Flores 


Eur. 


Azores 


39 34 


oN 


31 


oW 


2 4 


oW 




St. Flour 


Eur. 


France 


45 I 


55 N 


3 


5 30 E 


12 


22 E 




Fortaveiiture (\V. Ft.) 


Afric. 


Canaries 


28 4 


N 


H 


31 30W 


58 


6W 




Foul Point 


Afric. 


Madagafcar 


17 40 


148 


49 


53 oE 


3 '9 


32 E 


'. 


France (Ifle of) 


Afric. 


Indian Ocean 


20 9 


45 S 


57 


28 E 


3 49 


^2E 




Francfort (on the Ma.) 


Eur, 


Germany 


49 55 


oN 


8 


35 oE 


34 


20 E 




Franfois (Cape) 


Am. 


Hifpaniola 


19 46 


30 N 


72 


j8 oW 


4 49 


12 W 




Old Cape Franjois 


Am, 
Eur. 


Hifpaniola 


19 40 


30 N 


70 


2 oW 


4 40 


8W 




Frawenburgh 


Pmffia 


5422 


11; N 


20 


7 30 E 


I 20 


30 E 




Frejus 


Eur. 


F'rance 


43 25 


^2 N 


6 


43 54 E 


26 


^6 E 




Frekel (Cape) 


Eur. 


France 


48 41 


3 N 


6 


oW 


24 


oW 




Friefiand's Peak 


Am. 


Sandw. Land 


59 2 


S 


26 S5 30 W 


' 47 


42 W 





»s 



rbi 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



:<ciu 



of Pla 



Cont. 



Fronfac (Strait) 
Fuego (IfleJ 
Funchal 
Furneaux Ifluiid 



Gap 

Gabey 

Genes 

Geneva 

Genoa 

St. George (Me) 

St. George (Town) 

St. George (Fort) 

St. George (Cape) 

George (Cape) 



Ghent 

Gibraltar 

Gilbert's Ifle 

Glafgow 

Goa 

Goat Ifle 

Gomera (Me) 

Good Hope (Cape) 

Good Hope (Town) 

Goree (Ifle) 



Gottenburg 

Gottengen (Obfer,) 

Granville 

Gralfe 

Gratiofa 

Gratz 

Gravelines 

Greenwich (Obfer.) 

Grenoble 

Grvphilwald 



Guadaloupe 
Guiaquil 
Guricf 
Giiernfey 



Am. 
Al'ric. 
Afric. 
Alia 



I Eur. 
Alia 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Amer. 
Afia 
Afia 
Amer. 



Sea or Country. Latitude. 



Eur. 

Eur. 

Amer. 

Eur. 

Afia 

Afia 

Africa 

Africa 

Africa 

Africa 



Nova Scotia 
Cape Verd 
Madeira 
Pacif. Ocean 



France 

New Guinea 

Italy 

Savoy 

Italy 

Azores 

Bermudas 

India 

New Britain 

South Georgia 



45 36 57 N 
14 56 45 N 
32 37 40 N 
17 1 1 o S 



Longitude. 
In Degrees. ; In Time. 


H. Wat. 


/ II 

61 19 3o\V 

24 28 oW 

17 6 15 W 

143 6 40 W 


1' , „ 
4 s i»W 
I 37 52 W 
1 8 25 W 
9 28 27 W 


h ' 
12 4 



G. 

44 

o 

44 
46 

44 

32 

'3 

4 

54 



37 N 
o S 



o 

o 

o 

o 

o 

54 N 
30 S 

o S 



6 4 47 E 
126 23 45 E 

8 35 45 E 

6 o o E 

8 56 37 E 

28 o o W 

63 35 o W 

80 28 45 E 

153 8 45 E 

36 32 30 W 



34 



Flanders 

Spain 

Terra del Fuego 

Scotland 

India 

Indian Ocean 

Canaries 

CafFres 

CafFres 

Atl. Ocesn 



Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
E ur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 



Amer. 
Amer. 

Ada 
Eur. 



Sweden 

GeiTTiany 

France 

France 

A zores 

Germany 

Flanders 

England 

France 

Germany 



51 3 o N 
36 6 30 N 
55 U oS 
55 5' 32 N 
1531 o N , ^ 

13 55 o N 120 
28 5 40 N 
34 29 oS 
33 55 4^ S 

14 40 10 N 



57 42 o N 
51 31 54N 
48 50 16 N 

43 39 19 N 
2 

4 

50 59 

51 28 40 N 
45 II 42 N 
54 4 25 N 



39 
47 



oN 
9N 

4N 



3 
5 

71 

4 

73 



43 45 E 
22 o W 
45 W 
oW 
o E 
oE 
oW 
•5E 
15 E 
oW 



II 

9 
I 

6 

27 

15 

2 

o 

5 

'3 



38 45 E 
53 oE 
36 15 W 
55 9 E 
oW 
45 E 
32 E 
o 

43 34 E 
3^530 E 



24 19 E 

25 35 E 
23 E 

oE 
34 23 E 
52 oW 
14 2 o W 
21 55 E 
10 12 35 E 
2 26 loW 



14 S5 E 
021 2 8 W 
4 44 1 1 W 
017 oW 
4 55 oE 
8 o 8 E 

1 8 32W 
I 13 33 E 
' '3 33 E 
I 9 40 \V 



5« 

25 

7 

o 



Carib. Sea 
Peru 
Siberia 
Brit. Channel 



15 

2 

47 
49 



59 30 N 
II 21 S 

7 7 N 
30 c N 



61 48 15 W 
81 II 30 W 
51 56 o E 

2 47 o\V 



46 35 E 
39 32 E 

6 25 W 
2) 41 E 
51 52 W 

I 48 E 

S 30E 

o o 
22 54 E 
54 34.E 



4 7 '?W 

5 24 46 W 
3 27 44 E 

o 11 ew 



F4mHfWTyywtf'ffttrBEigaafBeKgwEgz 



>.C].V 



INTRODUCTION. 

■The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



\ 



T5^^raS5^r!^f'=»Tii?JW-.?T=!77Ha 


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1 


\ 

1 






H. 


Kiimrs of Places. 


Cont. 


Sea or Country. 


I>atitude. 


Longitude. 


H. Wat. 


i 










In Degrees. 


In lime. 




\ 


(■ 






1 II 


' » 


h ' ■■ 


h ' 


Hague 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


52 4 10 N 


4 17 30 E 


17 lo E 


8 IS 


i 


liainburg 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


53 33 3 N 


lo I 1 1 E 


39 20 E 


6 


a 


Haiig-lip (Cape) 


Africa 


Caffres 


34 16 S 


18 44 oE 


I 14 56 E 




H 


Hp.novcr 


Eur. 


Germany 


52 23 18 N 


4« 15 E 


3S 57 E 






Hariioroiigh (Mark.) 


Eur. 


England 


52 2Si 30 N 57 25 W| 


3 50 W 




liarlem 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


52 22 14 N 


4 37 E 


18 28 E 






, Hallinj^s 


Lur. 


England 


50 52 10 N 


041 10 E 


2 45 W 






Ha-annah 


Am. 


Cuba 


23 II 52 N 


82 18 30 \V 


5 29 14 V,'' 






Havre-dc-grace 


Eur. 


France 


49 29 14 N 


6 23 E 


26E 


9 




Heele (La) 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


51 23 2 N 


4 45 30 E 


19 2 E 




1 


St. Helena (Ja. Town) 


Africa 


S. Atl. Ocean 


15 5S c- S 


5 49 cW 


23 16 wi 1 


1 


Henlopen (Cape) 


Anier. 


Virginia 


38 46 N 


75 12 30^'^' 


5 50 W 




1 


HenK)l:ind 


Eur. 


Sweden 


62 38 N 


17 53 E 


I II 32 E 






Hcvvcy's llle 


Alia 


Pacific Ocean 


19 17 S 


158 48 oW 


10 35 12 W 






Hiiichiiigbrokt Iflc 


Alia 


Pacific Ocean 


17 35 S 


168 58 E 


II 14 32 E 






Hoai-Nghaa 


Afia 


China 


33 34- 40 N 


118 49 30 E 


7 55 iS E 






Hogue (Cape La) 


Eur. 


France 


49 44 40 N 


I 56 50 W 


7 47 W 






Ho vhead 


Eur. 


Wales 


53 23 N 


4 40 oW 


1 8 40 W 






Hood's llle 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


9 26 S 


138 52 oW 


9 15 28 W 






Hoogftiaeten 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


51 24 44 N 


4 47 oE 


19 8 E 






Horn (Cape) 


Am. 


Terra del Fuego 


55 58 S 


63 13 oW 


4 29 44 W 


i 




Hout Bay 


Afi ica 


Caiires 


34 3 S 


18 19 E 


I 13 16 E 


1 




Howe's IHe 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


16 46 30 S 


1 54 6 40 W 


10 16 2 7 W 


B 




Huahine (Ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


1 6 44 S 


151 6 oW 


10 4 24 W 


B 




Hull 


Eur. 


England 


53 50 cN 


28 oW 


1 52 W 


■ 




Hurll Ca,\le 


Eur. 


England 


JO 42 23 N 


I 32 45 W 


6 iiW 1 








I. 


J. 


1 




Jaffa _ 


Afia 


Syria 


32 5 oN 


35 10 E 


2 20 40 E 






(amaica (Port-royal) 


Am. 


Atl. Ocean 


18 oN 


76 44 30 ^Y 


5 6 58 W 






i Jakulfkoi 


Afia 


Siberia 


62 1 30 N 


129 47 45 E 


8 39 II E 






i Janeiro ( Rio) 


Am. 


Brazil 


22 54 10 S 


42 43 45 W 


2 50 55 W 




V 


Jaly 


Eur. 


Moldavia 


47 8 30 N 


27 29 45 E 


I 49 59 E 






Java Head 


Afia 


Java 


6 49 S 


106 50 E 


7 7 20 E 




jerufalem 


Afia 


Paleiline 


31 46 34 N 


35 20 E 


2 21 20 E 


rft. Ildctonfo's Iflcs 


Am. 


Ttri-a del Fuego 


55 51 oS 


69 2 1 oW 


4 37 52 W 




I-amer.(Jfle) 
Ingoltladt 


.'Vfia 


Pacific Ocean 


19 16 S 

48 45 45 N 


169 46 E 
11 22 30 E 


II 19 4 E 




) 


Eur. 


Germany 


45 30 E 




St. John's 


Am. 


Antigua 


17 4 30 N 


62 9 oW 


4 8 36 W 






St. John'3 


Am. 


Newfoundland 


47 32 oN 


52 26 oW 


3 29 44 w 


6 




Joppa 


Afia 


Syria 


32 45 N 


36 oW 


2 24 oW 






St. Jofeph's 


Am. 


California 


23 3 42 S 


109 42 30 W 


7 18 50 W 






Irraname (Ide) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


19 31 S 


1 70 2 1 E 


II 21 24 E 








Ki.irT*aNKfi 


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The 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



xcv 



mssf!!»ssts^3SBitiT^BSiB9Mi^ssiB;xmsmaiasBSixm 


IM MUM III 


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BRBVE 


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_ 

; 


1 
] 

Names of Places. 


Cent. 


Sea or Country. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 
In Degrees. 1 In Time. 


H. Wat. 








O ' 


;* 


' 


(' 


h ' " 


h ' 


B 


Idamabad 


Alia 


India 


21 20 


oN 


9' 45 


oE 


6 7 oE 






■ Kit; of Pino* 


Afl3 


Pacific Ocean 


22 38 


oS 


167 3S 


oE 


11 10 32 E 






i Ilpahiiii 


Afia 


Ptrlia 


32 25 


oN 


52 50 


E 


3 3{ 20 E 






St. Jua>. (Cape) 


Am. 


Statcn Land 


54 4-7 


10 S 


63 47 


W 


4 "15 8W 






Judda 

St. Juliana (Povt) 


Afia 


Arabia 


21 29 


oN 


39 22 


oE 


2 37 28 E 






Am. 


Patagonia 


49 '0 


S 


68 44 


oVv^ 


4 34 56 W 


4 45 




' Jutliia 


Afia 


ludia 


J4 18 


oN 


ICO 50 


oE 


6 43 20 E 










K. 












Kedgeree 


Afia 


India 


21 4S 


oN 


S8 50 


•5 E 


5 55 21 E 




1 Kiow 


Eur. 


Ukraine 


50 27 


oN 


30 27 


30 E 


2 I 50 E 




|;Kola 

Hi 


Eur. 


Lapland 


68 52 


30 N 


33 


30 E 


212 2 E 












L. 










■Ladrone (Grand) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


22 2 


oN 


113 ^6 


oE 


7 35 44 E 






Laguna 


Africa 


Tenerilfc 


28 28 


57 N 


16 18 


15 w 


I 5 13 w 






Lancarota (E. Pt.) 


Africa 


Canaries 


29 14 


N 


13 26 


oW 


53 44 w 






Landau 


Eur. 


France 


49 I ' 


38 N 


8 7 


30 E 


32 30 E 






Landfcroon 


Eur. 


Sweden 


ss 52 


31 N 


12 50 


46 E 


051 23 E 






Lands-End 


Eur. 


England 


JO 4 


7N 


5 4« 


31 W 


22 4'.W 






Langres 


Eur. 


France 


47 52 


n N 


5 19 


23 E 


G 2 1 18 E 






I^aufanne 


Eur. 


Switzerland 


46 31 


5N 


6 45 


15 E 


27 1 E 




Lcftoure 


Eur. 


France 


43 56 


2 N 


36 


S3 E 


2 28 E 






Leeds 


Eur. 


England 


53 48 


oN 


' 34 


ijW 


6 17W 






Leghorn 


Eur. 


Italy 


43 33 


oN 


10 25 


E 


41 40 E 






Leiceller 


Eur. 


England 


52 3!* 


oN 


I 8 


30 W 


4 34W 






l.eiplic 


Eur. 


Saxony 


51 19 


14 N 


12 20 


E 


49 20 E 






Leper's Illand 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


<s 23 


30 S 


167 58 


15 E 


II II 53 E 






Leilccard 


Eur. 


England 


50 26 


55 N 


4 4' 


45 W 


18 47 \V 






I^efparre 


Eur. 


France 


45 »« 


33 N 


57 


3^V 


3 48W 






Leyden 


Eur. 


Holland 


52 8 


40 N 


428 


oE 


17 52 E 






Liege 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


50 37 


30 N 


5 35 


oE 


22 20 E 






J^ima 


Am. 


Peru 


12 i 


15 S 


76 49 30 W 


5 7 18W 






Limoges 


Eur. 


France 


45 49 


44 N 


' 15 


50 E 


5 4E 






Lititz 


Eur. 


Germany 


48 16 


N 


'3 57 


30 E 


ss 50 E 






Lifieux 


Eur. 


France 


49 8 


50 N 


13 


32 E 


54 E 






Line 


Eur. 


Flanders 


50 37 


50 N 


3 4 


16E 


12 17 E 






Lifbon 


Enr. 


Portugal 


38 42 


25 N 


9 4 


40 W 


36 40 W 


2 15 




Lion's Bank 


Eur. 


Atl. Ocean 


56 40 


N 


•7 45 


oW 


111 oW 


•f 




T^ifbiirne (Cayie) 


Afia 


N. Hebrides 


15 40 45 s 


166 57 


oE 


11 7 48 E 






I^iveri)Ool 


Eur. 


England 


53 22 


c^N 


3 'o 


oW 


12 40 W 






Lizard Flagftaff 


Eur. 


England 


49 57 


56 N 


5 >» 


18W 


20 45 w 


1 30 


ii Lonibes 


Eur. 


France 


43 2« 


30 N 


55- 


9 E 


341 j: 






London (St. Paul's) 


Eur. 


England 


5' 31 


oN 


5 


37 W 


22iW 

* 


3 1 



The 



XCVl 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 





i^at^i^aj^^a^Baa^TaasKaBiagaiBBaa 


ii' IIWWII i'i LI "PJ 1* 1 If 
















Name; of Places. 


Cent. 


Sea or Country. 


T .• ] Longitude. 

Latitudes. T TA , T Ti- 

In Degrees. In Time. 


H.Wat. 










1 " 


' 


ff 


h ' " 


h ' 






Lorenzo (Cape) 


Am. 


Peru 


I 2 O S 


So 17 


oW 


5 21 f;w 








St. Louis (Port) 


Am. 


H if pallida 


iS i3 50 N 


73 16 


oW 


4 53 4W 








St. Louis ( Port) 


Africa 


Mauritius 


20 9 45 s 


57 2« 


oE 


3 49 52 E 






B j I^uliilLiourg 


Am. 


Cape Breton 


45 53 40 N 


59 55 


oW 


3 59 40 W 








Louveau 


Alia 


Iiidia 


12 42 30 N 


loi 1 


30 E 


6 44 6 E 








Louvain 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


50 53 3 N 


4 44 


ijE 


18 57 E 








Loutlloife 


Eur. 


England 


52 29 N 


1 44 


9E 


6 57 E 






St. Lucia (Me) 


Am. 


Antilles 


13 24. 30 N 


60 51 


30 W 


4 3 26 W 




1 




LunJen 


Eur. 


Sweden 


55 42 26 N 


13 12 


27 E 


52 50 E 




1 




Luneville 


Eur. 


France 


48 35 33 N 


6 30 


6 E 


26 E 




1 




Lufon 


Eur. 


Trance 


4C 27 15 N 


I 10 


34 W 


4 42 \\ 




1 




Luxembourg 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


49 37 6 N 


6 u 


45 ^ 


24 47 E 








Lyme Steeple 


Eur. 


England 


51 4 20 N 


I I 


22 E 


4 5E 






1 

< 


Lynn 


Eur. 


England 


52 45 16 N 


23 


45 E 


I 35 E 






i 


Lyons 


Eur. 


France 


45 45 52 N ' 4 49 


9E 


19 17 E 




1 






]\ 


T. 








1 


Macao 


Alia 


Thin a 


22 12 44. N 


iij 46 


15 El 


7 35 5 E 






8 


MacafTar 


Afia 


Celebes 


5 9 S 


119 48 45 E 


7 59 '5 Ji 






i 


Madeira (Funclial) 


Africa 


Atl. Ocean 


32 37 40 N 


16 56 


W 


I 7 4+ W 


<2 4 




g 1 MacJiiil's 


Afia 


India 


'3 4 54 N 


80 28 


45 E 


S 2. ssE 






n 


MadredcDios (Port) 


Afia 


Marqucfas 


9 SS 30 S 


139 8 


40 W 


9 16 35 *A' 


2 30 




H 


Madrid 


Eur. 


Spain 


40 25 iS N 


3 12 


Vv' 


014 8 W 






i 


Magdalena (Ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


10 25 30 S 


'33 49 


W 


9 15 i6 VV 






i 


Mahou (Port) 


Eur. 


Minorca 


39 50 46 N 


3 4ii 


30 E 


15 14E ; 1 




1 j Majorca (Ille) 


Eur. 


Mediterr. Sea 


39 35 N 


2 29 


45 E 


9 59 E 








Malacca 


Afia 


India 


2 12 N 


102 5 


oE 


6 48 20 E 




i 




Malincs 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


51 I 50N 


4 23 


"7^ 


17 55 E 




1 




Mallicola (Lie) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


16 £5 ^oS 


'67 39 


ijE 


II 10 37 E 




1 




St. Maloes 


Eur. 


France 


48 38 59 N 


2 2 


22 vv 


089 V\' 


6 


1 




Malta (Lk) 


Africa 


Mediterr. Sea 


35 53 47 N 


l\ 28 


30 E 


57 54 E 




1 




Manilla 


Afia 


Philippines 


1436 yN 


120 52 


oE 


8 3 2iJ E 








St. Margaret's Steeple 


Eur. 


England 


51 9 14N 


1 Z2 


7E 


5 28 E 






j 


Marigalante (Lie) 


Am. 


Atl. Ocean 


15 55 15 N 


61 1 1 


oW 


4 4 44 W 








Marfcilles 


Eur. 


France 


43 '7 43 N 


5 2' 


43 K. 


021 27 E 








St. Martha 


Am. 


Ten a Firma 


1 1 26 ^0 N 


74 4 


30 W 


45618 VV 








St. Martin's (Ifle) 


Am. 


Carib. Sea 


iS 4 20 N 


63 2 


oW 


4 12 8W 








Martinico (Port royal) 


Am. 


Atl. Ocean 


H 35 55 N 


61 9 


oW 


4 4 3& W 






St. Mary's (Ifle) 


Eur. 


Scilly Hies 


49 57 30 N 


643 


oW 


26 52 W 


3 45 






St. -Mary's (Town) 


Eur. 


Azores 


36 56 40 N 


25 9 


15W 


I 40 37 VV 








Malkelyne's Lie 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


16 32 S 


167 59 


15E 


11 II 57 E 








St. Matthew (Lights) 


Eur. 


France 


48 t9 52 N 


4 47 


25 W 


19 10 W 








Mauritius 


Africa 


Indian Ocean 


20 9 45 S 


?7 29 


ijE 


3 49 57 f- 








Maurua (Ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


16 25 40 s 


'52 32 


40 W 


10 10 11 Vv 




i 


! Mayence 
1 


Eur. 


Germany 


49 54 N 


8 20 


E 


33 20 E 




k 



The 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



XCVII 



Names of Places. 



Mayne (John's) Ifle 

Mayo (Iflc; 

Meaux 

Mecca 

Mende 

Mergui 

Mctz 

Mew Stone 

Mexico 

Mezieres 



Miatea (Ifle) 

St. Michael's (Ifle) 

Middkburg (Ifle) 

Milan 

Milo (Ifle) 

Minoica^fort, St. Philip) 

Modena 

Mons 

Montagu (Cape) 

Montagu (Ifle) 

Montmlrail 
Montpellier 
Montreal 
Montferrat (Ifle) 
Monument (The) 
Mofcow 
Moulins 
Munich 

Mufketto Cove 
Mufwell Hm 



Cont. 



Sea or Country. 



Eur. 

Africa 

Eur. 

Afia 

Eur. 

Afia 

Eur. 

Afia 

Am. 

Eur. 



Afia 
Eur. 
Afia 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Am. 
Afia 

Eur. 
Eur. 
Am. 
Am. 
Afia 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Am. 
Eur. 



North Ocean 

Cape Verd 

France 

Arabia 

France 

Siam 

France 

New Holland 

Mexico 

France 



Pacific Ocean 
Azores 
Pacific Ocean 
Italy 

Mediterr. Sea 
Mediterr. Sea 
Italy 

Netherlands 
Sandwich Land 
Pacific Ocean 



France 

France 

Canada 

Carib. Sea 

Pacific Ocean 

Mofcovy 

Fiance 

Bavatia 

Greenland 

England 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 
In Degrees. | In Time. 



^i lo 
15 10 

48 SI 
21 40 

44 3' 
12 12 

49 7 
43 4« 
19 25 

49 45 



oN 
oN 

40 N 
oN 
2 N 
oN 

10 N 
o S 

50 S 

47 N 



9 49 3°W 
23 5 oW 

2 52 30 E 
41 o o E 

3 29 35 E 
98 8 45 E 

6 10 13 E 
146 27 o E 
100 5 45W 

4 43 16 E 



I? 
37 
21 

45 
36 
39 
44 
50 
58 
17 



52 

47 
20 

27 
4" 
51 
34 
27 
3,3 
26 



o S 

o N 

30 S 

57 N 

oN 

o N 

oN 

10 N 

oS 

o S 



48 

43 
45 
16 

17 
55 
46 

4« 
64 
5' 



8 N 

29 N 
oN 

30 N 
.58 
45 N 

4N 
55 N 
13 N 
32 N 



148 6 oW 

25 42 oW 

174 34 oW 

9 II 45 E 

25 o o E 
3 54 o E 

II 12 30 E 
3 57 '5 E 

26 46 oW 
16? 31 30 E 



39 i8\V 
32 20 W 
1 1 30 E 

44 o E 
.3 58 E 

32 35 E 
24 41 E 

45 48 E 

40 2 3 W 
18 53 E 



3 

3 

73 

62 

168 

37 

3 
1 1 



16 E 

25 E 

oW 

oW 

>5E 

45 E 

59 E 

oE 



52 56 45 W 

O 7 2oW 



9 52 24 W 

1 42 48 W 

II 38 16W 

36 47 E 

1 40 o E 
o 15 36 E 
o 44 50 E 

15 49 E 

1 47 4W 
1114 6 E 



o 
o 
4 
4 
II 
2 
o 
o 
3 



14 9 E 

15 30 E 
44 W 

6W 

33 E 
30 1 1 E 
13 20 E 
46 o E 
3. 47 W 
o 29 W 



52 

9 

14 



H. Wat. 



h ' 



10 15 , 









N. 








Namur 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


50 28 32 N 


4 44 45 E 


18 59 E 




Nancy 


Eur, 


France 


48 4« 55 N 


6 10 16 E 


24 41 E 




Nangafachi 


Afia 


Japan 


32 32 N 


128 46 15 E 


8 35 5 E 




Nankin 


Afia 


China 


32 4 40 S 


118 47 E 


7 55 8 E 




Nantes 


Eur. 


France 


47 13 6 N 


I 32 59W 


6 1 2 W 


3 


Naples 


Eur. 


Italy 


40 50 15 N 


14 17 30 E 


057 10 E 




Narbonne 


Eur. 


France 


43 JO 58 N 


2 59 59 E 


012 E 




Nevcrs 


Eur. 


France 


46 59 17 N 


3 9 16 E 


12 37 E 




New Year's Harbour 


Am. 


Staten Land 


54 48 55 S 


64 II oW 


4 16 44W 




Niagara 


Am. 


Canada 


43 4 25 N 


79 7 51 W 


5 16 31 W 




Nice 


Eur. 


France 


43 41 47 N 


7 16 22 E 


29 5 E 




St. Nicholas Mole 


Am. 


Hifpaniola 


19 49 20 N 


73 29 45 W 


4 53 J9W 




Nieuport 


Eur. 


Flanders 


yi y 41N 


2 45 E 


on E 


12 


Ningpo 


Afia 


China 


29 57 .,5 N 


120 18 E 


8 1 12 E 




Nifmes 


Eur. 


France 


43 50 12 N 


4 18 39 E 


17 15 E 





VOL. I, 



Tkc 



xcvni 



.1 



I N T R O D U C T I O ISr. 

The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



Names of Places. 


Cent. 





_, 


Noil" (Cape) 


Amer. 


Nootka 


Amer. 


Norfolk ifland 


Afia 


Noriton 


Amer. 


North Cape 


Eur. 


Cape North 


Amer. 


Noyon 


Eur. 


Nuremberg 


Eur 



Sea or Country. 



Ten-a del Fuego 
Pacific Ocean 
Pacific Ocean 
Pcufylvaiiia 
Lapland 
South Georgia 
France 
Germany 



Latitude. 



54 32 
49 36 



to S 



6 N 
I 45 N 
9 56N 
10 oN 
4 45 N 
49 34 59 N 
49 26 5S N 



29 
40 
71 
54 



Longitude. 
In Degrees. In Time. 



73 
126 

168 
75 
25 
38 

3 
1 1 



3 '5W 
42 30 W 

10 o E 
23 30 W 
57 oE 
15 oW 
59 48 E 

4 o E 



h 

4 48 1 3 W 
8 26 50 W 
1 1 ^ 

5 



12 40 E 
I 34W 

1 43 48E 

2 33 o W 
o II 59 E 
o 44 i6 E 



H. Wat. 



h ' 



-3 o 



o. 



Oaitipelia Bay 


Afia 


Otaheite 


17 29 17 S 


H9 35 45"^' 


9 


56 57W 




Ochoz 


Afia 


Tartary 


59 20 10 N 


143 12 30 E 


9 


32 50 E 




Ohamaneno Harbour 


Afia 


Uliateah 


16 45 30 S 


15. 38 5W 


10 


6 32W 


II 20 


Ohevahoa (I lie) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


9 40 40 S 


139 I 40 W 


9 


16 7W 




Ohitahoo (ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


9 55 30 S 


1 39 6 oW 


9 


16 24W 


2 30 


Oleron (Ifle) 


Eur. 


France 


46 2 50 N 


I 25 13 W 





5 41W 




Olinde 


Amer. 


Brazil 


8 13 S 


35 5 30 W 


2 


20 22 W 




St. Omer's 


Eur. 


Flanders 


50 44 46 N 


2 14 57 E 





9 E 




Onateayo (Ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


9 58 S 


138 51 oW 


9 


IS 24 w 




Oporto 


Eur. 


Portugal 


41 10 N 


8 22 oW 





33 8W 




Oienburg 


Afia 


Tartary 


J I 46 5 N 


55 4 30 E 


3 


40 18E 




Orleans 


Eur. 


France 


47 54 10 N 


I 54 27 E 





7 38 E 




Orleans (New) 


Am. 


Louifiana 


29 57 45 N 


89 58 45W 


5 


59 55W 




Oratava 


Africa 


Teneriffe 


28 23 27 N 


1 5 24 II W 


I 


5 37 W 




Orflc 


Afia 


Tartary 


51 12 30N 


58 30 45 E 


3 


54 3 E 




Ortagal (Cape) 


Eur. 


Spain 


43 46 30 N 


7 39 oW 





30 36 W 




Ofnaburg (Ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


1 7 49 30 S 


149 26 15 W 


9 52 24 W 




Oftend 


Eur. 


Netherlands 


51 13 55 N 


2 55 45 E 





n 43 E 


12 


Owharre Bay 


Afia 


Huahine 


I 6 44 S 


151 8 15 W 


10 


433W 




Oxford (Obfervatory) 


Eur. 


England 


51 45 38 N 


I ij 30 W 





5 2W 





P. 



Padui 


Ei;r. 


Paita 


Am. 


Pallifer's (Ifles) 


Afia 


Pallifer (Cape) 


Afia 


Palma (Iflej 


Africa 


Palmerilon's(Ifle) 


Afia 


Panama 


Am. 


Paoom (Ifle) 


Afia 


Paris (Obferv.) 


Eur. 


Patrixfiord 


Eur. 


Pau 


Eur. 


St. Paul's (Ifle) 


Africa 


St. Paul dc Leon 


Eur. 



Italy 

Peru 

Pacific Ocean 

New Zealand 

Canaries 

Pacific Oc tan 

Mexico 

Pacific Ocean 

France 

Iceland 



France 
Indian Ocean 
France 



45 23 40 N 
512 o S 
15 38 15 S 
4.1 38 o S 
28 36 45 N 



18 

8 

16 

48 

65 



oS 

48 N 

oS 

14 N 

45 N 



43 

37 
48 



15 oN 
51 oS 
40 55 N 



II ^i 30 E 



146 

'75 
17 

162 
80 

168 

2 

24 



30 15 W 
18 o E 
50 oW 
57 oW 
21 oW 
28 45 E 
20 o E 
10 o W 



o 9 o W 

77 48 o E 

4 o 2 1 W 



47 30 E 

9 46 iW 
II 44 30E 

1 11 20 w 
10 51 48 w 

5 21 24W 

n '3 55 E 

9 20 E 

1 3 6 40 W 



36 W 

12 E 

I W 



4 o 



Ibt 



INTRODUCTION. 



XCIX 



The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



^'^ggajBCEaaLMiiLJWiiaaA.MiiMi 












Muiim 






1 Names of Places. 


Cont. 


Sea or Country. 


Latit 


ade. 


Longi 
In Degrees. 






tude. 

In Time. 


H. Wat. 


1 






O ' 


II 


' 


11 


h ' " 


h ' 


1 Peki'n 


Afia 


China 


39 54 


13 N 


116 27 


30 E 


7 45 50 E 




1 Peiigueux 


Eur. 


France 


45 " 


8 N 


43 


9E 


2 53E 




1 Perinaldi 


Eur. 


Italy 


43 53 


20 N 


7 40 


E 


30 40 E 




1 Peipignaii 


Eur. 


France 


42 41 


53 N 


2 53 


35 E 


II 34 E 




1 St. Peter's Fort 


Am. 


Martinico 


14 44 


oN 


6t 2! 


16 W 


4 5 2sW 




1 St. Peter's (Ifle) 


Am. 


AtL Ocean 


46 46 


30 N 


56 17 


W 


3 45 ^\^' 




1 Peterfburg 


- Eur. 


Ruflia 


59 5<5 


23 N 


30 19 


E 


2 I 16 E 




1 Petit Goave 


yVm. 


Hifpaniola 


i« 27 


N 72 52 


30 W 


45130 W 




Petropawlofkoi 


Alia 


Kamchatka 


53 1 


2.0 N 


158 48 


oE 


10 35 13E 




Philadelphia 


Amer. 


Penfylvania 


39 56 


55 N 


75 '3 


30 W 


5 054W 




St. Philip's Fort 


Eur. 


Minorca 


39 50 


46 N 


3 48 


30 E 


15 14 E 




Pickerfgill's(ine) 


Amer. 


Atl. Ocean 


54 42 


30 S 


36 58 


oW 


2 27 52W 




Pickerfgill's Harbour 


Ada 


N. Zealand 


45 47 


27 S 


j66 18 


9E 


II 5 13 E 




Pico 


Eur. 


Azores 


38 28 


40 N 


28 26 


oW 


I J3 44W 




Pines (Ifle) 


Afia 


N. Caledonia 


22 38 


oS 


167 38 


oE 


II 10 32 E 




PIfa 


Eur. 


Italy 


43 43 


7N 


IQ 23 


oE 


41 32 E 




Plymouth Garrifon 


Eur. 


England 


50 21 


22 N 


4 7 


24 W 


16 30 W 


6 


Poitiers 


Eur. 


France 


4<5 34 


30 N 


20 


48 E 


I 23 E 




PoUiiigen 


Eur. 


Germany 


47 4« 


17 N 


II 7 


17 E 


44 29 E 




Poole Church 


Eur. 


England 


50 42 


50 N 


I 58 


55 W 


7 56W 




Pcndicherry 


Afia 


India 


II 41 


55 N 


79 52 


45 E 


5 19 31 E 




Ponoi 


Eur. 


Lapland 


67 4 30 N 


36 23 


,5E 


2 25 33 E 




' Pontoife 


Eur. 


France 


49 3 


2N 


2 5 


37 E 


8 22 E 




' Portland Light-houfe 


Eur. 


England 


50 31 


22 N 


2 26 


49 W 


9 47 W 




Porto Bello 


Amer. 


Mexico 


9 33 


jN 


79 50 


20 W 


5 19 21 w 




Porto Sando (Ifle) 


Africa 


Madeira 


32 5« 


15 N 


16 25 


15 W 


I 5 41W 




Port Royal 


Am. 


Jamaica 


18 


oN 


76 45 


30 w 


5 7 zW 




Port Royal 


Am. 


Martinico 


14 35 


55 N 


6. 9 


oW 


4 4 36 W 




Portfmouth Church 


Eur. 


England 


50 47 


27 N 


• 5 


57 W 


4 24 w 


II 15 


Portfmouth Academy 


Eur. 


England 


50 48 


2 N 


I 6 


I W 


4 24 ^v 




Portland (Ifle) 


Eur. 


North Sea 


63 22 


oN 


18 54 


oW 


I 15 36 W 




Portland (Itle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


39 25 


S 


178 12 


E 


II 52 48 E 




Port Paix 


Am. 


Hilpaniola 


19 58 


N 


73 2 


oW 


4 48 8 \V 




Port Piaya 


Africa 


St. Jago 


14 53 


53 N 


23 29 


22 W 


J a SI w 


11 


Prague 


Eur. 


Bohemia 


50 5 


47 N 


14 24 


E 


57 36 E 




Prin. of Wales's Fort 


Am. 


New Wales 


5« 47 


32 N 


94 7 


30 W 


6 16 30 W 




Providence 


Am. 


N. England 


41 50 


40 N 


71 26 


W 


4 45 4^ W 




Pudyoua 


Afia 


N. Caledonia 


20 18 


S 


164 41 


.4E 


10 58 45 E 


6 30 


Pulo Condor (Ifle) 


Afia 


Indian Ocean 


8 40 


oN 


107 20 


oE 


7 9 20 E 




Pulo Timon (Ifle) 


Afia 


Gulph Siam 


3 


N 


104 25 


E 


6 57 40 E 




Pyleftaart's (Ifle) 
■ HiillllHIII IMtniiH 'IBM 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


22 23 


oS 


'75 41- 


30 W 


II 42 46 \V 


't^iOAM.WX^SBga^ 



Ti'i 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



l «T. » .ip «jnn fiff miP i vwi,nw ■ wfc^ a ^w ff rT*r*™ »**^^**^-^T" 







Qi 






Names of Places. 


Cont. 


Sea or Country. 


Latitudes. 


Longitud< 
In Degrees. Ir 


Time. 


H. Wat. 








o ' " 


1 " 


h 


/ II 


h ' 


Quebec 


Am. 


Canada 


46 47 30 N 


71 10 oW 


4 44 40 W 


7 30 


Quimper 


Eur. 


France 


47 58 29 N 


4 6 oW 





16 24W 




St. Quinton 


Eur. 


France 


49 50 5« N 


3 '7 23 E 





13 10 E 




C^iirus (Cape) 


Afia 


N. Hebrides 


14 56 8 S 


167 20 t 


1 1 


9 20 E 




Quito 


Am. 


Peru o I 3 1 7 S 1 


77 55 °^ 


5 


If 40 W 


Rakah (Ancient) 


Afia 


Mefopotamia 


36 I N 


38 50 E 


2 


35 20 E 




Ramhead 


Eur. 


England 


50 18 40 N 


4 20 15 W 





17 21 W 




Ramfgate Windmill 


Eur. 


England 


5' 19 49 N 


I 24 4E 





5 ;<^E 




Re (Jlle) 


Eur. 


France 


46 14 48 N 


I 34 28 W 





6 18 -.v 


3 


Retif 


Am. 


Brafil 


8 10 S 


35 35 oW 


2 


2 2 20 W 




Reikianefs (Cape) 


Eur. 


Iceland 


63 55 N 


22 47 30 W 


I 


31 10 w 




Rennes 


Eur. 


France 


48 6 4; N 


' 4' 53 ^^' 





6 ^8\V 




Refolution (Bay) 


Alia 


Ohitahoo 


9 55 3°S 


'39 8 40 W 


Q 


16 jc W 


2 30 


V 


1L> ^5 V, 


Refolution (Ifle) 


Aiia 


Pacific Ocean 


17 23 30 S 


141 45 W 


9 


27 w 




Refolution (Port) 


Afia 


Tanna 


19 32 25 s 


169 4' S E 


II 


i3 4+E 




Rheims 


Eur. 


France 


49 15 16 N 


4 I 48 E 





16 7E 




Rhodes 


Eur. 


France 


44 20 59 N 


2 34 17 E 





10 17 E 




Rhodes 


Afia 


Archipelago 


35 27 oN 


28 45 E 


I 


55 E 




Rimini 


Eur. 


Italy 


44 3 43 N 


12 34 ,5 E 





50 17 E 




Rio JaneJro 


Am. 


Brafil 


22 54 10 S 


42 43 45 u 


2 


SO 55^^' 




Rochelle 


Eur. 


France 


46 9 21 N 


I 9 55 W 





4 40 W 


3 45 


Rochford 


Eur. 


France 


45 50 loN 


57 49 ^ 





3 51 W 


4 '5 


Rock of Liftion 


Eur. 


Portugal 


38 45 30N 


9 35 30 ^^^ 





3» 22W 




Rodrigues (Me) 


Africa 


Indian Ocean 


19 40 40 S 


63 10 E 


4 


12 40 E 




Rome (St. Peter's) 


Eur. 


Italy 


41 S3 54 N 


12 29 15 E 





49 57 E 




Rotterdam 


Eur. 


Holland 


51 55 s8N 


4 29 E 





17 56 E 


3 


Rotterdam (Ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


20 16 30S 


174 30 30 W 


II 


38 2 W 




Rouen 


Eur. 


France 


49 26 27 N 
5 

17 39 30 N 


I I 32 W 





4 6W 


« '5 


Saba (Ifle) 


Am. 


Carib. Sea 


63 17 15 W 


4 


13 9 W 




Sable (Cape) 


Am. 


Nova Scotia 


43 23 45 N 


6$ 39 .jW 


4 


22 37 W 




Sagan 


! Eur. 


Silefia 


51 42 12 N 


15 22 15 E 


I 


I 29 E 




Saintes 


Eur. 


France 


45 44 43 N 


38 54W 





2 36 W 




Sainte-Croix 


Eur. 


France 


48 35 N 


7 23 55 E 





29 36 E 




Saliitury Spire 


Eur. 


England 


5 • 3 49 N 


I 47 W 





7 8 W 




Sail (Ifle) 


Africa 


All. Ocean 


16 38 15 N 


22 56 15 w 


1 


3. 45 W 




Salonique 


Eur. 


Turkey 


40 41 10 N 


23 8 E 


1 


32 32 E 




Salvages (Ifles) 


Africa 


Atl. Ocean 


30 N 


15 54 gW 


I 


3 36W 








Tit 



INTRODUCTION. 



CI 



'fhe Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 























Long 


itude. 




B Names of Places. 


Cont. 


Sea or Country. 


Latitude. 


Degrees. 


In Time. 


H, Wat. 


Samana 


Amer. 


Hifpaniola 

Archipelago 

Teneriffe 


19 15 oN 


1 " 
69 16 30 W 


h ' " 
4 37 6W 

1 48 52 E 
, 5 5W 

2 24 48 W 
11 11 56 E 
II II 32 E 
II 14 12 E 

2 27 50W 

. 47 52 w 

II 18 2W 


h ' 


Samos 


Afia 


37 46 N 1 


271^ E 




j Sanfla Cruz 


Africa, 


28 27 30 N 


16 16 15 w 




1 Sandwich fBay) 


Amer. 


South Georgia 


54 42 S 


36 12 oW 




Sandwich (Cape) 


Af.a 


Mallicola 


16 28 S 


16) 59 E 




Sandwich Harbour 


Aha 


Maliicola 


16 25 20 S 


167 53 E 




Sandwich (Ide) 


Af.a 


Pacific Ocean 


1741 S 


16S 33 E 




Saunders's (Cape) 
Saunders's (Ifle) 
Savage (IfleJ 


Aracr. 


Sandw. Lar.d 


54 6 30 S 


36 57 30 VV 




Amer. 


South Georgia 


58 S 


26 58 w 




Alia 


Pacific Ocean 


19 2 15 S 


169 30 30 w 




Scarborough Head 


Eur. 


England 


54 18 N 


13 oW 


J2 W 

34 23 E 
27 4W 
3 5 40E 
19 50 E 
43 E 




Schwezingcn 
SciUyliles (Lights) 


Eur. 


Germany 


49 23 4 N 


8 40 45 E 




Eur. 


Eng. Channel 


49 56 N 


6 46 oW 

46 25 oE 

4 57 3<5E 




Seballian St. (Cape) 


Africa 


Madagafcar 


12 30 S 




Sedan 


Eur, 


France 


49 42 29 N 




Seez 


Eur. 


France 


4.8 36 23 N 


10 44 E 




Senegal 
Seidis 


Africa 


Negroland 


15 53 oN 


1 5 31 30 W 


I 6 6W 
10 20E 
013 6 E 
27 48 E 


10 30 


Eur. 


France 


49 12 28 N 


2 34 58 E 




Sens 


Eiir. 


France 


48 u 55 N 


3 17 21E 




Senones 


Eur. 


France 


48 23 7N 


6 57 oE 


, 


Sheernel's 


Eur. 


England 


51 25 N 


50 E 


3 20 E 

II 14 48 E 

4 oW 

6 43 20 E 

7 14 55 E 
23 45 E 

37 12 W 

1 48 26 E 
I 35 3^5 W 
13 17 E 




[ Shepherd's (Ifles) 
Shirburn CaiUe 


Alia 
Eur. 


Pacif. Ocean 

England 


16 58 S 

51 ig 25 N 


168 42 E 
I W 




1 Sinm 


Aha 


India 


14 20 40 N 


too 50 E 




■li-ngham-fu 
Sifteron 


Alia 


China 


34. 16 30 N 


108 43 45 E 




Eur. 


France 


44 11 5 1 N 


5 56 IS E 




Sh'go Bay 

Smyrna 

Sn;efell (Mount) 

Soillons 


Eur. 


Ireland 


54 15 oN 


9 18 oW 




Alia 


Natolia 


38 28 7 N 


27 635E 




Eur. 
Eur. 


Iceland 
France 


64 52 20 N 
49 22 52 N 


23 54 oW 
3 19 16E 




Sombavera (Ifles) 
Soolo 
Southampton Spire 


Am. 


Carib. Sea 


18 38 N 


63 37 30W 


4 '4 3°W 
8 5 2 E 

5 36W 

1 51 oW 
451 48 E 
9 34W 

14 33 W 

1 12 16 E 

7 16W 

1 37 57 W 




Af.a 


India 


5 57 oN 


121 15 30 E 




Eur. 


England 


50 93 59 N 


I 23 j6\V 
27 45 oW 




Southern Thule 


Am. 


Sandw. Land 


59 34 oS 




Speaker Bank 
Stalbridge 
Start- Point 


Afia 


Indian Ocean 


4 45 S 


72 57 E 




Eur. 


England 


50 57 N 


2 23 30 W 




Eur. 


England 


50 13 36 N 


3 38 21 w 




Stockholm 
Stonehenge 
Straumnefs 


Eur. 


Sweden 


59 20 31 N 


iS 3 55 1- 




Eur. 


England 


51 10 44 N 


I 49 8W 




Eur. 


Iceland 


65 39 40 N 


24 29 ,i5W 




Stratfljourgh 
Succefs Bay 
Succefs Cape 
Suez 


Eur. 


France 


48 34 s^ N 


7 44 36 E 


30 58 E 
421 40 W 
4 21 4a W 
2 13 48 E 
2(5 58W 
4 49 30 E 




Am. 


Terra del Fuegc 


>! 54 49 '15 s 


65 25 oW 


, 


Am. 


Terra del Fuegc 


,55 1 oS 


65 27 oW 
33 27 oE 


i 


Africa 


Egypt 


29 50 N 




Sultz 


Eur. 


France 


47 53 'oN 


7 >4 32 W 




Surat 


Afia 


India 


21 10 N 


72 22 30 E 






taSMKHM 













The 



cu 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



■ 






""""""""^ 


"^^^i 








T. 






Names of Places. 


Cent. 


Sea or Country. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 
In Degrees. In Time. 


H. Wat. 










O t II 


' " 


h ' ■' 


h ' 




Table Ifland 


Afia 


N. Hebrides 


15 38 S 


167 7 oE 


II 8 28E 






Tanna 


Alia 


Pacif. Ocean 


19 32 25 s 


169, 41 5 E 


II 1 8 44 E 


3 


1 


Taoiikaa (Ifle) 


Aha 


Pacific Ocean 


14 30 30 s 


145 9 30 W 


9 40 38 W 






Tarafcoii 


Eiir. 


France 


43 48 20 N 


4 39 36 E 


18 38 E 






Tarbjo 


Eur. 


France 


43 13 52 N 


3 59E 


16 E 






Tafiacorta 


Africa 


Ifle Palma 


28 38 N 


17 58 oW 


I Ti 52 W 






Temontengis 


Afia 


Soloo 


5 57 N 


120 53 30 E 


8 3 34E 






Tenen'fFe (Peak) 


Africa 


Canaries 


2817 N 


16 40 W 


I 6 40 W 






i crcera 


Eur. 


Azores 


38 45 N 


27 6 oW 


I 48 24 W 






Ttxcl Me 


Eur. 


Holland 


53 10 N 


4 59 oE 


19 56 E 






Thionville 


Eur. 


France 


49 21 30 N 


6 10 30 E 


24 42 E 






Thomas St. (Me) 


Amer. 


Virgin Ifles 


18 21 55 N 


64 51 30W 


4 19 26 W 






Thiile (Southern) 


Amer. 


Sandwich Land 


59 34 S 


27 45 W 


I 51 oW 






Thury 


Eur. 


France 


49 21 28 N 


2 i8 30E 


9 14 E 






Timor (S. W. Point) 


Afia 


India 


10 23 S 


123 59 E 


8 ij 56 E 






Timor Land (S. Poi.) 


Afia 


India 


8 15 S 


131 54 E 


8 47 36 E 






Tobolfld 


Afia 


Siberia 


58 12 30 N 


68 25 E 


4 33 40 E 






Tolaga Bay- 


Afia 


New Zealand 


38 21 30 S 


178 33 45 E 


II 58 15 E 






Toledo 


Eur. 


Spain 


39 50 N 


3 20 W 


13 20 W 






Tomfk 


Afia 


Siberia 


56 30 N 


84 59 30 E 


5 39 58 E 






Tonga Tabu (Ide) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


21 9 S 


174 46 oW 


II 39 4W 






Tonnerre 


Eur. 


France 


4751 «N 


3 58 44 E 


15 59E 






Torbay 


Eur. 


England 


50 34 N 


3 36 oW 


14 24W 






Tornea 


Eur. 


Sweden 


65 50 50 N 


24 1 2 E 


I 36 48 E 






Toulon 


Eur. 


France 


43 7 1 6 N 


5 55 26 E 


23 42 E 






Touloufe 


Eur. 


France 


43 35 46 N 


I 26 21 E 


5 45 E 






Tollman 


Eur. 


France 


48 43 57 N 


2 45 '5 E 


II I E 






Tours 


Eiir. 


France 


47 23 46 N 


41 32 E 


2 46 E 






Traitor's Head 


Alia 


Erramanga 


18 43 30 S 


169 20 30 E 


u 17 22 E 






Tricfte 


Eur. 


Adriatic Sea 


45 51 N 


14 3 E 


56 12 E 






Trinidad 


Am. 


Atl. Ocean 


20 15 S 


r26 42 oW 


8 26 48 W 






Tripoli 


Africa 


Barbary 


32 53 40 N 


13 5 15 E 


52 21 E 






Troyes 


Eur. 


France 


48 18 5 N 


4 4 34E 


16 18 E 






Turin 


Eur. 


Italy 


45 4 hN 


7 40 E 


30 40 E 






Tiirnagain (Cape) 


Afia 


N. Zealand 


40 2« S 


176 ^6 E 


I ' 47 44 E 






Turtle Ifland 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


19 48 45 s 


177 57 oW 


II 51 48 W 






Tyrnaw 


Eur. 


Hungary 


48 23 30 N 


17 33 45 E 


1 10 15 E 







Tii 



INTRODUCTION. 



cm 



The Latitudes and Lo7tgitudes of Places. 









L 


r. 




~l 






113 




Names of Places. 


Cont. 


Sea or Country. 


Latitude. 


Long 
In Degrees. 


itude. 

In Time. 


H. Wat. a 










o ' " 


t II 


h ' " 


h • 




Uliateah 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


1 6 45 o S 


151 31 W 


10 6 4W 






Upfal 


Eur. 


Sweden 


59 51 50 N 


17 38 45 E 


I 10 3; E 






Uraniberg 


Eur. 


Denmark 


55 5+ 3^ N 


12 42 44E 


50 51 E 






Uftiaiit 


Eur. 


France 


48 28 30 N 


S 4 33W 


20 1 8 W 


4 30 










V. 


1 




Valenciennes 


Eur. 


France 


;o 21 27 N 


3 3« 40 E 


14 18 E 






Valery St. 


Eur, 


France 


50 11 13 N 


1 37 6E 


6 28 E 






Vallery St. 


Eur. 


France 


49 52 12 N 


041 10 E 


2 45E 






Valparaifo 


Am. 


Chili 


33 2 36 S 


72 19 15 W 


4 49 1 7 W 






Van Dieman's Road 


Afia 


Tonga Tabu 


21 4 15 S 


174 56 24W 


11 39 46W 






Vannes 


Eur. 


France 


47 39 14 N 


2 46 26 W 


II 17 W 






Vence 


Eur. 


France 


43 43 «6N 


7 7 28 E 


28 30 E 






Venice 


Eur. 


Italy 


45 26 7 N 


12 22 45 E 


49 31 E 






Venus (Point) 


Afia 


Otaheite 


17 29 17 S 


149 35 45 W 


9 58 23 W 


10 38 




Vera Cruz 


Am. 


Mexico 


19 9 38 N 


96 W 


6 24 oW 






Verd (Cape) 


Afric. 


Negroland 


M 43 45 N 


17 30 45 w 


I 10 3 W 






Verdun 


Eur. 


France 


49 9 24 N 


5 22 41 E 


021 3 1 E 






Verona 


Eur. 


Italy 


45 26 7 N 


II i8 30 E 


45 14 E 






Verfailles 


Eur. 


France 


48 48 21 N 


2 7 7 E 


8 28 E 






Vienna (Obferv.) 


Eur. 


Hungary 


48 12 36 N 


16 16 22 E 


I 5 30E 






Vigo 


Eur. 


Spain 


42 14 24 N 


8 28 oW 


33 52 W 






Vincent St. (Cape) 


Eur. 


Spain 


37 3 oN 


8 59 26 W 


35 58W 






Vintimiglia 


Eur. 


Italy 


43 53 20 N 


7 37 30 E 


30 30 E 






Virgin Gorda (Fort) 


Am. 


Weft Indies 


18 j8 oN 


64 W 


4 16 oW 






Virgin (Cape) 


Am. 


Patagonia 


52 23 S 


67 54 W 


4 31 36W 






— ~. ""■" 

Viviers 


Eur. 


France 


44 28 57 N 


4 40 55 E 


18 44 E 




Vurtzburg 


Eur. 


Franconia 


49 46 6 N 


10 13 45 E 


40 55 E 




• 




1 


N. 






Wakefield 


Enr. 


England 


53 41 oN 


1 33 30 W 


6 14W 


§ 




Piince of Wales's Fort 


Am. 


New Wales 


58 47 30 N 


94 7 30 w 


6 16 30 W 


§ 




Wan Head 


Eur. 


England 


51 34 10 N 


2 30 E 


10 E 


1 




Wardhus 


Eur. 


Lapland 


70 22 36 N 


31 6 45 E 


2 4 27 E 


I 


Warfaw 


Eur. 


Poland 


52 14 28 N 


21 E 


I 24 2 E 


1 




Weflman (Ifles) 


Eur. 


North Ocean 


63 20 30 N 


20 27 45 W 


I 21 51 w 


i 




Wexford 


Eur. 


Ireland 


52 22 oN 


6 30 oW 


26 oW 


1 




Weymouth 


Eur. 


England 


52 40 N 


2 34 oW 


9 36W 


1 




Whitehaven 


Eur. 


England 


54 25 N 


3 15 oW 


013 w 


i 




Whitfuntide (Ifle) 


Afia 


Pacific Ocean 


15 44 20 S 


168 20 15 E 


II 13 21 E 


i 



1h 



CIV 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Latitudes and Longitudes of Places. 



Names of Places. 



William (Fort) 
Willis's (ines) 
Wilna 
Wittenburg 
Wologda 
Worcefter 
Woflak 
Wyke Church 



Ylo 
York 

York (New) 
Yorkminfter 



Cont. 



Afia 
Am. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 
Eur. 



Sea or Country. Latitude 



Bengal 

South Georgia 

Poland 

Germany 

Ruffia 

England 

Ruffia 

England 



22 3+ 45 N 

54 o o S 

54 4> 

51 53 
59 19 

52 9 
61 15 



oN 
oN 
oN 
30 N 
o N 



50 35 57 N 
Y. 



Longitude. 
In Degrees. In Time. 



Am. 


Peru 


17 36 15 S 


Eur, 


England 
Jerfey 


53 59 N 


Am. 


40 40 N 


Am. 


Terra del Fuego 


55 26 20 S 



88 29 30 E 
38 29 40 W 
25 27 30 E 
1 2 44 30 E 

2 o 15W 



71 13 oW 
I 6 40 W 

74 1 1 o W 

70 8 oW 



53 58 E 
33 59 W 
41 50 E 
50 58 E 



o 8 I W 



28 loW o 9 53W 



H. Wat. 



4 44 52 W 
o 4 27 W 
4 56 44 W 

4 40 32 w 






Ha 



C ONTENTS 



OF 



THE FIRST VOLUME. 



EUROPE. 



Preliminary observations 
europe in general 



rAGE 

I 



PRINCIPAL STJTES. 

UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

England - . . _ 

Scotland .... 

Ireland .... 

FRANCE ..... 

Netherlands ... 

RUSSIA IN EUROPE S 

AUSTRIAN DOMINIONS . . - 

PRUSSIA . . - - - 

SPAIN . . - 

TURKEY IN EUROPE . . - 



»7 

2IO 

246 

299 

333 
379 
402 

442 



SECONDJRT STATES. 



HOLLAND 
DENMARK 

VOL, I. 



467 
487 

SWEDEN 



C»l 



CONTENTS. 

r AGE 

SWEDEN . - . - . 523 

PORTUGAL - ... . . 550 

SWISSERLAND - - . . . 565 



STATES OF THE THIRD ORDER, 

GERMAN STATES - - - . 591 

ITALIAN STATES - - - . - 625 



APPENDIX TO VOL, I. 

N" L Treaties of Campo Fortnio 1 797, and Luneville 1801. 655 

n. Treaty of Amiens, 1']th March l%02. 661 

in. Remarks on the Ruffian and Spani/h Pronunciation. 664 

IV. Fa /tie of Coins ufed in common calculations. 666 



MAPS 



CONTENTS. 



cvu 



MAPS IN VOL. I. 



I. 


The World, Planifphere 


2. 


Europe 


5- 


Great Britain and Ireland 


4- 


England 


5- 


Remote Britijh IJles 


6. 


Scotland 


7- 


Ireland 


8. 


France 


9- 


Netherlands 


10. 


Rujfia in Europe 


II. 


Aujlrian Dominions 


12. 


Prujftan States 


13- 


Spain 


14. 


Turkey in Europe 


15- 


Greece 


16. 


Holland 


17- 


Denmark 


18. 


Sweden and Norway 


19. 


Switzerland 


20. 


Germany North of the Mayn 


21. 


Germany South of the Mayn 


22. 


Italy 



Before the Title. 

- Page 7 

^7 

33 
141 

145 
211 
247 
289 
299 

333 

379 
403 

443 
449 
467 

487 

523 

605 
617 

625 



COR- 



CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS TO VOL. I. 



V. 45, 1. 3 fable r. ftaple. P. 50, I. 13, ftjte r. 
ftates. 

P. !;■;. It may with exultation be added to the ac- 
ciunt of the Population of England and Wales, that, from 
the recent enumeration, it mull fall little rtioitof nine mil- 



lions and A HAi-». The p-pulatlon of Great Cri'ain and 
lielatid may be fafely rated at rounxEEN millions. 
The abl'raft of the returns, Dec. 8th, iSoi, forms a folio 
volume of ;o^ pages, compriling the popu'arion of every 
parifli. At the end is the following General Total : 



Houses. 



Inhahiled. 



F.nsland — 

Wales — 

Army, Navy, Scz. 
Convifls (inboarij tlie hullts 



v:ar.\ fa- 



t/ffiff- 
habited. 



l!,'.6^,870 
I loS,o53 



1,778,420 
118,303 



53.9^5 
3.5" 



Peh sons. 



Mails. 



3)937.935 

157.178 

469,18? 

i,4U 



57.4764.7«5.7" 



Females, 



+.433>*0' 
284, jbJ 



4,627,867 



tJCCUPATIONS. 



Perjons in 
ture, 

1,524,217 
189,062 



'i.S7S'9*3'''S'9<'.723 
The firft Abftrafl ^printed July 1801) prefeuls thefollowing ftatement! 

Regular Forcfs, Fencibles, and Militia, on March 10th, iSoi, 
Artillery, and Engineer Forces ditto 

Seamen, and Marines in the Royal Navy ditto 
Marines at head-quai lets ditto 

Seamen employed under the Board of Cuftoms, ditto 
Seamen employed in regifteted trsding veflels, ditto 



1,713,280 



In Trade 
and Manu- 
■ /azures. 

')789.'i3' 
53,822 



«)ii43>353 

186,733 
ii,6iS 

106, izS 

20,151 

897 

143,661 

469,188 



Other 
ferfins. 



4,606, 5 3o| 
266,573 



TOTAL 

or 

P E R RON S, 

|8,33i.434. 

469,188 
»,4lo 



4,873,103 9,343,178 



In the complete Report the total population of London, 
Weftminfter, and Southwark, is 864,845, including the 
patiflies not within the Bills of Mortality, namely Mary- 
ie-bone, Paddington,St. Pancras, Kenfington, and Chclfea, 
amounting to 117,802. Illington and Newington Butts 
ate within the Bills. Of the other chief cities, Manchefter 
is rated at 84,020; Liverpool, 77,653; Birmingham, 
73,670; Briftol, 68,645 ; Leeds, 53,162 ; Plymouth, 
43,194: all the others areunder 40,003. 

P. 55, 1. 31, fumlaft, for 15 r. 18. 

P. 56. In November laft, iSci, the Minilter adduced to 
the Houfe of Commons the following comparative ftatement : 



Na'vy of Great Britam, 
In 1793. Ships of the line 135 

Frigatei and fmaller 

velTels 133 

268 

Navy iff France, 
1753. Ships of the line 80 

Frigates 64 

'4+ 



1801, 


202 




227 




429 


iSoi, 


39 




35 



74 



P. 91, I. 35. Scarborough, r. Scarfdals." P. 184, 
rote*, Ranael r. Rannoch. P. 233, 1. 20, granary r. 



treafury. 



P. 571. By the conftitulion of the 29th May i2or, 
SwilTerland is divided into feventeen departments. The 
Pays deVaudand Argovieare withdrawn from Bern ; and the 
Grifons and Italian Bailliages form two other departments. 
The other cantons remain as before, with fome additions of 
ecclefiaftic lands, &c. to Glarus, Appenzel, Ftiburg, and 
Bafel. The abbatial teriitory of St. Gallen conftituted the 
canton of Sentis by the divifion of 1798, which feems to 
be obliterated. The new conftitulion will probably be on 
the Fiench mode). 

P. 582, note. The doubts feem to be removed by 
the maps of Switjerland by Weifs, flieet 10, in which 
the heights are ftated as follow, in French feet ; Yung- 
frawhorn 11,085; Monch, 10,879; Eiger, 10,481; 
Finfter Aar, 11,447; Schreckhorn, 10,773; Wetter- 
horn, 9,966. 

P. 623. The German fecularizations are not yet 
adjufled : according 10 floating and moft uncertain ru- 
mour?, Auftria is to have Salzburg and Berchtoldtgaden,' 
Prufiia ; Paderborn, Lauenberg, and Eichsfcldt. The 
eleftor of Hanover ; Hildelbeim. Landgrave of Heffia ; 
the towns of Ameneburg and Fritzlar. The«eleflor of Ba- 
varia ; Bamberg and Wurtzburg. It is alfo reported that 
the former Stadtholder is to obtain fome provinces on the 
Rhine ; while the former Grand Duke of Tufcany is to 
hold Venice as an Auftrian appanage. 

In the treaty of Amiens, the Rio Bramo, p. 66^, feemi 
merely the Pottuguefe pronunciation of Rio Blanco, in 
which cafe the extenfion of French G uiana is very great. 



For tiafe of Vol, II. fee the End of that folumt. 



MODERN 



MODERN GEOGRAPHY, 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 

'T^HE word geography is derived from the Greek language, and Definiilons. 

implies a defcription of the earth. It is fometimes contrafted with 
hydrography^ which fignifies a defcription of the water, that is of feas, 
lakes, rivers, &c., thus including marine charts: but, in general, 
hydrography is rather regarded as a province of geography. Both were 
anciently confidered along with aftronomy, as parts of cofmography^ 
which afpired to delineate the univerfe. 

Geography is more juftly contrafted with chorography, which illuf- 
trates a country or province ; and ftill more with topography^ which 
defcribes a particular place, or fmall diftridt. 

What is called General Geography embraces a wide view of the fub- 
jefl, regarding the earth aftronomically as a planet, the grand divifions 
of land and water, the winds, tides, meteorology, &c. and may ex- 
tend to what is called the mechanical part of geography, in directions 
for the conftrudtion of globes, maps, and charts. 

Among the other divifions of this fcience may be named Sacred 
Geography, folely employed in the illuftration of the Scriptures ; Eccle- 
fiaflic Geography, which defcribes the government of the Church, as 
divided into patriarchates, archblfliopricks, bifhopricks, archdeaneries, 
&c. witli their refpeftive boundaries, often varying much from thpfe 
of the fecular provinces ; and Phyfical Geography, or Geology, which 
inveftigates the interior of the earth, fo far only as real difcoveries can 
be made ; for what have been ftyled fyftems of the earth, which have 
confumed the labours of many ingenious men, have no conneftioa ' 
VOL. I. B with 



3 PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 

with the folid fcience of geology, but ought rather to be ftyled cofmo- 
gonies, or ideal creations of planets. 

But Geography, popularly confidered, is occupied in the defcription 
of the various regions of this globe, chiefly as being divided among 
various nations, and improved by human art and induftry. If a fcien- 
tific term were indifpenfable for this popular acceptation, that of Hifto- 
rical Geography might be adopted, not 'only from its profefTed fub- 
fervience to hiftory, but becaufe it is in fa£l a narrative fo nearly 
approaching the hiflorical, that Herodotus, and many other ancient 
hiftorians, have diverfified their works with large portions of geography, 
and the celebrated defcription of Germany, by Tacitus, contains moft 
of the materials adopted in modern treatifes of geography. 
DIvifions of In this popular point of view, hiftorical geography admits of three 
Geography, divifions. I. The Ancient or Claffical, which defcribes the ftate of the 
earth, fo far as it was difcovered at different periods, but not extend- 
ing further than the year of Chrift 500. 2. That of the Middle Ages, 
which reaches to the fifteenth century, when the difcoveries of the 
Portuguefe began to lay wider foundations of the fcience. 3. Modern 
Geography, the fole fubjedt of the prefent work, which, while it 
embraces the moft recent difcoveries, ftill remains capable of great 
accefhons, particularly in Africa ; not to mention more minute 
deficiencies. 

The chief object of modern geography is to prefent the moft recent 
and authentic information concerning the numerous nations and ftates 
who divide and diverfify the earth ; but on this fubjedt it is impoflible to 
attain accurate ideas without a brief introductory view of the progrefs 
of each nation and ftate. Though, in fome few inftances, natural 
harriers have divided, and continue to divide, nations, yet in general 
the boundaries are arbitrary, fo that the natural geography of a country, 
though forming an eflential feature, hitherto treated with too much 
negledt in geographical works, cannot be admitted to a predominance ; 
but on the contrary, as matter yields to mind, may rather be regarded 
as a fequel in hiftorical geography, which is chiefly occupied in de- 
fcribing the diverfities of nations, and the conditions of the various 
races of mankind. On this fubje£t there is no doubt room for a variety 
5 o^ 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 

of opinions ; but after long confideration it has appeared moft eligible 

to prefer the following order: i. The hiftorical, or progreffive geo- Order of 

graphy of each country. 2. Its political ftate, including moft of the *"?'"■ 

topics which recent German writers, by a term of dubious purity, call 

ftatiftic. 3. The civil geography, including objedls not fo immediately 

connedled with the government, as an account of the chief cities, towns, 

&c. 4. The natural geography '. 

The ancients confidered the earth under the three grand divifions of Q,,arters of 
Afia, Europe, and Africa ; yet, as they all form one continent, the ''"^ ^^"'"''*- 
diftindions were arbitrary, as they often included Egypt under Afia, 
and they had not difcovered the limits of Europe towards the N. E. 
Modern difcoveries have added a fourth divifion, that of America, 
■which, exceeding even Afia in fize, might perhaps as well have been 
admitted under two grand and diftindl denominations, limited by the 
Ifthmus of Darien. It was fuppofed, till within thefe thirty years, that 
there exifted a vaft continent in the fouth of the globe, and many 
fchemes were formed for colonizing the wide and opulent 'Terra Aujlra- 
lis ; but the fecond navigation of the immortal Cook difpelled this 
vifionary land from geography, or demonftrated, that if any continent 
there exifted, it muft be loft in the uninhabitable ice of the fouth pole. 
Yet the wude extent of New Holland rewarded the views of enterprife. 
Too large for an iiland, too fmall for a continent. New Holland, like 
the other works cf nature, eludes the petty diftin£tions of man ; and 
while geographers hefitate whether to afcribe it to Afia, or, with De 
Broftes, to denominate it a Fifth fpecific divifion of the earth, it is not 
improbable that the popular divifion of four quarters of the world will 
continue to predominate over any fcientific difcuffion \ 

' This arrangemera was in part fuggefted by the EJj'uiJur V H'ljloire de GeographU by Robert 
de Vaugondy. 

^ The word quarter, as denoting a fourth part, becomes rather a folecifm, when apph'ed to the 
four grand divilion^ ot the earth : it may be accepted in a ftcond feiife, equally popular in French. 
and EngliOi, (whence derived ?) which lignifieii a pariicular region, or flation: yet a fifth or fixth 
quarter of the world would not pleafe tin- car. The M^gelLnica of Cluverius and De Bruffes has 
faded before the light of recent difcoveries ; but the Aullralafia and Polynefia of the latter are cx- 
celk at and clear aiTangtments, now juftly adopted by moll men of fcience. 

VOL. L , * B 2 Of 



4 PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 

Of the grand divifions of the earth Afia has ever been the moft 
populous, and is fuppofed to contain about 500,000,000 of fouls, if China, 
as recently averred, comprize 330,000,000. The population of Africa 
may be 30,000,000, of America 20,000,000 : and 150,000,000 may 
be afligned to Europe-'. 
Face of the Recent difcoveries have evinced that more than two thirds of this 

^° ^' globe are covered with water ; and thefe waters, whether oceans, feas, 

lakes, or rivers, are contained in hollow fpaces, more or lefs large, 
which late French geographers have ftyled biijjhis, or bafons, by a term 
of little dignity. They may as well be called Concavities ; v>rhile, on 
the other hand, the chief Convexities or Protuberances of the globe, by 
the French ftyled plateaux, corifift of elevated uplands, fometimes 
crowned by mountains, fometimes rather level, as in the extenfive cen- 
tral protuberance of Afia. In either cafe, long chains of mountains 
commonly proceed from thofe chief convexities, in various directions ; 
and the principal rivers ufually fpring from the moft elevated grounds. 
Though the low and fertile plains, generally perceivable for a long fpace 
before rivers enter the fea, be often depofited by their waters, as in the 
Delta, and other inftances, yet the geologift would in vain attempt 
general rules ; while, as on a fmall fcale, deep glens are found 
without any rivulet, fo on a large, vaft and extenfive hollows will ap- 
pear, without the fmalleft trace of their having been pervaded by a river. 
Oceans "^^^ grandeft concavity of this globe is filled by the Pacific Ocean, 

occupying nearly half of its furface, from the eaftern fhores of New 
Holland to the weftern coaft of America; and diverfified with feveral 
groups of iflands, which feem as it were the fummits of vaft moun- 
tains emerging from the waves. This chief concavity, feparately con- 
fidered, receives but few rivers, the chief being the Amur from Tatary, 
and the Hoan Ho and Kian Ku from China, while the principal rivers 
of America run towards the eaft. 

The next grand concavity is that of the Atlantic Ocean, between thc' 
ancient continent and the new. A third is the Indian Ocean. 

The feas between the ardic and antarcSic circles and the poles, have 
been ftyled the Ardic and Antardic Oceans; the latter having fupplanted 
the Terra Auftralis, and being in fad only a continuation of the Pacific, 

* Auftralafia and Polynefia, or New Holland and the Ifles in the Pacific, probably do not con- 
tain above half a million. 

3 " Atlantic, 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 5 

Atlantic, and Indian Oceans ; while the Ardlic Sea is partly embraced 
by continents, and receives many important rivers. 

Such are the mofi: profound concavities of the globe, while others are 
filled by more minute feas, as the Mediterranean, the Baltic, and others 
of yet fmaller extent, till we defcend to inland lakes of frefh water. , 

Oblong concavities, fometimes of great length, mark the courfes of the Rivers, 
rivers ; which, generally, at firfl; interfe£t the higher grounds, till the de- . 
clivity become more gentle, on their approach towards their inferior 
receptacles. But as general views are feldom precife, it muft not be 
forgotten, as already in part obferved, that even large rivers fometimes 
fpring from lowland marflies, and wind through vaft plains, unac- 
companied by any concavity, except that of their immediate courfe ; 
while, on the other hand, extenfive vales, and low hollow fpaces, fre- 
quently occur, deftitute of any ftream. Rivers will alfo fometimes 
force a paffage, where nature has ere£ted mountains and rocks againft 
it ; and where the bajfin of the French would appear to be in another 
dire<flion, which the river might have gained with more eafe ; fo 
eftranged is nature from human theory. In like manner though the 
chief chains of mountains in Europe extend in a fouth eafterly and 
north wefterly diredion, yet there are fo many exceptions, and fuch 
numerous and important variations in other parts of the globe, that 
theory in vain attempts to generalize. As mountains may be found in 
every dire£lion of the compafs, fo a river may rife from an inland 
lake or marfh, and force its way through rocky barriers of great 
elevation. In fliort the theory of the French geographers, though jull: 
in general, muft not be toe widely accepted : and the book of natiu-e 
muft be regarded as the chief code of confultation. 

From the vaft expanfe of oceanic waters, arifes in the ancient hemif- Conunem;. 
phere, that wide continent, which contains Afia, Europe, and Africa ; 
and in the modern hemifphere the continent of America, now difco- 
vered to form, as it were, a feparate ifland, divided by a ftreight of the 
fea from the ancient continent. In the latter many difcoveries, of the 
utmoft importance to geography, are of very modern date, and it is 
not above fixty years fince we obtained an imperfedl idea of the ex- 
tent ot Siberia, and the Ruffian empire ; nor above twenty fince ample, 

real. 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 

real, and accurate knowledge of thefe wide regions began to be diffufed. 
So that in fa£l America may be laid to have been difcovcred before 
AHa : and of Africa our knowledge continues imperfefl:, while the 
newefl; obfervations, inllead of diminifliing, rather increafe our ideas 
of its extent. 

I But the grandeft divifion of the ancient continent is Afia, the parent 
of nations, and of civilization ; on the north eaft, and fouth, fur- 
rounded by the ocean ; but on the weft -divided by an ideal line 
from Africa ; and from Europe by boundaries not very ftrongly im- 
preffcd by the hand of nature. The Ruffian and the Turkifh empires, 
extending over large portions of both continents, intimately conned; 
Aiia with Europe. But for the fake of clearnefs and precifion, the 
chief merits of any work of fcience, geographers retain the ftri£t divifion 
of the ancient continent into three great parts, facrificing a more minute 
to a more important diftindlion ; which, if not ftridly natural, is 
ethical, as the manners of the Afiatic fubjeds of Ruffia, and even of 
Turkey, differ confiderably from thofe of the European inhabitants of 
thofe empires. 

As Europe is the feat of letters and arts, and the greateft exertions of 
human energy in every department ; and is befides the native region of 
the chief modern geographers, and that in which the readers are moft 
intimately and deeply interefted, it is always the divifion firft treated ; 
though the order be arbitrary, and Ptolemy, who has been ftyled the 
father of geography, begins indeed with Europe, but defci"ibes Africa 
before Afia *. Before proceeding more minutely to confider the feveral 
kingdoms and ftates, comprifed in this great divifion of the globe, 
it will be proper, in compliance with an ufual and unobjedionable 
form, to offer a brief and general defcriplion of this diftinguifhed portion 
of the earth. 

* The beft edition , of his maps, Amft. 1730, places Africa firft. 



EUROPE. 

This part of the globe is the fmalleft In extent, yielding confider- Extent. 
ably even to Africa. From the Portiiguefe Cape, ftyled by our mari- 
ners the Rock of Lifbon, in the weft, to the Uralian mountains in the 
eaft, the length may be about 3,300 Britifli miles ; and the breadth 
from Cape Nord, in Danilh Lapland, to Cape Matapan, the fouthern 
extremity of Greece, may be about 2,350. The contents in fquare 
miles have been efti mated with fuch diverfity of opinion, fuch eftimates 
being, in truth, arbitrary and only comparative, that it is fufficient to 
mention the medial number of about two millions and a half. 

The ancients had no juft ideas of the boundaries of Europe, the Limits. 
name itfelf having feemingly originated from a fmall diftri(£t near the 
Hellefpont, as the diftindive name of Afia alfo fpread from the oppo- 
fite fliore. More than a third part of Europe, towards the north and 
eaft, has only been known with precifion in modern times. On the 
fouth it is limited by the Mediterranean fea ; on the weft by the At- 
lantic, which contains the furtheft European ille, that of Iceland, 
Greenland being regarded as a part of North America. On the north the 
boundary is the Arctic Ocean, embracing the remote ifles of Spitzbergen, 
and Novaya Zemlia, or the New Land. Toward the eaft the bound- 
aries admit of fome difcuftion. The Uralian mountains, a grand na- 
tural limit, not extending to the Ardlic Ocean, the river Cara, which 
flows into the fea of Karfkoye, is admitted as a boundary. The 
Uralian limit extends to about ^6 degrees of north latitude : to the 
fouth of which the grand confines of Europe and Afia have been 
fought in the petty diftindions of Ruffian governments. More natural 
limits might be obtained by tracing the river Oufa, from its fource, to 
its jundion with the Belaia. Thence along the Kama to the Volga, 
which would conftitute aftrlking natural divifion, to the townof Sarepta; 
whence a ftiort ideal line, the only one admitted in this delineation, 
will lead due weft to the river Don, which would complete the unaf- 

certained 



8 EUROPE.. 

certained boundary ; that on the north and weft of the Euxuie being 
clear and precife. 
Ancient po- The ancient population of Europe confifted of the Celts in the weft 

puJ.uion, ^j^(j fouth J the Fins in the north eaft ; and the Laps or Laplanders, a 

diminutive race like the Samoieds of Afia, in the furtheft north, and 
who feem to have enriched their original rude language by adopting, in 
a great meafure, that of their more civilized neighbours the Fins. 
Thofe ancient inhabitants, who feem to have been thinly fcattered, 
were driven' towards the weft and north by the Scythians or Goths 
from Afia, whofe defcendants occupy the greater part of Europe ; by 
the Sarmatians, or Slavonic tribes, alfo from Afia, the anceftors of 
the Ruflians, Poles, &c. and v/ho were accompanied by the lieruli, 
ufing what is now called the Lettic fpeech, to be found in Pruffia, 
Lithuania, Samogitia, Courland, and Livonia, being a-kin to the 
Slavonic language \ yet with many fliades of diftindlion. From Africa 
the colony of Iberi, northern Mauretani, pafled into Spain at a very 
early period. The later acceffion of Hungarians and Turks, from Afia, 
may likewife be commemorated. 
Pioi^reffive The' progreffive geography of Europe will be more aptly illuftrated 

geography- jj^ (]^q dcfcriptions of each kingdom and ftate. Suffice it here to ob- 
ferve, that the ableft modern geographers, not excepting D'Anville 
himfelf, have greatly erred in their views of the ancient knowledge of 
Europe. Of Scandinavia the ancients only knew the fouthern part, as 
far as the large lakes of Weter and Wener. The Roman fhips explored 
the fouthern ihores of the Baltic as far as the river Rubo, or the weftern 
Dwina, and difcovered the names of feveral tribes along the fhores : 
but of the central parts of Germany it is evident, from the maps of 
Ptolemy, that they had no juft ideas; fo that the tribes which he 
enumerates may be more juftly affigned to the northern parts along 
the Baltic, or to the fouthern on the left of the Danube. The Carpa- 
thian or Sarmatian mounta'ns were well known, but the line of 50° or 
^2°' of north latitude, muft confine the ancient knowledge in the north 
eaft. A fmgularity in the ancient dcfcriptions has often mifled; for as 
the mountains, in the favage ftate of Europe, were crowned or accom- 

^ Tooke's View of Ruffia, i. 455. 

panied 



EUROPE. ] 

panied with forefts, the fame term was ufed in feveral barbarous lan- 
guages to exprefs either ; fo that the ancients often place important 
mountains, where the hand of nature had only planted large forefls. 
This remark becomes eflential in the comparilbn of ancient and modern 
geography. The Riphxan mountains are vainly fuppofed to have 
been the Uralian chain, which were to the ancients hid in the pro- 
foundeft darknefs, inflead of a large foreft running from eafl to wcfl;. 
The Sevo Mons of Pllny, which he pofitively affigns to the north of 
Germany, though geographers in dired: oppofition to his text, transfer 
it to Norway, a region almoft as unknown to the ancients as America, 
muft be regarded as a vaft foreft, extending to fome promontory : and the 
Venedici Monies of Ptolemy are in the like predicament, for modern 
knowledge evinces that no fuch mountains exift. Of all fciences, per- 
haps geography has made the moft flow and imperfe£t progrefs, and 
the firft reftorers of it place at random many grand features of nature, 
inftead of purfuing the recent and juft plan, of giving an exadt delinea- 
tion of the country, and afterwards exploring the real extent of ancient 
knowledge. 

The chriftian religion prevails throughout Europe, except in Turkey, Religion, 
where how^ever at leaft one half of the inhabitants are attached to the 
Greek church. Wherever the chriftian faith has penetrated, know- 
ledge, induftry, and civilization have followed : among the barbarous 
tribes in the north the progrefs was unhappily flow, Scandinavia re- 
maining pagan till the eleventh century ; and fome Slavonic tribes on 
the fouth of the Baltic till the thirteenth : nay it is not above a century 
ago, fmce the Laplanders were converted by mifllons from Denmark. 
The two grand diftindllons are catholics and proteftants, the former in the 
fouth, where the paflions are mere warm, and the imagination more 
delighted with fplendbur : the latter in the north, where the fatisfac- 
tion of the judgment predominates. 

This univerfality of the chriftian religion has been followed by an- 
other fuperlative advantage, that of conftituting all Europe, as it were, 
into one republic, fo that any ufeful difcovery made in one ftate pafles 
to the reft with celerity. In this refped Europe has been compared to 
VOL. I. c ancient 



Id 



EUROPE. 



ancient Greece; anil it is to be hoped that Ruffia will not prove a«'^ 
other Macedon. 
Climate. This fair portion of the globe is chiefly fituated in the temperate zone, 

if fuch diftindions have not vaniflied from geography, fmce modern 
difcoveries have evinced that the climate often depends on local caufes j 
that the Alps in a fouthern latitude prefent mountains of ice unknown 
in Lapland ; that the torrid zone abounds with water and habitations, 
and may perhaps contain mountains covered with fnow. Yet freedom 

' from the exceffive heats of Afia and Africa has contributed to the vigour 
of the frame, and the energy of the mind. 
Waad-feas. I^ a general view of Europe, one of the moft ftriking and intereft- 
ing features is the number and extent of the inland feas, juftly regarded 
as chief caufea of the extenfive induftry and civilization, and confe- 
quent fuperiority to the other grand divifions of the globe. Had Africa- 

■ been interfe(fted by a large inland Tea from the weft, it is probable that 
the bleflings of induftry would have been widely fpread. Among in- 
land feas the Mediterranean is juftly pre-eminent, having been the center 
of civilization to ancient and modern Europe. The columns of Hercules 
marked its weftern boundary, being the mountain or rock of Abyla, 
now called Ceuta, and Kalpe in Spain, the Gibraltar of modern fame. 
The length of the Mediterranean is about 2000 miles to its fartheft ex- 
tremity in Syria; but in ancient maps the length has been extended to> 
about 2500 miles. On its northern fide open two immenfe gulphs, 
that of Venice, and the Archipelago ; the former being the Adriatic,, 
the latter the Egean fea, of the ancients. From this laft a ftreight, called^ 
the Hellefpont, conduds to the fea of Marmora the claflical Propontis : 
and another now ftyled the rt?eight of Conftantinople, the ancient 
Thracian Bofphorus, leads to the Euxine, or Black Sea ; which, to 
the north, prefents the fhallow Palus Mseotis, or fea of Azof, the utmoft 
maritime limit of Europe in that quarter. This wide expanfe of the 
Mediterranean is beautifully fprinkled with iflands, and environed with 
opulent coafls, abounding with the moft fublime and pifturefque fea- 
tures, of nature : tides, are not perceivable, except in the narroweft 
ftreights ; bi!t according to phyfiologifts there is a current along the 
Italian Ihore, from the weft to the eaft, and towards the African coaft' 

3. in 



EUROPE. IX 

in an oppofite dlredion. In the Adriatic the current runs north-weft 
along Dahnatia, and returns by the oppofite fhore of Italy. The Me- 
diterranean abounds with fifli, many of which are little known in more 
northern latitudes. The chief fiflieries are thofc of the tunny, of the 
fword fi(h, and of the fea dog, a fpecies of fhark, and of the diminu- 
tive anchovy. It is alfo the chief feminary of coral, now known to be 
the work of marine infeds. This fuppofed plant is of three colours, 
the red, the vermilion, and the white ; and its greateft height is about 
eleven inches. It is equally hard in the fea, and in the air ; and is 
generally brought up by a kind of net from the depth of 60 to 125 
feet*. To enumerate and afcertain Ihoals and rocks is the office of 
the hydrographer ; but fifliing banks are of general importance, and 
fome are found near Sicily. The Black fea is faid to derive its name 
from its black rocks, or dangerous navigation ; but it is difficult to 
account for fuch terms, often derived from tlie fertile and fuperftitious 
fancy of mariners. The fea of Azof is polluted with inud, whence it 
was ftyled Palus, or a marfh, by the ancients : it is united to the Euxine 
by the ftreight of Caffii, the ancient Cimmerian Bofphorus. 

The fecond grand inland fea of Europe is the Baltic, by the Germans 
called the Eaftern Sea ; whence the Eafterlings of Englifli hiftory, people 
from the fhores of the Baltic. This extenfive inlet opens from the 
German fea, by a gulph pointing N. E. called the Skager Rack ; and 
afterwards pafTes fouth, in what is called the Cattegat, to the S. E. of 
which is the Sound of Elfmore, a ftreight where veflels pay a tribute 
of courtefy to Denmark. The Baltic afterwards fpreads widely to the 
N. E. and is divided into two extenfive branches, called the gulphs of 
Bothnia and Finland, both covered or impeded with ice for four or 
five months of the northern winter. Ancient hiftorians even report 
that wolves have pafled on the ice from Norway to Jutland ; and, if 
veracious, the rigour of the feafons muft have greatly abated. The 
greateft depth of this fea is faid not to exceed fifty fathoms. Swedifli 
phyfiologifts pronounce that it lofes about four feet in extent in the 
courfe of a century ; and that the water does not contain above one 
thirtieth part of fait, whereas other fea water often holds a tenth : this 

■* Spallanzani's Trav. in the Twe Sicilies, iv. 317. 

c 2 freflinefs 



IS 



EUROPE. 



Other feas. 



ocean. 



freflinefs they impute to the quantity of ice ; and they alfo aflert, that 
when the north wind blows, the waters become fo frefli, that they may 
even be employed for domeftic ufes. Tides are unknown, and the 
fifli are few. 

The third and laft inland fea of Europe is that called the White Sea, 
in the north of RufTia, more known in Europe, and particularly to 
Englifh cnterprize, before the commerce of Archangel was fupplanted 
by that of Peteriturg. To Oder, in the reign of the great Alfred, 
it was known by the name of the Qven Sea ; and the Icelandic writers 
flyled it the fea of Ganviik, on the fliore of which was their Biarmia. 
The White Sea contains a number of fmall iflands ; but the accounts 
yet given have been brief and unfatisfaQory. 

Among the other maritime divifions may be named the German fea, 
fo called becaufe it waters the weftern fhores of ancient Germany, 
from the Rhine to the extremity of Jutland. It is now often ftyled, 
with fufEcient impropriety, the North Sea, a term probably adopted 
by us from the Dutch. It may be regarded as a part of the Atlantic 
ocean, terminating at the ftreights of Dover ;, whence the Britifh 
Channel extends to the weft. The bay of Bifcay is another large inlet 
of the Atlantic. The Briftol Channel is rather the eftuary, or wide 
frith, of the Severn. Between Great Britain and Ireland are St. 
George's Channel on the fouth ; the Irifh fea in the centre, which 
leads to the North Channel. That part of the Atlantic which pafles 
between Scotland and the extreme range of the weftern ifles, from Barra 
to Leuis, has received no diftincl appellation, though it might be aptly 
ftyled the Hebudian Channel. To the north of Scotland is the Deu- 
caledonian fea of the ancients ; which being confidered as extending 
into a'nd throughout the Baltic, was alfo ftyled jhe Sarmatian=_ 

To the north of Europe is the Ardic ocean, the difmal and folitary 
refervoir of myriads of miles- of ice, the very fkirts of which^ floating 
in enormous mountains, crowned with brilliant pinnacles of every hue, 
delight the eye and appal the heart of the mariner. Yet this enormous 
wafte is, in the hand of Providence, a fertile field of provifions for the 
human race. Here the vaft battalions of herrings feem to feek a refuge 
from numerous foes, and to breed their millions in fecurity.. About 

a. the. 



EUROPE. 13 

the middle of winter, emerging from their retreat, they fpread in two 
divifions, one towards the weft, which covers the fhores of America, 
as far as the Chefapeak and CaroUna ; while a third more minute fqua- 
dron paftes the ftreight between Afia and America, and vifits the coafts 
of Kamfchatka '. The moft memorable divifion reaches Iceland about 
the beginning of March, in a clofe phalanx of furprizing depth, and 
fuch extent, that the furface is fuppofed to equal the dimenfions of 
Great Britain and Ireland. They are however fubdivided into number- 
lefs columns of five or fix miles in length, and three or four in breadth, 
followed by numerous fea fowl, and perceivable by the rippling of the 
water, and a brilliant reflexion like that of a rainbow. In April or 
May the vanguard of thofe allotted to the Britiih dominions reaches 
Shetland, and the grand body arrives in June ; towards the end of 
which month, and through that of July, they are in the greateft per- 
fe£tion, a circumftance well. known to the Dutch fifhers, who then 
caught that fuperior fort which formed the grand fource of the wealth 
of the United Provinces. From Shetland one divifion proceeds to- 
wards the eaft, as far as Yarmouth, where they appear in Odlober. 
The other brigade pafles to the weft, along both fliores of Ireland. A 
few ftragglers are found at irregular periods, having proceeded beyond 
their powers of return ; but it is generally credited, that millions re- 
gain the Ardtic Ocean, and depofit their fpawn about the month of 
Odober. 

To enumerate the fmaller gulphs, the ftreights, and other minute 
diverfrties of the feas, either in a feeble feries of names, or in a dry 
arithmetical table, would be fuperfluous, as they are heft ftudied in the 
maps, and as that mode of communicating fcience is perhaps of all 
others the moft uncouth and repulfive. As well might hiftory be 
ftudied by the barren repetition of a hundred names of ftatefmen and 
warriors. But this account of the European feas muft not be clofcd 
without a few brief hints on a fuhjeft generally negledled in works of 
this nature, the large Banks, or comparative fhoals, fuppofed to be Sand Bank;. 
ridges of fubmarine mountains, and which being frequently the refort 
of cod and other iifh, invite the attention of national induftry. The 

' Pennant An'^ic Zool. i. ccxi.. 

Good^- 



i:^ EUROPE. 

Goodwin fands, off the coaft of K?ent, are rather dangerous to the 
*nianner, than invithig to the fiflier ; but on the coaft of Holland there 
are many banks which fupply excellent fifh, as turbot, foal, plaice, &c. 
■ Further to the north is the extenfive Dogger bank, ftretching fouth- 
eaft and noith-weft ; beginning about twelve leagues from Flamborough 
head, and extending near 72 leagues towards the coaft of Jutland. Be- 
tween the Dogger and the Well Bank, to the fouth, are the Silverpits 
of the mariners, which fupply London with cod, a fifli which loves 
the deep water near the banks, while the flat fifh delight in the (hallows. 
Near the Dogger Bank was fought the noted engagement with the 
Dutch in 17B1. The Ore and the Lemon lie between thefe banks and 
' the Britiih fhores. To the north eaft of the Dogger bank is the Horn- 
rifF, a narrow ftrip extending to Jutland ; the Jutts-riff is a fand- 
bank ftretching, like a crefcent, from the mouth of the Baltic into the 
■German fea. 

The Mar Bank begins oppofite to Berwick, but is only about fifteen 
miles in length. Further to the eaft extends the Long Forty s, of great 
extent, from Buchan Nefs to Newcaftle ; and from forty to one hun- 
dred miles diftant from the fhore. From the coaft of Buchan a bank 
alfo reaches acrofs the German fea towards the Jutts-rifF. What are 
called the Montrofe Pits, as being in the latitude of that town, though 
to the eaft of the Long Fortys, are hollows, from three to four miles in 
diameter, from feventy to one hundred fathom deep, with a foft 
muddy bottom, in a bank of gravel about fifty miles long, under forty 
fathom of water. 

In the open Atlantic the largeft bank is that of Newfoundland, re- 
ferved for the defcription of the American feas ; but there is a confi- 
derable bank to the weft; of the Hebudes, abounding with cod and 
other fifh. 
R'irersand The chief rivers of Europe are defcrlbed under the refpedive coun- 

zno}iniAias. j.j.jgg through which they flow. Of the vaft Wolga, far the greater part 
is included in Europe : the Danube is the next in fame ; and is fol- 
lowed by the Dnieper, or Nieper ; the Rhine, and the Elbe. The moft 
elevated mountains are the Alps, which are followed by the Pyrenees, 
and the extenfive ridge which divides Norway from Sweden. The 

Carpathian 



EUROPE. 



Carpathian mountains, and the chain of Emineh, or Hxmus, are, with 
the Apennines, of inferior extent and height. In the particular de^ 
fcriptions thefe grand and immoveable features of nature, which un- 
accountably have only attraded due attention within thefe few years, 
will be found to be illuftrated as far as the materials would permit. 

The kingdoms and ftates of Europe may be confidered, i. As defpotic 
monarchies, as thofe of Ruflia and Turkey ; 2. Abfolute monarchies, 
as Spain, Denmark, &c. ; or, 3. Limited monarchies, as the Empire 
ef Germany, kingdom of Great Britain, &c. Since the fall of Venice, 
and the fubverfion of Switzerland and Holland, fcarcely an example 
occurs of permanent and fixed ariflocracy, or the hereditary govern- 
ment of nobles. Of democracy, or more ftri£lly fpeaking, eled;iv8 
ariftocracy, a few cities, and fome Swils cantons, may preferve a 
femblance ; while France at the prei'ent hour is a military defpotifm, 
under the name of a democratical republic. 

According to the plan of this work, already explained In the Preface, 
the various fkates of Europe will be arranged in three divifions, con- 
fidering them according to their real confequence, as of the firft, fecond, 
©r third order ; and each will be treated at a length proportioned to its 
weight in the political fcale, and the confequent intereft which it in- 
fpires. A fmall ftate may indeed fometimes excite a more juft curio- 
fity than one of larger dimenfions ; but fuch conlklerations are 
foreign to an exa<3: fyftem of Geography, detailed in a precife order 
of topics, and extended with impartial views over the whole circle of 
liuman affairs. Foreigners may objedl that too much fpace is allotted 
to the Britifli dominions ; but the fame objeilion might extend to 
every fyftem ancient and modern, as the authors have always enlarged 
the defcription of the countries in which they wrote. His native 
€Ountry ought alfo to be the chief fubje£t of every reader ; nor can 
much ufeful knowledge, (for our knowledge chiefly fprings from com- 
parlfon,) be inftituted concerning foreign regions, till after we have 
formed an intimate acquaintance with our native land. It will alfo be 
underftood that, though no point of fcience be more fimple or clear 
than the arrangement of ftates, according'to their feparate orders, at a 
given period, yet it would be alike idle and prefumptuous to decide the 

precife. 



Govern- 
ments. 



Arrange- 
ment, 



iC . - EUROPE. 

preclfe rank of a flatc la each order ; for inflance, whether France or 
Ruflia be the moil powerful. This part of the arrangement mull there- 
fore be eledtive ; and it is fufficient that the ftates of the fame order be 
treated with a fimilar length of defcription. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century-, the European ftates 
comprized in the fir ft order are : i. The united kingdoms of Great 
Britain and Ireland; 2. France: 3. Ruffia : 4. The Auftrian domi- 
nions: 5. Thofe of Pruflla : 6. Spain: 7. Turkey: which laft cannot 
lo juftly be reduced to the fecoad order; for though perhaps approach- 
ing its fall, ftill it boafts the name and weight of an empire. 

Under the fecond order have been arranged: i. Holland, or the 
United Provinces ; 2, Denmark: 3. Sweden: 4. Portugal: 5. Swit- 
zerland. In the third are confidered the chief ftates of Germany, 
that labyrinth of geography, and thofe of Italy. The kingdoms of 
Sicily and Sardinia might perhaps, if entire and unfliaken, afpire to 
the fecond order ; and an equal ftation might be claimed by the 
jundtive Eledorate Palatine and Bavarian, and by that of Saxony. 
But as fuch ftates only form rather fuperior divifions of Germany and 
Italy, it appeared more advifeable to confider them in their natural in- 
timate connexion with thefe countries. 

This explanation being premifed, the firft defcription fhall be that of 
the Britifli dominions. 



ENGLAND. 



CHAPTER I. 
Historical or Progressive Geography. 

Names. — Extent. — Original Population. — Roman ^ Saxon ^ and Nurman 
Geography. — Hijiorical Epochs ^ and Antiquities, 

'T^HE Phoenicians, the moft ancient enlightened navigators, are gene- Names, 

rally allowed to have been the firft difcoverers of the Britifli 
Iflands, and to have tranfmitted their fame on the page of recorded 
knowledge. Bochart even fuppofes that the name oi Britain originates 
from a Phoenician word ; and another learned writer juftly infers, that 
the name of CaJJiteridcs, afterwards reftrided to the Ifles of Scilly, was 
at firft extended to Great Britain and Ireland '. This name implies in 
the Greek language the iflands oi tin ; and was probably tranflated from 
fome correfponding Phoenician term. However this be, the appella- 
tions of Albion and Britannia are afterwards commemorated in Grecian 
and Roman geography ; the firft being probably conferred by the Celtic 
or primeval inhabitants, the latter by the Belgic colonies. But etymo- 
logical difquifitions are foreign to the prefent purpofe. 

The fouthern, moft opulent, and moft important divifion of Britain, 
has ever fmce the days of B?de, been diftinguifhed among the Euro- 
pean nations by the name of Anglia^ or England, well known to have ori- 

• Huet. Hift. du Com. et de laNav. des Anciens, p. 194. Rennell) Geog. of Herodotus, p. 4. 

VOL. I. D ginated 



i8 



Names* 



Extent. 



Bou&darles. 



Original 
Population. 



ENGLAND. 

glaated from the Angles, a nation of the Clmbric Cherfonefe, or 
modern Jutland, who conquered a confiderable portion of the 

country. 

The Ifland of Great Britain extends from fifty to fifty-eight and a 
half degrees of north latitude," being of courfe about 500 geographical 
miles in len"-th. Its greateft breadth from the Land's End to the North 
Foreland in Kent 320 geographical miles. In Britifh miles the length 
may be computed at cSo, and the breadth at 370. 

England is bounded on the eaft by the German Ocean ; on the fouth 
by the Englifh Channel ; on the weft by St. George's Channel ; on the 
north by the Cheviot Hills, by the paftoral river Tweed, and an ideal 
line falling fouth weft down to the Firth of Solway. The extent of Eng- 
land and Wales in fquare miles is computed at 49,450 ; and the popu- 
lation being eftimated at 8,400,000, the number of inhabitants to a 
fquare mile will of courfe be 169 \ 

The earlieft population of this fertile country, which can be traced, 
Is that of the Gael or Southern Celts, called Guydels by the Welfh, who 
regard them as their predeceflbrs ; and who have juftly remarked, that 
the moft ancient names, even in Wales, are Guydelic, not Cumraig 01- 
Welfli \ Thofe Gael appear to have proceeded from the neareft fliores 
of France and Flanders. 

As in later times the Belgic fettlers in this country were fubdued by 
the Northern Saxons, fo the Celtic colony from the fouth was van- 
quiftied by the Cimbri of the North, the anceftors of the modern Welfh, 
who ftyle themfelves Cymri, and their language Cymraig, to this day.. 
The original Gaelic inhabitants appear to have almoft entirely evacuated 
the country, and to have retired to Ireland, alfo originally peopled from 
Gaul. There, and in the Highlands of Scotland, to which a Gaelic 
colony paffed from Ireland, the Gaelic diale<ll of the Celtic language 
ftill exifts. 

To the Celtic population of England fucceeded the Gothic. The 
Scythians or Goths, advancing from Afia, drove the Cimbri or 
northern Celts before them ; and, at a period long preceding the Chrlf- 

* Boetticher's Tables.— Knox computes Scotland with the Ifles at 27,7<;4, and Ireland at 
27,457; France at i+^'SS? fciu^^re miles. 
' Lluyd Arch., prcf. 

tian 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY 



19 



tian jEra, had feized on that part of Gaul which is nearoft to Great Namfs, ex- 

• 'J I N T &C. 

Britain, where they acquired the provincial denomination of Belgx*. 
Their paflage to England followed of courfe : and when Csefarlrrft explored 
this ifland, he informs us, that the primitive inhabitants were driven 
into the interior parts, while the regions on the fouth eaft were peopled 
with Belgic colonies \ Thofe Belgse may be juftly regarded as the 
chief anceftors of the Englifli nation ; for the Saxons, Angles, and other 
northern invaders, though of diftinguiflied courage, were inconfider- 
able in numbers. Till a recent period antiquaries had imagined that 
the Belgse ufed the Celtic language, and had execrated the cruelties of 
the Saxons for an extirpation which never happened. But as it appears 
that two thirds of England were poiTefled by the Belgic Goths, for fix 
or feven centuiies before the arrival of the Saxons, it is no wonder that 
no Celtic words arc to be found in the Englifh language, which bears 
more affinity to the Frific and Dutch than to the Jutlandic or Danifh. 

Emolliated by four centuries of Roman domination, even the Belgic 
colonies had forgotten their priftine valour, and were unable to contend 
with their ferocious invaders from Scotland and Ireland, when chance, 
or invitation, conduced to their affiftance new armies from the con- 
tinent. The Jutes arrived in the year 449, and founded the kingdom 
of Kent about the year 460 ; they alfo took pofleffion of the Ifle of 
Wight. In 477, the Saxons firft appear, and the kingdom of the 
South Saxons commences at that epoch. The Weft Saxons arrived in 
the year 495. The fixth century was confideralily advanced, when 
thofe barbaric colonies were increafed by the Eaft Saxons in the vear 
527: but the firft appearance of the great branch of the Angles, who 
were to perpetuate their name in the country at large, did not occur 
till the year 547, when the valiant Ida led his troops to Bernicla. The 
Eaft Angles taking poileffion of Norfolk in t!ie year 575, the Southern 
and Eaftern coafts were almoft vv^hoUy in the power of the invaders, 
who icon extending their conquefts into the interior of the country, 
founded in the year 585, the kingdom of Mercia, the laft of the Hep- 
tarchy *. Bede pronounces Mercia to have been an Anglic kingdom ; 
and if fo, their population may, perhaps, have equalled that of the 

* Diircrt. on Gollis. ' Lib. v. c. lo. * BeJa, Chron. Sax. &c. 

D 2 Saxon*^ 



20 



ENGLAND. 



Names, ex- 
tent, &c. 



Progreffive 
geography. 



Roman. 



Saxons themfelves. Certain it is, that Procopius, a writer of the 
lixth century, clafles the Angli in the firft rank of the Britilh nations of 
his time '. We iliall not ftop to enquire whether his Fnfones be the 
Saxons or the Belgae. The original documents evince, that all thefe 
new colonies, while they conquered by fuperior valour and hardihood, 
were far from being' fufficiently numerous to form even a femblance of 
population. Scarcely an inftance occurs of their being accompanied 
by women ; and their invafions may, in part, be paralleled by the fub- 
fequent conquefts of the Danes and Normans. Yet as the period was 
far more barbarous, the changes were greater ; and the Belgic inha- 
bitants, the genuine population, feem to have been I'educed to varirus 
deo-rees of fervitude, and to have conftituted thofe numerous flaves 
mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon times, while intermarriages and other 
fortunate circumftances lightened the Norman chain. There feems 
little room to doubt that the Belgze conftituted the chief anceftors of 
the Englifli nation, and that their language gradually prevailed, though 
tinged in the north with the AngUc or Danifh, and in the fouth with 
the Saxon. This fubjedl has been the more amply difcufled, becaufe 
it is not only of eflential importance in itfelf, but becaufe it has hither- 
to been clouded with many crude and erroneous affertions and 
opinions. 

The knowledge of the progreffive geography of any country is in- 
dlfpenfably neceflary for the elucidation of its hiftory. When the 
Romans entered Britain, they found the country, like others in the 
favage ftate, divided among a number of fmall tribes. With their ufual 
policy they eftablifhed large provinces. Britannia prima embraced the 
whole fouthern part of England, as far as the Severn and the Thames : 
Britannia fccunda correfponded to modern Wales. Flavia Cafarienfts 
extended from the Thames to the Humber, a noble province, receiv- 
ing its denomination from the imperial houfe of Vefpafian, and his 
two fucceflbrs, under whom fome of the moft important conquefts 
were atchieved. Vefpafian himfelf was, in the reign of Claudius, the 
firft "-eneral who began the real conqueft of Britain '. The province 
of Maxima Cafarienfts reached from the Humber to the Tyne, from 

' Tacitus, vita Agricolcc, c. 13. 

the 



1 Bell. Goth. lib. iv. c. 20. 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



21 



the Merfey to the Solway '. In the Roman times about thh-ty eminent Names ex- 

TENTj ccc* 

cities, or rather towns, are enumerated, about nine of which are de- 
nominated colonies, though none of them could be of much import- 
ance; for while the Roman colonies in other countries iflued abundance 
of coins, hardly one real coin even of Camulodunum, the mofi; import- 
ant colony, can be pointed out. Our antiquaries indeed have, with 
erroneous patriotifm, transferred many Gallic coins, as Britifh, and 
have amufed their readers with many fabricated pieces of antiquity; 
but reail medallirts, Englifli as well as foreign, hefitate greatly on the 
fubje£t. A more detailed account of the Roman Geography of England 
does not fall within the prcient plan, and the curious reader muft be 
referred to Horfley and Roy, authors of deferved eftimation. 

The Saxon Geography of England has been partly above indicated ; but Sason. 
the following table of the Heptarchy will prefent a more complete idea. 
I. Kent comprehended the county of Kent. 

( Suffex. 

( Surrey. 
Norfolk. 



2. Suflex, or the South Saxons. 



3. Eaft Angles^ 



i 



4. Weflex, or the Weft Saxons, 



Northumberland, 



Suffolk 

Cambridgefhire, with the- 
Ifle of Ely. 

Cornwall. 

Devonfhire. 

Dorfet. 
•{ Somerfet. 

Wilts. 

Hants. 

Berks. 
TLancafhire. , 

Yorkfhire 

Durham. 

Cumberland. 
I Weftmoreland. 

! Northumberland, and the parts 
of Scotland to the Frith of 
Edinburgh. 



* Cough's Camden, cxxix. Roy's IMap, &c. 



6. Efiex, 



22 



ENGLAND. 



Names, ex- 
tent, &c. 



6. Eflex, or the Eaft Saxons, 



Shires. 



7. Mercia, 



< 



{ EfTex. 

"j Middlcfex. 

*■ Hertfortlfliire in part. 

Gloucefter. 

Hereford. 

Warwick. 

Worcefter. 

Leicefler. 

Rutland. 

Northampton. 

Lincoln. 

Huntingdon, 

Bedford. 

Buckingham. 

Oxford. 

Stafford. 

Derby. 

Salop. 

Nottingham. 
LThe reft of Hertford '". 

Ancient authors affirm, that the great Alfred inftituted the firft divi-» 
fion of England into shires, fo denominated from a Saxon word, 
fignifying parts cut off, or divifions. They are alio denominated 
COUNTIES, as having been each governed by a diftin£t Ealdo7'man^ 
correfponding wath the Latin word Comes, or Count ; and fometimes 
tranflated Confid, and fometimes Comes, by thofe Anglo-Saxon authors, 
who wrote in Latin. After the Danifh conqueft, this officer or grandee 
•was known by another appellation, that of Earl, from the Danilh 
larl; which like the word Baron, in its original acceptation, implied 
fimply, but by way of great eminence, a man. About the eleventh 
century thefe titles became hereditary dignities; and the government 
of the (hire devolved upon the Earl's deputy, the Vice Comes, Shire-teeve, 
Sheriff,or manager of the fhire. A remarkable fubdivifion prevails in the 
extenfive county of York, which was divided into three parts, implied in 
the Saxon word Trythhigs, now corruptly called Ridings. It is alfo 

" Gough's Camden, cxxxi. 

generally 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 23 

e-enerally believed that Alfred was the author of the fubdivifions of Names, h- 
counties, called hundreds and tythings, now feldom mentioned except 
in legal p- oceedings, and in topographical defcriptions. It is probable 
that the hundred originally contained one hundred manors, or rather 
farms ; while the tything was reftrlded to ten. Such are the chief 
features of the Saxon geography of England. The capitals of the 
feveral Heptarchic kingdoms varied at the will of the Sovereign. Lon- 
don, which belonged to the Eaft Saxons, maintained in fomc degree 
its Roman fame and eminence ; but on the termination of theHeptarchy, 
Winchefler was regarded as the capital of England. Further illuftra- 
tions will arife under the head of Ecciefiaftical Geography. 

It muft not however be forgotten, that the kingdom of Northum- 
bria, comprizing the regions north of the Elumber, exifted till the year 
950, under its peculiar Sovereigns, the laft of whom was Eric : and 
that even Domefday Book, which was compiled in the time of William 
the Conqueror, excludes the three counties of modern Northumberland, 
Cumberland, and Weftmoreland, then regarded as part of Scotland- 
Durham, the patrimony of St. Cuthbert, a province of ecclefiaftic, 
not fecular jurifdiftion, is alfo omitted ; and Lancafhire is arranged 
under the divifions of Yorkfhire and Chefhlre. The kingdom of Ber- 
nicia at one period extended to the Frith of Forth ; but in the latter 
Saxon times the boundaries of England on the north fell confiderably 
fliort of their prefent extent. On the weft, OfFa king of Mercia re- 
flrided the Welfh by an extenfive barrier, the remains of which are 
ftill called OiTa's dyke ". It extended from the river Wye, along the 
counties of Hereford and Radnor into that of Montgomery, where it 
enters North Wales. It afterwards paffes by Chirk Caftle to the river 
Dee, and ends in the parifli of Mold. 

Few alterations of any confequence appear in the Geography of Eng- Norman., 
land in the Norman period. The northern limits were however ex- 
tended to their prefent circuit. Cumberland and Weftmoreland were 
wrefted from the Scots, and the provinces north of the Humber were 
completely incorporated. On the weft, Henry I, about the year 11 20, 
having conquered a part of Wales, invited and eftabliftied a Flemiih 

" Pennant's Wales, vol. i. p. 273. 

colony 



24 ENGLAND. 

Names, ex- colony " ill Pembrolcefhlre, and one or two others of the moR fouthern 

TENT, c. (.Qunties, which afterwards became remarkable for induftry; a Angular 

fadl in modern hiftory, though not unufual in ancient times, and for 

that period a remarkable ftretch of political wifdom. The fubfequent 

conqueft of Wales by Edward I, and its gradual affimilation and afib- 

ciation with England are fufficiently known. 

Hiftorlcal Geography has been ftyled one of the eyes of hiftory, a fubfervience 

epochs. to which ftudy is undoubtedly one of its grand objects ; but it would, at 

the fame time, be foreign to its nature to render it a vehicle of hiftory. 

The proper and peculiar fubjeds of geographical fcience are fo ample, 

an^ often attended with fuch difficult refearch, that it becomes equally 

rafh and unnecefTary to wander out of its appropriated domain. In this 

work therefore it is only propofed briefly to mention the grand hiftorical 

epochs of nations ; and thofe events which have altered their boundaries 

and geographical relations. 

The population of England by the Celts may be regarded as the firft: 
hiftorical epoch. 

The fecond is formed by the Belgic colonies ; who, perhaps about 
three centuries before the Chriftian sera, feized the fouthern and eaftern 
fhores, and advancing by degrees reftrided the Celts to the weft. The 
Belgic colonization of England is important in many points of view, 
as eftablifhing the primitive germ of the prefent Englifh nation, and as 
introducing agriculture, which was not praftifed by the hunting and 
paftoral tribes of the Celts '' : nor is it improbable that fome of the fertile 
diftri£ts of England have known cultivation for the fpace of two thou- 
fand years. 

3. Under Julius Ccefar the Romans can only be faid to have explored 
this ifland ; and near a century elapfed before the real conqueft was 
commenced by Claudius; between whofe reign and that of Domitian, the 
Roman Eagle had been difplayed as far as the Grampian mountains. 
The fertility of the foil, and the Roman arts of civilization, foftened 
the fpirit even of the Belgic Britons, and inured them to docile fervi- 
tude. Caraufms and other chiefs feized the Britifh purple, and availed 

" Will. Malmfb. llb.v. " Cafar, lib. v. c. 10, 

'i themfelves 



CHAP. I. HIS TO RIC/\L GEOGRAPHY. 25 

themfelvcs of the ftronc; maritime barrier to bid defiance to the C^efars • Historical 
but their troops, and their mariners, had the name of Romans; and ''°^"^' 
thefe were merely fchifms of a vafl enipire, not afleriions of native in- 
dependence. The Britons on the contrary were afterwards forced to 
implore the affiftance of the Romans againft their few, but ferocious 
invaders. 

4. After a duration of four centuries, the Roman domination yielded 
to that of the Saxons and Angles, nations congenerous with the Belgce. 
This revolution has indelibly imprefled the name, charader, language, 
laws, manners, and cuftoms of the people. 

5. After repeated ravages in the preceding centuries, the Danes in 
the year 1016, difperfed the armed force of England, and gave three 
Kings to the country, Canute, Harold, and Hardicanute ; but the domi- 
nion returned to the Saxon line in the year 1042. 

6. On the death of Edward the Confellbr, what is called the con- 
queft of England took place in 1066, under William the Norman. As 
the Normans, or Norwegians, had been fettled in the north of France 
for a long time, they introduced the French language among people of 
rank, and even into legal procedure; a fervile badge not even hitherto 
abfolutely eradicated, though the motive muftbe applauded, as the pro- 
perty and perfonal fecurity of fucceflive generations are fo intimately 
connected with the immutability of the national jurifprudence. 

7. The great charter granted by John at Runnymede is defers^edly 
efteemed a memorable epoch of Englifh freedom. 

8. The civil wars between the houfes of York and Lancafter may be 
regarded as the next remarkable epoch. Though deftrudlive of litera- 
ture and the arts, they proved the perdition of a ferocious ariftocracy ; 
and thus eftablifhed by degrees the third balance of the Britifh conftitu- 
tion in the Houfe of Commons. 

9. The reformation, by delivering the nation from the heavy yoke 
of fuperftition, increafed the national energies, and imparted freedom 
of thought, and a fpirit of independence, to the individual character. 

10. The civil wars under Charles I, had the ufualefFefl of impeding the 
courfe of literature and the arts ; but by the violeht changes and confe- 
fequences, and the exceffes committed on both fides, fuperinduced 

VOL. 1. E from 



26 EN GLAND. 

Historical from experience, the only teacher of pra£tical wifdom, a fplrlt of 
mutual forbearance and toleration ; fo that the fubfequent revolutions 
have, to the eternal honour of the national charadler, been effected al- 
moft without bloodfhed, and by the mere weight of national will and 
experience. 

1 1. The revolution under William III, and the laws enacted upon that 
occafion, by the unchangeable eftablifhment of the proteftant religion, 
and many more minute emanations of freedom, ftill further con'-ributed 
to national and individual independence; of which the acceffion of the 
Houfe of Hanover conftltuted an additional pledge and confirmation. 

12. The war with the American colonies forms not only an epoch of 
fingular novelty, but of the moft important confequences. It perhaps 
prefented the firft inftance, in modern hrftory, of a conflict betweea 
the parent ftate and its colonies. It was little difgraced with the atro- 
cities of a civil war ; and after a manly ftruggle was terminated with 

. gentlenefs and moderation. The Americans broke their colonial bonds, 
but could not overcome their commercial, which muft bind them to the 
parent ftate for fome generations, if they do not even deftroy their 
vaunted independence. The confequences of this revolution to the 
whole human race are incalculable ; whatever they may be, an Englifh- 
man may well exult that his brethren have commenced a large empire 
in a new hemifphere, and may hope and wifh that Afia and Africa may 
alfo be animated by the Engllfh chara«Ster, which even envy muft 
allow is inferior to none in the fpirit of intelligence and improvement, 
in benevolence and integrity, and in rational and praftical freedom. 
Antiquities. The ancient monuments of a country are intimately connected with 
the chief epochs of its hiftory, and particularly with the revolutions it has 
undergone by foreign conqueft, or new population. The Englifti anti- 
quities fall of courfe into fix divifions. i. Thofe belonging to the 
primitive Celtic inhabitants. 2. Thofe of the Belgic colonies. 3. Thofe 
of the Romans. 4. Thofe of the Saxons. 5. Reliques of the Danes. 
6. Norman monuments. Few of thofe remains, it muft be confeffed, 

• throw much light upon hiftory ; but many of them being interefting 
and curious In themfelves, they deferve the attention of the traveller 
and geographer. 

A radical 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



27 



A radical miftake in the ftudy of Englifla antiquities lias arifcn from AnTiqiTi- 



the confufion of the Celtic and Belgic languages and monuments. The 
Druids have defervedly attradted much curiofity and refearch ; but 
it would be erroneous to impute to them, as is ufual, the whole of our 
earlieft remains. Cxfar fpeaks of Druidifm as a recent inftitution ; and 
fuch being the cafe, it is probable that it originated from the Phoenician 
fadories, eftablifhed in wooden fortrefles on the coaft, the ufual prac- 
tice of commercial nations, when trading with favage or barbarous 
races. The tenets correfpond with what little exifts of Phccnician 
myth6logy, and the miffionaries of that refmed people might be not a 
little zealous in their difFufion. However this be, the ancient authors, 
from whom we derive our fole authentic information concerning the 
Druids, minutely defcribe their religious rites, but are totally filent 
concerning any monuments of ftone being ufed among them. On the 
contrary, they mention gloomy groves, and fprcading oaks, as the 
only fcenes of the Druidic ceremonies. Yet our antiquaries will even 
infer, that Stonehenge is a Druidic monument, though it be fituated in 
an extenfive plain, where not a veftige of wood appears, and where 
the very foil is reputed adverfe to its vegetation. 

It might, perhaps, be a vain effort of antiquarian inveftigation, to 
attempt to difcriminate the remains of the earlieft inhabitants from thofe 
of the Druidic period ; indeed, if we fetafide the authorities of modern 
antiquaries, commonly vifionary and difcordant, there is no foundation 
whatever for any found or real knowledge of the fubjed:. The follow- 
ing have been efteemed druid monuments by Borlafe : 1. Single 
ftones eredl : 2. Rock idols and pierced ftones : 3. Rocking-ftones 
ufed as ordeals : 4. Sepulchres of two, three, or more ftones : 
5. Circular temples, or rather circles of ere£l ftones : 6, Barrows or 
tumuli : 7. Cromlechs, or heaps of ftones : 8. Rock-bafons, ima"-lned 
to have been ufed in Druidic expiations : 9. Caves, ufed as places of 
retreat in time of war'^ But as moft of thofe relics may alfo be found 
in Germany and Scandinavia, it becomes hazardous to pronounce 
whether they be Gothic or Celtic ; and, as we learn from ancient 
authors that the Germans had no Druids, to beftow the name of 
Druidic, upon fuch monuments, is the mere wantonnefs of conje^Slure. 

'■• See Enquiiy into Hift. of Scotl. vol. i. p. 409. 

E 2 It 



TIES. 

Belgic. 



iS ENGLAND. 

Ant. QUI- ^^ .^^ however, moft probable, that the earlleft inhabitants, as is ever the 
praclice in the infancy of fociety, made ufe of wood, not flone, in their 
religious as well as in their domeftic ereftions. If we furvey the various 
favage regions of the globe, we fliall feldom or never perceive the ufe 
of ftone; and it is certainly juft to infer, that the favages of the Weft, 
were not more fkilful than thofc of the Eaft ; nor thofe of the old con- 
tinents and iflands, than thofe of the new. However this be, a learned 
ignorance upon fuch topics, is preferable to an affumed and imaginary 
knowledge. 

But as many of thefe monuments are found in Germany, Scandina- 
via, and Iceland ; and as the Icelandic writers in particular, often in- 
dicate their origin and ufe, which are unknown in the Celtic records, 
there is every reafon to attribute them to a more advanced ftage of 
fociety, when the Belgic colonies introduced agriculture, and a little 
further progrefs in the rude arts of barbarifm. The nature of this 
work will not admit a formal inveftigation of fuch topics, but a few 
remarks may be offered on Stonehenge, a ftupendous monument of 
barbaric induftry. Inigo Jones in attempting to prove that it is Roman, 
only evinces that no talents can avail when fcience is wanting, and 
that antiquities require a fevere and peculiar train of ftudy. Do£tor 
Stukeley, a vifionary writer, affigns Stonehenge to the Druids ; while 
Dr. Charlton perceiving that fuch monuments are found in Denmark, 
afcribed it to the Danes. If the latter had confidered that the Eelgje 
were a gothic nation of fimilar language and inftitutions, he might 
with more juftice have extended its antiquity. From the Icelan- 
dic writers" we learn, that fuch circles were called Z)o;//-6-;7/?^r, that 
is literally Doom-ring, or circle of judgment, being the folemn places 
where courts were held, of all kinds and dignities, from the national 
council down to the baronial court, or that of a common proprietor of 
land, for adjufting difputes between his •uillani and Haves. The mag- 
nihcence of Stonehenge loudly pronounces that it was the fupreme 
court of the nation, equivalent to the Champs de Mars et de Mai of 
the Franks, where the king and chiefs affembled in the circle, and the 
men capable of arms in the open plain ; nor is it improbable that the 

" Landnama Saga, &c. &c. 

chiefs 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. ag 

chiefs afcended the tranfverfe ftones, and declared their refolves to the ANTiQi.i- 

furrounding crowd, who, in the defcription of Tacitus, difTented hy 

loud murmurs, or applauded by clafhing their ihields "'. This idea 

receives confirmation from the circumftance that the Belgas peculiarly, 

fo called, as being the chief and ruling colony of that people, were feated 

in the furrounding province, and Sorbiodunum^ now Old Sarum, was 

their capital city; 

Similar circles of ftone, but far inferior in fize, are found in many 
parts of Great Britain and Ireland ; and feveral undoubtedly as late as 
the Danifli inroads and ufurpations, the practice being continued by 
that people at leaft till their converfion to chriftianity, in the tenth and 
eleventh centuries. Some of the fmalleft, as we learn from the 
northern antiquaries, were merely places of family fepulture. At a 
later period the circles of judgment, which had been polluted with 
human facrifices, and other pagan rites, were abandoned ; and the 
great courts were held on what were called Moot-hills, or hills of 
meeting, many of which ftill exifl; in the Britifh dominions, and in the 
Netherlands. They commonly confift of a central eminence, on which 
fat the judge and his afliftants ; beneath was an elevated platform for 
the parties, their friends, and conptirgators, who fometimes amounted 
to a hundred or more ; and this platform was furrounded with a trench 
to fecure it from the accefs of the mere fpeftators. Of the other monu- 
ments of this period, a more brief confideration muft fuffice. When a 
monarch, or diftlnguifhed general, was buried, a barrow or hillock 
was ereded to preferve his name and memory to future ages : the 
fize depending on the reputation of the perfon, which attracted a 
fmaller or larger number of operators. Such monuments are very 
ancient, and even to this day denote the fepulchres of fome of the 
heroes of the Trojan war ". In later times a large fingle ftone eredled 
was efteemed a fufficient memorial : fuch fingle ftones alfo fometimes 
appear as monuments of remarkable battles, or merely as boundaries. 
The caves are familiar to moft nations in an early ftate of fociety. 

The Bclgic relics are followed by thofc of the Romans, which Roman, 
are moftly objects of mere curiolity, and rarely throw the fmalleft 



'* Germ. xi. Hid. v. 17. '' Chevalier, Dallaway, and Morritt. 



light 



$o 



ENGLAND. 



Antiqui- ligl^t upon the page of hlftory. Amphitheatres are fald to be ftill vifible 
■^'"" at Silchefter, in Hampfhire, and feme other places. The Roman 

caftlc at Richborough, the ancient Rutupias in Kent, prefents confider- 
able remains of a maffy wall cemented with furprifmg firmnefs. The 
Roman ruins in this country are commonly compofed of (tone or flint, 
with ftrata of flat bricks at confiderable intervals. The mofaic pave- 
ments, hypocaufts, &c. are generally the remains of the villas of opulent 
Romans, fcattered over the country. The greateil number of Roman 
infcriptions, altars, &c. has been found in the North, along the great 
frontier wall, which extended from the Weftern Sea, to the eftuary of 
Tyne. This vaft wall is jufl:ly efteemed the moft important remain of 
the Roman power in England, as that of Antoninus is in Scotland. 
The extent was about 70 miles, and its conflrudion, forts, &c. have 
been illuftrated by the labour of feveral antiquaries. 

Numerous are the more minute relics of the Romans in England, as 
coins, gems, weapons, ornaments, and the like ; among which, however, 
the filver difh belonging to the Duke of Northumberland, deferves 
efpecial mention. One of the grand caufes of the civilization, intro- 
duced by that ruling people into the conquered ftates, was the high- 
ways, which form, indeed, the firfl; germ of national induftry, and 
■without which neither commerce nor fociety can make any confiderable 
progrefs. Confcious of this truth, the Romans feem to have lent par- 
ticular attention to the conftrudtion of roads in the diftant provinces ; 
and thofe of England, which may ftill be traced in various ramifications, 
prefent a lafting monument of the juftice of their conceptions, the ex- 
tent of their views, and the utility of their power. A grand trunk, as 
it may be called, to anticipate the language of our inland navigations, 
pafled from the South to the North, and another to the Weft, with 
branches in almoft every diredlion that general convenience and expe- 
dition could require. What is called the Watling-ftreet, led from 
Richborough, in Kent, the ancient Rutupise, N. W. through London 
to Chefter. The Ermin-ftreet paflTed from London to Lincoln, thence 
to Carlifle, and into Scotland, the name being fuppofed to be corrupted 
from Herman, which means warrior, as the chief wars lay in the North. 

.^ The 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



3' 



The Fofle Way is fuppofed to have led from Bath and the weftern Antiqui- 
regions, N. E. till it joined the Ermin-ftreet. The laft celebrated road '^'^^■ 
was the Ikenild, or Ikneld, fuppofed to have extended from near Nor- 
wich, S. W. into Dorfetfhire ". 

The Saxon antiquities in England are chiefly edifices, facred or fe- Saxon. 
cular ; many churches remain which were altogether, or for the moft 
part, conftruded in the Saxon period ; and fome are extant of the 
tenth, or perhaps the ninth, century. The vaults ereded by Grim- 
bald, at Oxford, in the reign of Alfred, are juftly efteemed curious 
relics of Saxon architedure. Mr. King has ably illuftrated the remains 
of the Saxon caftles. The oldeft feem to confift of one folitary tower, 
fquare or hexagonal : one of the rudeft fpecimens is Coningfburg 
Caftle, in Yorkfliire ; but as that region was fubjed: to the Danes, till 
the middle of the tenth century, it is probably Danifh. Among the 
fmaller remains of Saxon art, may be mentioned the fhrines for pre- 
ferring rehcs, which fome fuppofe to prefent the diminutive rudiments 
of what is ftyled the Gothic archite£ture ; and the illuminated manu- 
fcripts which often afford curious memorials of the flate of manners 
and knowledge. 

The Danifh power in England, though of confiderable duration in Danift.. 
the North, was in the South brief and tranfitory. The camps of that 
nation were circular, like thofe of the Belgae and Saxons, while thofe 
of Roman armies are known by the fquare form : and it is believed 
that the only diftind relics of the Danes, are fome caftles to the north 
of the Humber, and a few ftones with Runic infcriptions. 

The monuments ftyled Norman, rather to diftinguifti their epoch Norman. 
than from any information that Norman archite£ts were employed, 
are reputed to commence after the conqueft, and to extend to the four- 
teenth century ; when what is called the rich Gothic began to appear, 
which, in the fixteenth century, was fupplanted by the mixed ; and 
this in its turn yielded to the Grecian, Jn general the Norman ftyle 
far exceeds the Saxon in the fize of the edifices, and the decoration, of 
the parts. The churches become more extenfive and lofty, and 



•* Gough's Britifll Topography, I, lo. 



though; 



32 



ENGLAND. 



TIES. 



ANTKii'i- thougli the windows retain the circular arch, they are larger and more 
diverfified ; the circular doors are feftooned with more freedom and 
elegance ; and uncouth animals begin to yield to wreaths of leaves and 
flowers. The folitary keep, or tower, of the Saxon caftle, is fur- 
rounded with a double wall, inclofing courts and dwellings of large 
extent, defended by turrets and double ditches, with a feparate watch- 
tower, called the Barbican. Among others the Cathedrals of Durham 
and Winchefter, may be mentioned as venerable monuments of Anglo- 
Norman architedture ; and the caftles are numerous and well known. 
What is called the Gothic, or pointed arch, is generally fuppofed to 
have firft appeared in the thirteenth century ; and in the, next it be- 
came univerfal in religious edifices. The windows diffufed to great 

thic'.' ^" breadth and loftinefs, and divided into branching interftices, enriched 
with painted glafs, the cluftering pillars of exceflive height, fpreading 
into various fret-work on the roof, conftitute, with decorations of 
fmaller note, what is called the rich Gothic ftyle, vifible in the chapel 
of King's College, at Cambridge, and many other grand fpecimens 
in this kingdom. The fpire correfponds with the interior; and be- 
gins about the thirteenth century, to rife boldly from the ancient 
tower, and diminifh from the fight in a gradation of pinnacles and 
ornaments. 



Rich Go- 



E N G L A N D. 



CHAPTER II. 

Political Geography. 

Religion. — Ecclefiajiic Geography. — Government. — Laws. -^Population. — Colonics.. 
-^Army. — Navy. — Revenues. — Political Importatice and Relations. 

IT HE church of Eng-land is eftabUihed upon a moft peculiar bafis, Rcii,Tion. 

and truly charafJ^eriftic of a moderate and judicious nation. As in 
the political fyftem, extremes, the ufual concomitants of inexperience, 
are carefully avoided, and defpotlfm or anarchy, from whatever fource, 
monarch, nobles, or people, prevented, as far as human wlfdom can 
devife; fo-in the church, while the papal power, and other catholic 
chains are profcribed, the other extremes, tending to loofe democracy, 
are equally avoided. It is the only reformed church which has re- 
tained the epifcopal form in its ancient fplendour j'for though Bifliops 
may alio be found in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, &c. they are 
rather infpetlors of the conduct of the clergy, and of the modes 
of education,, than prelates endowed with fenatorial rank and dig- 
nity. In E.ngland, on the contrary, the biniops are peers of par- 
liament, and have the ftyle and importance of nobility. Yet the creed 
of the Engllfh 'church is rather Calviniftic than Lutheran. But the 
fpecial tenets of the Englilh church are fufficlently explained in the 
tliirty-nlne articles ; and a brief idea of its government will be more 
pertinent to the prefent purpofe. 

The orders hi blfhops, priefts, and deacons, compofe the body of the Chmdi of 
clergy. Upon his difpute with the Pontiff, to avoid any claims what- ^''g'*'"^' 
e'.cr of fuperiority, Henry Vill feized ihe title of Supreme Head of 
the National Church, and Iflucd feveral medallionswith infcrlptions In- 
Hebrew, Greek and Latin, to commemorate this new prerogative, 
v.hich is, indeed, important, as it blends the ecclefiaftic with the. civil 
adminiftration. Next in dignity and power are the Archbifliops of 

VOL. r. F Canterbury 



34 



ENGLAND. 



Church. Canterbury and York. The firfl is ftyled Primate of all England, 
and precedes- all perCons, except the royal family. He has the power 
of probate of all teftaments within his province, and of granting feveral 
dlfpcni'ations concerning benefices : he has, alfo, four courts of judi- 
cature, that of Arches, of Audience, of Prerogative, and of Peculiars. 
The Archbiiliop of York is ftyled Primate of England, but in preroga- 
tive and jurifdldion yields greatly to the firft Metropolitan' The 
Archbifhopric of York extends over the counties of Northumberland, 
Durham, Cumberland, Weftmoreland, Cheflrire, Lancaftrire, and the 
irie of Man, befides its proper and peculiar diocefe, of the greateft part 
of Yorkfhire and Nottinghamftiire. That of Canterbury comprifes 
the other counties ; and has its peculiar diocefe, being a great part of 
Kent. The archiepifcopal office is rather a dignity than a jurifdidlion, 
and the primates rarely interfere in any diocefes except their owa. 
They are appointed by the king, in the fame manner as the bifhops, 
by what is called a Conge aElire. 

Bi'iTiops. Upon any vacancy in an epifcopal fee, the dean and chapter apply 

to the king, who returns a Conge d'Elire^ naming the perfon to be 
chofen \ A chapter of the prebendaries is then fummoned by the 
dean, and they are conftrained under the penalty of a prcemnnire to 
ele£l the perfon nominated. The folemnity is completed by the royal 
affent, under the great feal, and by the confirmation and confecration, 
performed by the metropolitan, or in his name. The prelate after- 
wards pays homage to the king for his temporalities, or the baronies 
connedled with the fee ; and compounds for the firft fruits, that is, the 
revenue of the firft year, which is paid to the corporation for increafing 
the benefices of the poor clergy. The omiffion of confecration is the 
only difference when a blfliop is tranflated to another fee ; and when 
an archbiflrop is nominated, the king appoints four or more bifhops to 
officiate at the confirmation. 

The bifhop alone may ordain deacons and priefts, dedicate churches 
and burial grounds, and adminifter confirmation ■*. In forrner times 

■ Cliamberlayne, p. 3. 38th edit. 1755,2 vol Svo. 

- Chamberl. 140. Blackllone, b. i. c. 11. ' Chamberl. p. 61. 

epifcopal 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 35 

epifcopal jurlfdidion extended to the llcenfing of pliyficians, fiirgeons, Church. 
and fchoolmafters, and to the conjimdion of fmall parilhes. At pre- 
fent it chiefly, embraces queftions of births, marriages, deatlis, and 
teftaments, and any deHnquencies of the clergy ; to which bcdy, in- ' 
deed, their attention is now chiefly confined, and they rarely, except 
in parliament, interfere in fecular fubjedts. Tlie Bifhop of Sodor and 
Man has no place in parliament. All the other bilhops ire barons, and 
peers of the realm, by -three difFerent claims; in right of the baronies 
attached to their fees, as barons fummoned by writ, and as barons by 
patent, a form which accompanies their confecration *. Their privi- 
leges approach the regal ; they are the fole judges in their own courts, 
and iflue writs in their own names, not in the royal ilyle ufed by other 
courts. They can depute their authority, which no other judge can ; 
and their epifcopal power of conferring orders, &c. may be exerted iu 
any Chriflian country, while lay peers are only acknowledged in the 
country whence they derive their dignities ^ To pafs other more 
minute privileges, the Bifliop of London, as prefiding over the capital, 
has the precedence of all the others. The fee of Durham conftitutes a 
county palatine, with great powers and prerogatives : the authority and 
patronage of the bifliop are of courfe very extenfive, and even the 
king's judges only fit in his diocefe by his permiffion. The Bifliop of 
Winchefter is the third in dignity, but efteemed the firfl: in opulence, 
as the large civil lift of Durham, while it adds power, diminiflies reve- 
nue. Thefe three biftiops precede all the reft, who take place accord- 
ing to the feniority of confecration. 

To every cathedral in England belong feveral prebendaries as canons, Prebenda. 
and a dean, fo ftyled as is faid, (Decamis^) becaufe he anciently prefided "^'' ^^' 
over ten canons". In the old quaint language he was called one of 
the bifhop's eyes, while the archdeacon, who had charge of the deacons, 
was reputed the other. The dean and the chapter of prebendaries 
afl^ift the bifliop in ecclefiaftic affairs. The prebendaries are fo ftyled 
from the prebend, ox pars pmbenda^ portion of land or income allotted 
to them ; and with the dean form a body, college, or corporation ; and 

♦ Chamberl. 67. Blackftone, b. i. c. 1 1. s Chamberl. 68. * Ibid. 69. 

F 2 they 



36 



ENGLAND. 



Chvrch. 



Archdea- 
cons, 



Clergy. 



Curate. 



Vicar. 



Rcftor. 

Churchwar- 
dens. 



they have feveral privileges fuperior to the common or minor canons. 
At the reformation their falaries were moftly converted into money, 
but thofe of Durham preferred the ancient portions of land, which 
havino- prodigioufly increafed in value, they are now lliled " golden 
prebends, being worth from 800/. to 1200/. a year, while the bifhop, 
out of 9000/. a year, has to fupport a great and unavoidable ex- 
penditure. 

The next order is that of the Arch-deacons, amounting in all to 
about fixty ; their office is to infpedl the moveables of the churches, 
to reform flight abufes, and to induct into benefices. Arch-priefts, 
who, on the Continent, fhare the labours of the arch-deacon, on a 
fmaller fcale, being fuperintendents over a few pariflies, were in Eng- 
land alfo ftyled rural deans, but are now unknown. Subdivifions of 
government are fo much controuled by the very nature of human af- 
fairs, that the power of the arch-prieft almofl correfponded with the 
Scotifti prefbytery, while the provincial fynods are limilar to 
bifhopricks. 

Of the clergy in general, the loweft order is that of deacons, whofe 
office formerly was to fuperintend the poor ; the ancient donations to 
the church being always affigned in three divifions, one to the poor, 
another for repairs, and the lafl; for the clergy. At prefent the deacon's 
office is reftridted to baptifm, to reading in the church, and affifting the 
prieft at the communion, by handing the cup only. Deacon's orders 
cannot be canonically received before the age of twenty-three years, 
thofe of a prieft require twenty-four, and a bifhop muft be thirty. 
The curate is a clergyman appointed to officiate for another, and is fo 
nam.ed from his having the care of fouls ; hence the French rather ap- 
ply the term to the redor. If the predial, or great tythes of the pa- 
rifli, be impropriated, or converted into fecular hands, the prieft is 
termed a vicar, a name originally implying that they were the vicnrii, 
or deputies of the redor ; but if the tythes be entire the prieft is ftyled 
redor. The churchwardens fuperintend the repairs and decorations of 
the church, and the requifites for divine fervice, and colled the alms 
of the pariftiioners ; they are annually eleded at Eafter, and have 

fome- 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



37 



fometlmes fidefinen, a kind of afnftants. The facriftain, corruptly Church. 
called fexton, originally had the care of the furniture and plate of the 
church ; and by a dill greater corruption, the appellation is now ap- 
plied to the grave-digger, when it ought to have been conferred on the 
parifh-clerk. 

The clergy in general enjoy foroe peculiar privileges. Their goods 
are free from tolls in fairs and markets : they cannot be compelled to 
any office, civil or military: they are only amerced according to their 
temporal eftate : nor are they affefled for a robbery committed in the 
Hundred, or for watching, warding, high-ways, &c. &c. 

Ecclefiaftical courts ftill retain coniiderable power : the convocation, Convoca- 
confifting of the archbifhops and bifhops, with a lower houfe of 150 
members, only meets for the fake of form ; but have not been allowed 
to deliberate fmce the reign of Anne '. 

Next in -dignity is the court of delegates, a£ling by a fpecial com- 
miflion under tlic great feal ; and to whom an appeal lies from the high- 
eft metropolitan court. The court of arches is fo ftyled, becaufe it was 
held in the arches of the church of St. Mary-Ie-bone, London, but now 
in the great hall, Dodlors Commons ; only do£tors of the civil law 
are allowed to plead \ The court of audience is always prefided by 
the archbiftiop himfelf, who decides any doubts concerning the ad- 
miffion to benefices, and difpenfation of the bans of matrimony. 

The next court is that of Prerogative, which judges of e'ftates fallen 
by will, or inteftate ; the prerogative-office is like-wife in Dodlors Com- 
mons. The court of Peculiars refers to feveral peculiar parifhes, ex- 
empt from the jurifdicftion of the bifhops, but here amenable : the judges 
are fole and without jury. 



Uons. 



Courts, 



' Chamberl. 70,1. 76. Gough's Cam. i. 147. Blackftont, p. 111. c. v. 

" The degrees are only taki;ii at the Univerfities, yet they chiefly praclife in London, a college 
being purchafcd for their ufe, by Dr. Henry Hervey, where they communed together in a col- 
legiste manner ; whence the name of Doflors Commons, more properly called the College' of 
Civilians, near St. Paul's, which being coulumed in the fire of London, was rebuilt in :672. The 
Procurators, or ProSors, of thefe courts, are admitted by the Archbifhop's mandate, acting as the 
Solicitors in other courts. 



The 



GRAPHY. 



38 ENGLAND. 

EccLFsiAs- The ecclefiaftical geography of England may be feen in the fol- 
cALGiio- lowing table: 

Province of Cavterhury. 

1. Biflioprick of London, containing Eflex, Middlefex, and part of 
Hertford. ' 

2. Winchefter. — Surry, Hampfhire, Ifles of Wight, Jerfey, Guern- 
fey, and Alderuey.. 

3. Litchfield and Coventry. — Stafford, Derby, and part of "Warwick 
and Shropfhire. 

4. Lincoln. — Lincoln, Leicefter, Huntingdon, Bedford, Buckingham, 
and part of Hertford. 

5. Ely. — Cambridgfhire. 

6. Salifbury. — Wilts and Berkfhire. 

7. Exeter. — Cornwal and Devon. 

8. Bath and Wells. — Somerfetfliire. 

9. Chichcfter. — Suflex. 

10. Norwich. — Norfolk, Suffolk, and a fmall part of Cambridge. 

1 1. Worcefter. — Worcefter, and part of Warwick. 

12. Hereford. — Hereford, and part of Shropfhire, 

13. Rochefler.— Part of Kent. 

14. Oxford. — Oxfordlhire. 

15. Peterborough. — Northampton and Rutland. 

16. Gloucefter. — Glouceflerfliire. 

17. Briflol. — The City of Briftol, part of Glouceflerfhire, and County 
of Dorfet. 

18. Landaff. — Glamorgan, Monmouth, Brecknock, and Radnor. 

19. St. David's. — Pembroke, Cardigan, and Cacrmarthen. 

20. St. Afaph. — The greatefl: part of Flint, Denbigh, and Montgo- 
mery, and fome part of Shropfhire. 

21. Bangor. — The counties of Anglefey, Caernarvon, Merioneth, and 
part of Denbigh and Montgomery. 

Province of York. 

22. Durham. — Durham and Northumberland. 

23. Carlifle Great part of Cumberland and Weflmoreland. 

24. Chefler. 



CHAP. II. ECCLESIASTICAL GEOGRAPHY. 39 

24. Chefter. — Chefh'ire, Lancafliire, Richmondfliire (which Is part Church. 
of York) ; with part of Cumberland and Weftmoreland. 

25. Ifle of Man. 

The valuations in the king's books are omitted, becaufe even the 
comparative vakiation would lead to ideas wholly erroneous. Several 
changes have taken place in the number and fituaiions of the biftiop- 
ricks fmce Chriftianity v>'as firft eftabliflied in this country, but thefe 
rather belong to the province of the antiquary. 

Thofe who differ in tenets or forms from the eftabliflied church may, 
in general, be ftyled Diffenters, though the term be more ftridtly applied 
to the Prefbyterians and Independents. The other principal claffes of 
diffidents, are the Papifts, Methodifts, Quakers, the Anabaptifts, the 
Swedenborgians, and the Unitarians ; the laft clafs denying the Tri- 
nity, and believing only in one God, is now intermingled with the 
two firft, who have confiderably relaxed the ftridlnefs of their difci- 
pline. The Independents affert, that each congregation has a right to 
regulate itfelf, while the Prefbyterians unite churches under various 
divifions, provincial and national. The clerical ariftocracy of the 
Prefbyterians was obtruded with great haughtinefs upon the Englifii 
nation, during the civil war in the laft century, and was rendered the 
more odious, becaufe it admitted no toleration : hence the Englifh 
found that they had only exchanged one yoke for another, or rather 
eafe for fiavery, as ten prefbyters amounted to one bifhop, and fuper- 
added the petulance and morofenefs of individual inquifitors. Milton, 
and other friends of freedom, foon began to fatyrize the whole fedt, 
and to fly for refuge to the independents, whofe benevolence or ad- 
drefs granted univerfal toleration. To this body Cromwel lent an Iron 
hand ; and, after annihilating the prefbyterian power in England, in a 
great meafure fubverted that of Scotland. The intolerant fpiritofthe 
prefbyterians originated with their apoftle Calvin, whofe cruelty to 
Servetus was balanced by furprifing talents in clerical polity; it rendered 
their power fingularly adverfe to letters and tafte, and no man of 
fcience who has ftudied the literary hiftory of this country, would vvilh 
for the revival of fuch domination. But at prefent Calvin would not 
recognize his difciples, as they have abandoned their polemical thirties, 

3 and 



40 ENGLAND. 

Church. and cultivate the mofl; elegant produ£lions of the literary field. The 
papifts ufed chiefly to abound in Lancafliire, Staffordfliire, and Suflex ; 
they had potent chiefs, and were a formidable body ; but the paffage 
from fuperftition to contempt is fo natural, that many have fled to the 
oppofite extreme. Thofe who retain their faith, generally difplay mo- 
deration, which has been naturally increafed by the late privileges ex- 
tended to them. 

The methodifts are extremely numerous and refpeclable. They 
feem to allow the propriety of the creed and government of the church 
of Enoland ; but they require a more ftridl life, more fervent devotion, 
and more f-equent and ferious attendance upon divine worfliip, than is 
enforced by the eftabrifliment. A philofopher may well envy the 
mild creed, and univerfal charity, or fraternal love of the quakers ; 
while he muft allow with a figh, that a nation of quakers could not 
exift, except all nations were of the fame perfuafion. The anabaptifts 
difown infant baptlfm, and bathe the adult difciple. The learned 
Whifton admired their tenets, and their practice of anointing the fick 
with oil, which as he believed operated with miraculous power. The 
Swedenborgians derive their name from the Baron Swedeitborg, a no- 
bleman who exchanged his native country of Sweden, for a refidence 
in England. After having publifhed two folio volumes in the Latin 
language, upon the art of exploring mines, he was feized with a violent 
fever, and with great difficulty recovered. In his difordered imagi- 
nation he feemed to maintain a frequent intercourfe with the fpiritual 
world ; and he has publiflied twenty or more vaft volumes in quarto, alfo 
in the Latin tongue, replete with curious metaphyfical ratiocination, 
interfperfed with vifions which are fometimes narrated with high 
poetical fpirit and elegance. His fyftem is fo much adapted to the 
Urongeft propenfities of human nature, that his difciples increafed witli^ 
great rapidity. His chief tenets are, that there is but one perfoa of 
the Deity, namely, the Lord Jefus Chrift, that the day of judgment is 
already pafl^ed, &c. &c. but his moft alluring tenets partake of Mahome- 
tanifm, in reprefenting the connubial pleafures, and the other enjoy- 
ments of a future world, which he paints as limilar to this ftate of 

■ exiftence 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 41 

exiftence, but far exceeding it In the gratifications of every fenfe, Govern- 
whether mental or corporeal. went. 

The conflitutlon of England, the peculiar boaft and glory of the 
country, and an ohje£l of admiration to other ftates, though attempted 
to be defcribed by Montefquieu, has been little underftood by foreigners, 
for it prefents fuch an infinite number of pradtlcal ramifications, and is 
fo intimately connected with the fpirit and manners of the people, that 
a number of years would be required to feel and ftudy Its real efFeds ; 
and even after the longeft preparation, the beft defcription muft be but 
a portrait, devoid of life and of vital expreffion. A faint fketch alone 
can be here expected, and the fidelity of the outline muft compenfate 
for the want of detail. 

The conftitution of England is a limited monarchy, counterpoifed 
by two fenates, one of hereditary peers, the other of reprefentatives, 
who are, or ought to be chofen by the people. Such fenates were not 
unknown to the other European nations, and have rather funk into 
difufe from their own perverfion of their power, than from the def- 
potifm of the fovereigns. In France, long before the States General 
were difcontinued, their meetings had been execrated by the people ; 
as inftead of defending their privileges, the members only attended to 
their own private interefts, and impofed exorbitant taxes, which were 
confumed by the greedy courtiers, with very fmall profit to the royal 
treafury. Hence, far from incurring any blame, the kings of France 
acquired great popularity, and were idolized by the nation, for deli- 
vering them from the fcourge of a venal fenate, which only ferved to 
increafe oppreffion and expenditure. Many other Inftances might be 
adduced to prove, that the very exiftence of fuch fenates depends upon 
their forming one body and foul with the nation at large ; but it will 
be fufficient to mention the fimllar fuicide which happened in Den- 
mark, in the laft century, when the people, difgufted with the felfifti 
views of the fenate, requefted the monarch to annihilate it, and afl'umc 
the entire power : and the abfolute form of government has fince conti- 
nued, though modulated by feveral counfels, which have the effect 
without the form of the fenate. The Englifti fenates, on the contrary, 
owe their ftability to a general concurrence with the popular voice ; 

VOL. I. G arifing 



42 ENGLAND. 

Govern- andng partly from their form, and partly from a fympathetic and 
"^''^* gradual connexion which pervades all ranks. 

King.. Our lawyers pronounce that the Ring of England unites in his 

perfon the dignity of chief magiftrate, with the fandlity of a prieft : 
and the title of Sacred Majefty, appears to have commenced when he 
aflumed the fundion of Head of the church. So auguft is his perfon, 
that even to mention or intend his death, is a capital offence, when in 
all other cafes the deed alone is punifhable. Fortefcue, in his old em- 
phatic language, has defcribed the oflice of the King of England to^ 
be " to fight the battles of his people, and to judge them with moft 
righteous judgment," At his coronation he folemnly fwears to go- 
vern his people according to parliamentary ftatutes, and the law of the 
country ; to maintain the proteftant religion ; and to preferve the legal 
rights and privileges of the bilhops, clergy, and church '. 

The royal prerogatives have never been ftridly defined ; and, per- 
haps it is preferable in a government, which afpires not to ideal per- 
fedion, but to pradical benefit, that they fhould be capable of great 
energy and extent ; as, in cafes of emergency, even republics have 
been forced to entruft abfolute power to a didator. The acknow- 
ledged prerogatives are chiefly to declare war and to make peace, a 
power upon which the whole of public prolperity may be faid to de- 
pend ; to form alliances and treaties j to grant commiffion for levying 
men and arms, and even for preffing mariners ; for the power of im- 
preffmg into the land fervice, was abandoned in the reign of William^ 
and Mary ; yet in cafes of great peril, there can be little doubt but the 
king, in concurrence with parliament, might order every man to af— 
fume weapons of war. To the king alfo belong all magazines, ammu- 
nition, caftles, forts, ports, havens, and lliips of war : he has alfo the 
fpecial management of the coinage, and determines the alloy, weight, and 
value*. The prerogative alfo extends to the affembling, adjournment, pro- 
rogation, and diffolution of parliament ; and to its removal to any place. 
The royal affent is neceffary to impart validity to an ad of parliament, 
though it has never become neceifary to withhold it, fmce the ma- 

■ Chamberl. 52, Dclolrae 90. * Cham. 48, &c, Blackftone, B, I. c. iii. &c. 

a nagement 



CHAP. 11, POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 43 

Tiagement of the fenate has become the profefTed office of the muiiflcr. Oovern. 
The king may not only increafe the Houfe of Peers, but that of Com- 
mons, by empowering any town to fend burgefles to parUament ; yet 
the latter prerogative appears to have become obfolete, for in the reign 
•of Charles II the interference of the legillature was efteeraed ne- 
cefl'ary to enable the city of Durham to fend reprefentatives. The 
fovereign alfo enjoys the nomination of all officers on fea or land ; 
of all magiftrates, counfelJors, and officers of ftate ; of all bilhops, and 
other great ecclefiaftical dignitaries ; and is not only the fountain of 
honour but of juftice, as he may pardon any offence, or mitigate the 
penalty. As Head of the church he may call a national or provincial 
fynod, and with its confent enadt canons, either relating to faith or 
pradlice. The other prerogatives are more minute, and more adapted 
to jurifprudential enumeration. The more important exceptions are, 
that he cannot ena£l new laws, or impofe new taxes, without the 
confent of both houfes of parliament. 

The parliament, or national council, claims the next confideration. Ori- Parliament, 
ginally both the nobles and the commons met in one houfe ; and as the 
greateH: national events depend, not on defign,but on chance, ormore pro- 
perly, the will of heaven, it is not impoffible that the mere inconvenience 
of not finding halls large enough for our then ambulatory parliaments, 
might have occafioned the diviflon into two houfes, unknown in any 
other country, and' which i;i fadl may be regarded as the fole foundation 
of Englifh liberty. The houfe of peers may be faid to have exiftedfrom 
the earlieft period of our hiftory. Concerning the commons, authors 
are diffentient, the Whigs afferting that they formed a part of the Wet- 
tena-Ge-Mot^ or the affembly of fages, and it is not improbable that 
commoners of diftinguifhed ability, particularly in the laws, were ad- 
mitted to that great council, which chiefly confifted of the military 
chiefs. On the other hand it feems improbable that delegates from 
towns fhould have been then known, as the idea feems too abftrad: and 
complex for a rude people. The Tory writers affert that there is no 
appearance of the commons, nor any authority for their parliamentary 
exiftence, prior to the 49th of Henry III, when the firfl: records con- 
cerning them arife. However this be, the prefent conflitution of the 

G 2 parliament 



44 ENGLAND. 



MENT. 



Govern- parliament of England, may certainly be traced to near the middle of 
the thirteenth century ; but it remains unknown at what precife time 
happened the important feparation of the commons from the peers. 

The Peers of England only require the full age of twenty-one years, 
to become hereditary fenators in their feveral degrees of duke, marquis, 
earl, vifcount, and baron, formerly created by inveftiture, or fymbolic 
forms, but latterly by patent^ The Duke is fo ftyled from the Latin dux, 
a leader or general; the title of Marquis fprings from the Gothic lan- 
guage, and implies the commander of a march or frontier : the Earl and' 
Baron are alfo from the Gothic, and merely imply eminent men ; the 
Vifcount is Latin, and fignifies the lieutenant of the count or earL 
The various orders of nobility have been preferved more pure in Eng- 
land than in any other country ; owing partly to the laws of primo- 
geniture, partly to their fenatorial office, partly to the inftitution of the 
college of heralds. In Germany, and fome other countries, the nobi- 
lity has fallen into comparative degradation, from the extenfion of the 
title to all the fens, and from the prefumption of adventurers.- The 
peers are privileged from perfonal arreft, except for treafon, felony, 
and a few other high offences. They are not only exempt from ferving 
in juries, but muft be tried by a jury of peers, who return their ver- 
did, not upon oath, but upon their honour. They are addreffed by the 
ceremonial form of My Lord, correfponding with the French Mon 
Seigneur ; and the law is fo watchful of their reputation, that the fta- 
tute oi fcatidalum magnatum was ena£ted, to prevent any fcandal againlt 
them, or difcord between them and the people. Every peer may ap- 
point a-proxy to vote for him in the fenate, a privilege unknown to 
the commons. 

In the houfe of peers is placed the royal throne ; but the monarch 
rarely appears, except at the meeting or prorogation of parliament, 
when he proceeds to the houfe in great ftate ; the attendance of the 
commons is commanded, who ftand below the bar, and the king pro- 
nounces his fpeech, generally the compofition of the minifter. The 
arrangement of the houfe of peers is well conceived, and produces a 

» Chamb. i68. Blackftone, B. I. c. iL 

grand 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 45 

gi'and efie(£t. The wool-facks upon which the chancellor, and the Govern. 
judges when called for their advice, are feated, conftitute a remarkable 
feature, efteemed fymbolic of the ftable commodity of the country. 
The appearance is yet more magnificent, when the peers fit as judges 
in Weftminfter-hall ; the greatnefs of the perfons, and the folemnity of 
the occafions, exciting impreffions of fingular fublimity. 

The houfe of commons confifts of knights, citizens, and burgelTes, Commons. 
chofen by counties, cities and boroughs, in confequence of royal writs 
dired^d to the flierifF. To reftrid the tumult of popular elediion, it 
was enaded by Henry VI, that none fhould vote for a knight of the 
fhire, except freeholders worth forty fhillings a-year, which at the pre- 
fent value of money, may be computed at twenty or thirty pounds. It 
is fingular that copyholders were excluded. The eledions for the 
cities and boroughs, are regulated by their charters and cuftoms ; fome- 
times only a few citizens have a right to poll, fometimes all the inha- 
bitants. The members, and their menial fervants, are exempted from 
arreft in civil caufes, on their journey to parliament, during their at- 
tendance, and on their return ; nor can they be queftioned out of the 
houfe for any fentiment there uttered. It has been difputed whether 
the members be not rather to be regarded as reprefenting the people an 
large, than as interefted in particular diftrids, and obliged to liften to 
the voice of their conftituents, whofe private iatereft might, perhaps, 
interfere with the general benefit. The commons form the grand in^ 
queft of the realm, and may impeach or accufe the greateft peers ; but 
their chief privilege, and upon which their whole pov/er entirely de^ 
pends, is the levying of money, in which they are defervedly fo jealous 
that they will not permit the fmalleft alteration in a money-bill. This 
amounts to an almoft abfolute veto on any public meafure, and efpcr 
ciallv on war. The houfe of commons cunfifts of 558 members*; 
but by ficknefs, important offices, and indifpenfable avocations, the 
houfe rarely prefents above two thirds of the. number. A fpeaker, or 
prefident, is chofen at the meeting of every new parliament ; but is 
ufually continued from one to another, as the office requires a com- 
plete and ready knowledge of the forms, and confiderable abilities. 

* Since th« union with Ireland 65S. 

Ads 



46 ENGLAND. 

GovrRN'. At!ts of parTiament, which conflitute the Piatute law of the kangdom, 

WENT. .may originate in either houfe, though they commonly maketheir firft ap- 

pearance in the houfe of commons. The procedure is in the following 
form. Any member may move for a bill, (the term acl is not applied till 
all the ftages be complete,) which being feconded,the mover, and others 
who fupport him, are ordered to prepare it. ■ When prefented, and 
leave given to bring it to the table, it is read by the clerk, the claufes 
are debated, and a day appointed for a fecond reading. After it is 
again read and debated, it is committed ; that is, if important it is re- 
ferred to a committee of the whole houfe, during which the fpeaker 
leaves the chair, and another member fits at the clerk's table as chair- 
man : or, if little momentous, to a private committee, which meets in a 
feparate chamber. When every paragraph has been carefully exa- 
mined, every claufe put to the queftion, and the blanks and amend- 
ments completed, the chairman makes his report. The amendments 
and added claufes are then read, and the fpeaker puts the queftion, 
whether they fhall be read a fecond time ; and being read and debated, 
the bill is ordered to be ingrofled, that Is, fairly written on parchment. 
After the third reading, the fpeaker, holding the bill in his hand, en- 
quires If It fliall pafs the houfe ; If agreed to, the clerk writes on the 
bill Scit bailie atixfcigneurs, or if in the houfe of lords, there Is written, 
Soit bailie aux communes. If the bill be rejedled, it cannot be again 
moved during that feflion ; and it is an ufual mode to move that the 
bill be read in three months, when by exceeding the limits of the 
feffion, it amounts to a lefs invidious rejedlion. An advantage of the 
committee of the whole houfe is, that the members may anfwer and 
reply ; whereas In the conftltuted fenate no member can fpeak twice, 
except in explanation. A filent vote in the houfe of commons, is 
given by aye and no \ in the houfe of lords by content and not 
content. 

The proceedings in the houfe of lords are nearly fimilar ; and if a 
difficulty arife, a conference Is demanded. In an appropriated chamber, 
where It is debated ; and either compromlfed, or the bill abandoned. 
When a bill has pafled both houfes, the king, either in perfon or by 
commiffion, imparts his confent, the clerk repeating to public bills, 

U 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 47 



Mli NT. 



Le Roy le vent; \i i^x'w'xX.t^ foit fait comme il eft defirc. The denial of Govern- 
the royal concurrence ufed to be Le Roy s'avifera. 

The attention of the nation is chiefly bent upon the parliament, 
when grand political queftions arife concerning war and peace, or af- 
fecfling the conftitutional liberties of the land. On fuch occafions the 
utmofl: powers of eloquence arc exerted ; and fpecimens produced wor- 
thy of Greece or Rome. Such trials of elocution may either arife in 
the ftages of a bill as before defcribed ; or by the fpeclal motion of a 
member for fome particular objed, or addrefs to the throne. 

Adjournments may frequently happen in one feffion, and the bufmefs 
is continued and refumed ; but a prorogation terminates the feffion, and 
the bills not then pafled muft recommence their whole progrefs. By a 
modern ftatute, the death of the king does not, as formerly, terminate 
the parliament; which, on the contrary, had it been previoufly dif- 
folved, may, on that event, refume its fundions. 

The forms of the houfe of commons are obferved v.'lth great punc- 
tuality, and it is the fpecial duty of the fpeaker to fuperintend their en- 
forcement ; a precaution indilpenfible in a popular aflembly, as we 
may judge by having feen the ienate of a neighbouring nation occa- 
fionally degenerate into a bear-garden. The houfe of commons is de- 
fervedly efteemed the very palladium of Engliflh liberty : they hold 
what is called the omnipotence of parliament, and if that power were 
not guided by principle, the ruin would be univerfal. Not the general 
execration of the human race, not the infamy eternized by the hiftoric 
page, could ever avenge the injury done to their country ; if inftead of 
proteding the lives, properties, and liberties of the nation, by whom 
they are chofen for that fole purpofe, they fhould, for the fake of pe- 
rifhable wealth or honours, become the betrayers of their brethren, 
and the fycophants of defpotifm, of whatever kind or defcription. 

Such are the three grand component parts of the Englifh conftitution ; 
but, perhaps, its moil beneficial and popular effeds, arife from the 
mode of adminlftering juftice, and other ramifications. For the fake 
of connedion, however, it is proper firft to confider the Privy Council, 
and the other divifions of the government. 

Under 



43 ENGLAND. 

GoTE*K. Under whatever form of monarchy, Privy Councils are found to be 

_ ^' coeval with the ftate. It is impoflible for one man, however tranfcendent 

cii. his abilities, to manage the various bufinefs of the government. In the 

moft barbarous periods, a few men of eminent birth or wifdom have been 
•feledted by the fovereign for his afllftants. While the national afl'em- 
bly only met on folemn occafions, the advice of the privy council was 
ready on every emergency, and it hence becarne the chief engine of re- 
■gular and continual authority. In England the powers of the privy 
council continue to be very extenfive, even in modern times. At more 
.ancient periods it aded in a high juridical capacity, was wont to be con- 
fulted, even by the judges, in decrees of great confequence, and the par- 
liament ufed to tranfmit feveral important topics to its I'ole confidera- 
tion *. At prefent it is chiefly employed in deliberations on affairs of 
fudden emergence ^ on peace and war; and fpecial provinces of the 
royal prerogative. The members are chofen by the king ; and on 
changes of adminiflration are feldom erafed, though the members in 
oppofition never attend. They are ftyled Right Honourable, and are 
fworn to obferve fecrecy : the loweft at the board pronounces his opinion 
firft, and the king, if prefent, concludes with declaring his judgment. 
A privy council is feldom or never held, without the prefence of at leaft 
one of the fecretaries of ftate j who, till the reign of Elizabeth, ufed to 
ftand by the royal chair, but have fmce fitten at the board as privy 
counfellors. Their office is of the higheft truft and importance, and 
is at prefent divided into three departments. Dependent on the fecre- 
taries of ftate is the ftate-paper office at Whitehall, which has in charge 
the writings of ftate and council, difpatches, negociations, and the 
like, from ancient times, thus prefenting moft important documents of 
tiiftory. 

Miaiftry, Even at an early period, when the monarch maintained in his own 

hands a great fhare of the adminiftration ofjuftice, and of theadlual exer- 
cife of authority, there were intervals of abience or recreation, in which 
he delegated the chief management of bufmefs to fome fele£l perfon, 
ufually an ecclefiaftic, whofe cultivated talents qualified him for fuch an 
important truft. To lend more weight to this fubftitute, he was com- 

•• Charaberl. 83, and Blackftone B. I. c. t. 

monly 



CHAP. 11, POLITICAL GEOGR API! r. 49 

monly appointed chancellor, or chief adminiftrator of civil juflice, C.overn- 
was prefident of the houfe of peers, and fiipported the royal influence 
in that great affembly. But in later times, when the management of 
the houfe of commons became the chief oljcft of the crown, the 
chancellor of the court of exchequer, as fuperinrendant of the public 
revenue, is the officer generally confidered as prime minifter. The 
diftribution of fifty millions a-year, joined with the royal fupport, has 
recently carried his power to the higheft elevation. Next to him in 
authority ure the fecretaries of ftate, who are followed by the chan- 
cellor, the treafurer of the navy, the prefident of the council, the pay- 
mafter of the forces, the commiffioners of the treafury, and other 
perfons of high truft. 

The judicature of England is w^orthy of the higheft applaufe, with Judicature. 
regard to precifion and purity. It is, indeed, to be regretted that the 
vaft number and confufion of the ftatutes, render the ftudy of the laws 
peculiarly difficult, and that the number of officers and retainers on the 
courts of juftice, fwells the expences of a fuit to an enormous fum. 
But hardly can a country be named on the face of the globe, in which 
juftice, civil or criminal, is adminiftered with more integrity : bribes, fo 
frequent in other countries, are totally unknown j and the faving of 
this expence muft be candidly poifed againft other legal difburfe- 
ments. 

The trial by jury is another glorious feature of Engliffi jurifprudence, 
handed down from the Saxon times, and is juftly regarded as the 
very fafeguard of the lives, liberties, and properties of the nation. Its 
excellence has been refpeded by the Danifh and Norman conquerors ; 
and, it is hoped, vi^ill be venerated by the lateft pofterity. 

The laws of England in general, form a noble code of juftice and Laws, 
equity, the precious legacy of remote anceftors. The ftream iflued pure 
and falutary fro n the Saxon rock ; and neither foreign fources, nor 
ravaging floods, have been able to contaminate its beneficial qualities. 
Englidi jurifprudence regards the civil code as a relic of defpotlfm ; and 
rarely liftens to the papal voice of the canon law. It would be idle 
and extraneous here to attempt, even a brief fketch of the laws of 
England. The moft fingular ufages are what was termed Borough 

VOL, I. • n Englijh^ 



50 ENGLAND. 



Gov-Fn- Englifo^ by which the youngell fon, or in defed of iffue, the youngefl: 
brother was to enjoy the heritage ; as it was to be prefumed that his 
elder brethren had learned their father's bufinefs ^ That of Gavel-kind 
is fcarcely known, except in Keilt, and has three branches ; the heirs 
male ihare all the land alike ; each heir may fell or alienate at the age 
of fifteen ; and though the father be attainted of treafon, the inheri- 
tance paiTes to the progeny ^ In no country are wills fo much vene- 
rated by law : that of Mr, Theluflbn furnifhes a recent example. 

jury. All trials, upon common and ftatute law, are determined by a jury 

of twelve, chofen as unobjedlionable, from a larger number fummoned 
by the fheriff. They have their ftation in the court, near the judges j 
and when the examination of the witnefTes, and the pleadings are ended, 
a judge recapitulates the whole evidence and arguments, and ftate the 
law : after which the jury retire, for a flaorter or longer fpace, as doubts 
may arife. Upon their return, their foreman declares the verdidt, 
which muft be unanimous. The neceflity of unanimity, has occa- 
fioned many difficulties ; and it feems preferable to decide by the mere 
majority, as is done in Scotland in criminal cafes. The foreft and by- 
laws may here be omitted j but a more vigorous branch of Englifh 

Martial Law. judicature muft not be forgotten. Martial Law, or the Lex Cajlretifis 
AngUcana^ may be clearly traced to the reign of Henry V, who iffued 
a code of military ftatutes, publifhed by Upton and Grofe. The fta- 
tutes chiefly relate to facrilege, prifoners, robbery of merchants, &c. &c. 
and refer folely to the adlual e.xercife of war : the pain of death rarely 
occurs, except in the cafe of any perfon who cries havoc^ an expreffion 
feemingly equivalent to " no quarter." Martial law may be pro- 
claimed by the k;ing, regent, or lieutenant general of the kingdom j 
and even in time of peace, though the prerogative be rarely employed, 
.except during war. It is in fadl: a didlatorial power, never' exerted 
except on great emergencies. The trials are fummary and fevere, as 
the neceffity of the cafe authorifes. 

Courts of In a fhort view of our courts of law, the next in dignity to the 

Juftice. houfe of lords is the court of king's bench, io called becaufe the fove- 

reign was underftood to judge in perfon, and its jurifdidion of courfe 

' Chambeil. v. i. i8S. ' Ibid. 17. 

extends 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 51 

extends to the whole kingdom. The prefiding judge is denominated Govern- 
Lord Chief Juftice of England. Here are chiefly determined what are "'^''^" 
called pleas of the crown ; and appeals lie from fevera! other courts. 
-The court of chancery judges caufes in equity, to moderate the rigour 
of the law, and defend the helplefs from oppreffion, and cfpeciallv to 
extend relief in three cafes, fraud, accident, and breach of truft. The 
chancellor himfelf is the fupreme judge. The mafter of the rolls, or 
keeper of the important papers enrolled in chancery, is an officer of 
great dignity, and confiderable patronage. The office of the rolls con- 
tains the charters, &c. granted by Richardlll, and his fucceflbrs ; 
thofe of more remote antiquity being lodged in the Tower. The court 
of common pleas judges, as the name imports, of the common fuits 
between fubjeft and fubje£t ; and tries all civil caufes, real, perfonal, or 
mingled, according to the precife precepts of the law. The court of 
exchequer, fo termed from the ancient mode of accounting upon a 
checquered board, decides all caufes relating to the royal treafury or 
revenue. The lord treafurer, and the chancellor of the exchequer, 
may be regarded as honorary prefidents, while the firft adtual judge 
is the lord chief baron. Three other judges, and many officers, belong 
to this high court. There is alfo a court for the duchy of Lancafter, 
having recognizance of the revenues of that duchy, annexed to the 
crown by Henry IV \ 

For the more commodious and general diftribution of juftice, the circuits, 
kingdom is divided into fix circuits, which are vifited by the judges in 
the fpring and autumn, when they fit and determine all caufes of impor- 
tance, civil and criminal ; a method much to be preferred to the feden- 
tary parliaments of France, in which the judges were biafTed by local 
attachments. In the meanwhile more minute cafes are determined by ^ .. 

Tuiticcs Oi 

the juftices of the peace, who may be traced to the fourth year of Peace. 
Edward III. Their office is chiefly to commit criminals to prifon, and 
to infpe£t the execution of fome particular laws, relating to the poor, 
high-ways, and the like. They have a commiffion under the gre.it feal, 
and the moft refpedlable are fl:yled juftices of the quorum, from the 
words in the commifllon, ^orum A. B. union ejfe volumus. The cujios 

' Blackftone, b. iii. c. 4. 

H 2 rotulorum^ 



52 ENGLAND. 



Govern- ro////o/7/w, Or keeper of the rolls, produces them at the quarter feflions, 
where the juftices meet once in three months : the grand inqueft, or jury 
of the county, is here fummoned, which enquires concerning crimes, 
and orders the guilty to jail till the next circuit or affizes. 

ShcrHTs. The office of fheriff, or prasfedt of the county, is to execute the 

royal mandates, to impannel juries, to bring perfons to trial, and to fee 
the fentences executed, to colledl fines, and remit them to the exchequer, 
and to prefeive the tranquillity of the fhire. On the circuits he meets 
and attends the judges, with a gallant train of officers and fervants. 
The fheriffs are annually pricked with a golden needle, by the king 
out of a lift of fix gentlemen of the county, drawn up by the itinerant 
judges. 

Anciently there was a bailiff in every hundred, but the office is now 
rare, or fallen into difufe. The conftables perfonally affift in the pre- 
fervation of the peace, and execute the warrants of the juftices. The co- 
roner was originally a man of high rank, who fhared the power of the 
fheriiFs, particularly in what regarded the pleas of the crown ; at prefent 
his duty is to enquire, by a jury of neighbours, into cafes of violent 
death. The clerk of the market fuperintends the weights and meafures, 
and it were to be wifhed, for the benefit of the poor, that the office were 
multiplied, and ftridly enforced. 

Such are the chief magiftrates in the country. Cities and towns are 
generally ruled by a mayor and aldermen, or by fimilar officers, under 
different appellations, whofe juridical power little exceeds that of the 
juftices of peace. If a town fend members to parliament, it is denomi- 
nated a borough. The villages are chiefly under the authority of the 
lord of the manor, who holds courts, and retains many relics of feudal 
jurifdidion , and, in the words of a well-informed writer, " Every 
" little village hath almoft an epitome of monarchical government ; pf 
" civil and ecclefiaftical polity within itfelf ; which, if duly retained, 
" would render us a very happy people'." 

To enumerate the various punifhments inflidled- by the laws of 
England, would be an unneceffary tafk. It has been juftly obferved 

• Chamberl. 129. 

that 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



53 



that they are too fanguinary, and that their frequency diminiflies the Govern- 
intended purpofe of imprefling terror. If death were only inflidled in "^nt. 
cafes of murder, the relaxation would be found beneficial to the commu- 
nity. As man is an animal reared with confiderable difficulty, and 
may generally be rendered ufeful, it would certainly be preferable to fend 
criminals for life to the new and diftant Afiatic fettlements, than, by the 
wafte of blood to leffen ftrength and population. 

The population of England has generally been eftimated at eight Population, 
millions ; but fome writers raife it to a greater amount. That of the 
capital alone has been fwelled to a million, though reduced by more 
precife calculations to about feven hundred thoufand '*. It is to be 
hoped that the furveys of the feveral counties, commenced by the 
board of agriculture, and the recent parliamentary enquiries, will fpeedi- 
ly beftow more precifion upon the ftatiftic economy of the country. 
Sufficient materials do pot yet arife for exadt enumeration of the va- 
rious clafles of inhabitants, a moft important barometer of the political 

ftate t. 

To 



• See MiJdIeton's Middlefei, p. 45'l. 

f Towards the beginning of the laft century, Gregory King, an able political calculator, drew 



up the following table of the ranks o 


if perfons in England. 


It muft be prtmifed, 


that he has fol- 


lowed an exceptionable mode, in incl 


uding the domeftics in the families of each ran 


ic, whereas male 


and female fervants ought to have formed a 


clafs apart. 






R^aks. 




Number of 
Families. 


each. 


er of Peffons. 


Spiritual Lords 


- 


26 


20 


520 


Temporal Lords 


- 


160 - 


40 


6,4:0 


Knights - - 


- 


600 


»3 


7,800 


Baronets 


- 


800 


16 


12,800 


Eminent clergymen 


- 


2,000 


6 


12,000 


Eminent merchants 


. 


2,000 


8 


16,000 


Efquires 


. 


3,000 


10 


30,000 


Gentlemen 


1" 


12,000 


8 


96,000 


Military officers 


- 


4,000 


4 


16,000 


Naval officers 


. 


5,000 


4 


20,000 


Perfons in lefler offices 


. 


5.0C0 


6 


33,000 


Perfons In higher officej 


- 


5,000 


8 


40,000 


Lefler clergymen 


- 


8,000 


5 


40 oco 


Lefler merchants 


^ 


8,000 


6 

Carried over 


48,000 

375,500 



Perfons 



54 

PoFt'LA- 
TION. 

Colonies. 



ENGLAND. 

To the enumeration of the inhabitants of England, may be added 
many exterior colonies and fettlements, the moft important of which 
are now in Afia ; but as the climate of Hlndoftan is rather adverfe to 
European conftitutions, it may be doubted whether our fettlements 
there thou^^h containing a confideiable population, can be confidered 
as permanent colonies. The natives fubjeft to Great Britain cannot 
be now calculated at lefs than forty millions, in itfelf an empire. The 
' acquifition of the Dutch fettlements, the colony of New Holland, and 
more minute ftations muft alfo be taken into the account. In Ame- 
rica, and what is called the Weft Indies ; Canada, Nova Scotia, New- 
foundland, and the more northern fettlements, with Jamaica, and the 
other iflands, may perhaps contain a million. In Africa, the Settle- 
ments, at the Cape of Good Hope, the Ifland of St. Helena, and at 
Sierra Leone, prefent an infignificant number, and Gibraltar is rather 
to be regarded as a military ftation. If we compute the North Ame- 

Ranks. 
Brought forward . 
Perfons in the law 
Perfons of the liberal arts 
Freeholders of the better fort 
Shopkeepers and tradefmen 
Artizans 

Freeholders of the leffer fort 
Farmers _ _ _ 

Gipfies, thieves, beggars, &c. 
Common foldiers _ . 
Common failors 
Labourers and out-fervants 
Cottagers and paupers 



It is now fuppofed that near 1,600,000 perfons arc employed in manufaflures, and Mr. Young 
{Northern Tour, vol. iv. p. 364.) computes that 2,800,000 are occupied in farming. The number 
of domcftics allowed by King, might be in part computed, by reducing the fuperior families to 
four. The number of paupers and beggars, who, in faiS, detraft from the national ftrength, can 
now fcarcely be fuppofed lefs than a million. The failors and foldiers amount to about 400,000. 
The ftiopkeepers are perhaps triple. With thcfe additions, &c. it would be eafy to fwell the lift 
to our prefent fuppofed population of eight millions. The reader may alfo confult Mr. Grellier's 
table of the produftive and unprodu<?^ive clafles, in the Monthly Magazine, vol. x. p. 27 ; but as 
he eftimates the population of England at only five millions and a half, his aflumptlons cannot be 
entirely credited, while fome late writers, on the contrary, increafe the population of England alone 
to eleven millions ! 

rican 



Number of 
Families. 




Heads in 
each. 


Number of Perfoi 


- 


- 




- 


375.500 


I 0,000 


- 


7 


- 


70,000 


I 5,000 


- 


5 


- 


75,000 


40,000 


- 


7 


- 


280,000 


50,000 


■ - 


4i 


- 


225,000 


60,000 


- 


4 


- 


240,000 


1 20,000 


- 


5i 


- 


660,000 


150,000 


- 


5 


- 


750,000 


— 


- 


— 


- 


30,000 


35,000 


- 


2 


- 


70,000 


50,000 


- 


3i 


- 


150,000 


564,000 


- 


3 


- 


1,274,000 


400,000 




3 




1,300,000 




5,499,520 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



55 



rican States, detached from the mother country, at a population of five 
millions, England at feven, Scotland at two, Ireland three, and our 
' colonies and fettlements at two millions, we fhall find in the various 
regions of the globe an increafing population of nineteen or twenty- 
millions, diffufing the Englifli language and manners to a vaft extent. 

The army of England has latterly engrofled a confiderable fliare 
of the population. It is eftimated in regulars at 41 regiments of 
cavalry, and 144 of infantry, while the fencibles form 45 regiments, 
and the militia 86, exclufive of artillery and engineers'. The effeElive 
rank and file, including invalids, militia, and foreign corps, as well as 
the regular and fencible troops, was returned to the fecretary of war, in 
December, iSoo, as amounting to 168,082. The volunteer corps in 
Great Britain and Ireland, may probably amount to 60,000 effedive men*. 

But the great rampart, and fupreme glory of Great Britain, confift 
In her navy ; in fize, ftrength, and number of fhips, far exceeding any 
examples on record. If abundance of documents did not exift, the 
following genuine lift would fcarcely be credited by pofterity. 

Statement of the Dtflribiithn of the Britifh Naval Force, exclufive of the hired armed VeJTels, 
which are chief y employed in protcSling the Coafing Trade of Great Britain. 



Popula- 
tion. 



Army. 



Navy. 



Navy Liftp 
Jan. I Sou 



In Port and fitting • - - 

Guard Ships - - - - 

In-the Englifh and Irifh Channels 

In the Downs and North Seas 

At tlie Weft India Iflands, and on the paiTage 

At Jamaica - ... 

In America, and at Newfoundland 

Cape of Good Hope, Eaft Indies, and on the paflage. 

Coafl of Africa - - . . 

Coail of Portugal, Gibraltar, and Mediterranean - 

Hofpital and Prifon Ships - - - 

Total in CommifTion 
Receiving Ships - - - 
Serviceable, and repairing for fervice 
In ordinary - - - 
Building .... 

Total 


Line. 


Fiflies. 


Frigates 

46 

I 

26 

17 
2 1 
22 

4 

20 

I 

53 

1 


Ships, &c. 


Total. 


27 

4 

33 

9 

1 

5 
2 

10 



16 

16 


7 

1 
I 


I 



8 


2 
I 


98 

45 
36 
24 
12 
5 

'9 
3 

2S 



178 

5 
105 

63 
46 
40 
11 
57 
4 
99 
'5 

626 

>7 

3 

114 

.27 

787 


'23 

\ 

44 

'7 


21 

I 


3 

2 


212 

7 

23 

8 

251 


270 




44 



^9^ 


i7 


3'4 



' Army Lift, Jan. i8ci. 

*So the daily papers, ) ct by the fame authority, the fecretary of war, on the i6t!j Feb. i3oi, 
computed the regu'ars at 193, 1R7 ; militia, 78,040; fencibles 31,415 ; in all, 302,642. The ex- 
pence near thirteen millions ! This computation, though including Ireland, feems exaggerated. 

1 " To 



56 



ENGLAND. 



Pori'LA- To this may be fubjo'ined the Illl: of captures from the feveral hoflllc 

•■rioN, &c. powers, from the commencement of the war, to January iSoi, after 

premifing that many of them were ah-eady included in the above ftate 

of the navy : 







Line. 


Fifties. 


FrigJtes. 


Ships, &c. 


Total. 


French 


- 


54 


2 


•37 


H5 


338 


Spanifh 


- 


8 


O 


1 + 


31 


53 


Dutch 


" 


I? 


8 

10 


32 


32 


^9 




79 


1S3 


208 


480 


Privateers of all 


nations 


- 


- 


- 


iSz 



Grand total - 1312 

For this immenfe fleet, the number of feamen annually voted, 
amounts from a hundred to a liundred and twenty thoufand ; a num- 
ber almoft incredible, and which no other country, ancient or modern, 
could have fupplied. In China, indeed, half of the inhabitants may be 
faid to live on the water, but in fkill, fpirit, and enterprize, are far in- 
ferior to Britifh feamen. 
JJavai Power. The naval power of Great Britain, conftitutes fo ftriking and impor- 
tant a feature in the national portrait, that it merits particular illuftra- 
tion. Even in the Saxon times we find confiderable fleets mentioned 
of the fmall veflels then in ufe. One of the Northumbrian monarchs 
afl'embled a numerous fleet near Jarro, the monaflery of Beda, in an . 
extenfive haven of the time, now become a fait marfh. About the 
year 882, we find that Alfred diredled a powerful fleet againft the 
Danifh invaders ' ; but it is to be regretted that the early writers have 
not been more particular with regard to the number and form of the 
vefl"els. The fleet of Edgar is alio celebrated ; but the author of the 
Saxon Chronicle aflures us, that the armament of Ethelred I[, 
in the year 1009, exceeded any which England had ever before beheld ; 
and as William of Malmefbury computes that of Edgar at four hundred 
veflels, this may probably have amounted to five hundred of the fmall 
ihips then known. But the devaftations of the Danes and Normans 
occafioned fuch a decline in the naval power of England, that Richard I. 

3 Sec AfTer Vita Alf. St. Croix, Hift. de la pwifance navale de I'Angleterre, Paris ijkS, 
2 volj. 8to. 

5 was 



CRAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 57 

v.-as obliged to have recourfe to foreign veflels for his crufade. In the Nwau 
reign of John we, for the firft time, find commemorated a fignal "^'^'^• 
victory of the EngUfh and Flemings, over the French fleet of Pliilip 
Auguflus, which was computed at feventeen hundred fliips, or ratlicr 
boats \ The Englidi monarch John, infolent in profperity, mean in 
adverfuy, in the pride of his triumph, was the firll who ordered the 
SALUTE to be paid by foreign veflels to the national flag. The fleet 
of England thenceforth continued to be always refpedable, and gene- 
rally vidlorious. In the reign of Edward III, it had acquired fuch 
pre-eminence, that in his gold coin, the tirfl: fliruck in England, he ap- 
pears in a fhip, the fymbol of commerce and maritime power; but 
the preponderance of the Englifli armaments, over thofe of France, 
only became permanent and decifive, a little more than a century ago, 
after the battle of La Flogue, Spain had yielded the conteft fince the 
deft;ru(flion of her great armada ; and Holland had been greatly re- 
duced in the naval conflids under Charles II, fo that no other rival re- 
mained, and Great Britain maintains a fiixed fuperiority over the ocean. 
In the mechanifm of fliips, the French builders certainly excel ; but, 
in the foul of fhips, fpirited, alert, and fkilful feamen, no country can 
pretend to vie with Great Britain. The progrefs in number of veflTels 
has been more rapid in this reign, than at any former period, as may 
appear from the comparative ftatement in the note, which inckides every 
military vefl!el, from the firfl; rate to the frigate '. 

The fpecial fuperintendance of the navy, h committed to the board 
of admiralty, compofed of admirals of known flcill, and of peers, whofe 
impartiality generally regards merit alone in this important fervice. 

* Near Dam, in Flanders, A. D. 1213. Damme, now inland, a league N. E. of Bruges, was 

formerly a maritime town, and the Tea wafhed its walls. Gulcc. Differ. Belg. 

^ Under James II. - -173 

William HI. - - 273 

Anne - - - 284 

George I, in 1721 - - 206 

George II, in 1734 " ' ^°^ 

174.6 • - 276 

1755 - - 241 

George III, 1762 - - 343 

1801 - - 787 

VOL. I, J The 



58 ENGLAND. 

Naval The rcccnt conduct of maritime war, has been crowned with diftin- 
PowEK. guiftied fuccefs ; and whilft the admirals muft be allowed to rival any 

names in naval hiftory, ancient or modern, the fame of Spencer has 

become as dear to patriotifm as to literature. 

Before the revolution, the impreffing of men was legal, even for the 
land fervice ; and in more early times, many forms of requifition were 
ufual, workmen were impreflfed to build royal caftles, artifts for their 
decoration, and even fmging boys for the chapel. Amidft a wide dif- 
fufion of liberty, and that individual fecurity which is the moft home- 
felt blefling of our conftitution, it has been found impoffible to abandon 
the impreffing of feamen. The army naturally fupports itfelf, for war, 
"by producing a flagnation of manufadlures, raifes a fijpply of foldiers ; 
but the feamen muft be trained and inured to their peculiar element 
and profeffion ; and the fervice being abfolutely indifpenfable, it be- 
comes a meafure of political neceffity to enforce it, if not offered vo- 
luntarily. This unavoidable additional hardfliip upon a clafs of men,, 
fubjedt to fo many toils and deprivations, is deeply to be regretted ; 
and every endeavour fhould in juftice be exerted, to render their fitua- 
tion as comfortable as poffible, and to impart to them a fhare of the 
national opulence, which their vigour fo zealoufly protedls. 

In ancient times, the royal revenue chiefly arofe from the domains 
or lands appropriated to the crown ; from amerciaments civil and cri- 
minal, which pafled to the fife, or treafury ; and from cuftoms on goods 
imported and exported. As in war each foldier was obliged to main- 
tain himfelf for a certain time, the expenditure was not much in- 
creafed. Upon extraordinary emergencies, it appears that a contri- 
bution was raifed by the confent of the national council. In later 
periods, fubfidies were granted to the amount of a fifteenth, or a tenth, 
on the landed income, and a proportionable rate on moveable goods. 
As fociety advanced, taxes began to be impofed on the materials them- 
felves ; and from a fmall plant an enormous tree has arifen, with a 
labyrinth of roots, which, in the opinion of fome politicians, under- 
mine the ifland, while others believe that they only produce a more 
firm confolidation. 

The 



Revenue. 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 59 

The excife. forms one of the mofl produdtive branches of the revenue, p^evenues. 
amounting to between feven and eight millions. Next ftand. the 
cuftoms, which produce about half that fum. The ftamps and inci- 
dental taxes, as they ai'e termed, arife to near three millions. The 
land tax has been recently rendered perpetual, and fold to the proprie- 
tors of eftates, and other individuals, a meafure which has had a favour- _^j.- 
able efFeft in raifing the price of /locks. But inftead of the land tax, 
now appear tliofe on fugar, tobacco, and malt, amounting to 2,750,000/.; 
other fupplies arife from the Eaft India Companv, lotteries, &c. In 
addition to all thefe, the income tax is fuppofed to yield 7,500,000/., 
and if rendered perpetual, might fwell the permanent revenue to 25 or 
26,000,000/. But, in the year 1799, it was fuppofed that the addi- 
tional fums raifed by loans, &c. fwelled the national expenditure to near 
60,000,000/. fterling *. 

Of the permanent taxes, the greater part is employed in difcharging 
the intereft of the national debt, which, after the American war, 
arnounted to more than 239,000,000/. while the intereft exceeded 
9,000,000/ f. At prefent the national debt is about 480,000,000/. and 
the intereft about 19,000,000/. To alleviate this growing burthen, a 
fmking fund was inftituted in 1786, by which between 20 and 
30,000,000/. may be confidered as already redeemed. 

The national debt began in the reign of William, and grew into 
what have been called the funds, or ftocks, only fynonymous terms for 
the public debt J. 

The taxes have not only increafed the expence of every article of 
life, but have of courfe fo enormoufly fwelled the dil"burfements of war, 
that perhaps in a fhort time it may become too dear a game, even for 
princes. During peace the national expences are greatly reduced. 

* For 1801, the minlfter computed it at 42,268,000/. ;.but the real amount was not capable of 
being forefeen. 

■f In 1790, the national debt was 247,981,927/. ; the intereft and charges of management, 
9469,117/. 

-^ See Mortimer on the ftocks, where the reader will find a curious account of ftock-jobbiiig, 
or buying againft time, a fpecies of gambling. In public loans, ib. 172, the engager commonly 
gains 10 per cent, while the laws againft ufury are only put in force in private tranfaftions. 
Hence new loans are greedily filled. 

I 2 The 



IJOIIS. 



60 ENGLAND. 

Revenues. The civil lift, from which are defrayed the falaries of officers of ft^te^ 
judges, ambaffadors, &c. together with the expences of the royal^ fa?, 
mily, amounts to about 1,000,000/. annually. 
Political im- With fuch a prodigious command of national treafure, the political 
and Rela- importance and relations of Great Britain, may be faid to be diffufed 
over the world, for wherever money Influences man, there may her 
power be perceived. The union of Scotland with England, delivered 
the latter country from the perpetual check, exercifed by politIcians> 
ancient and modern, that of exciting an enemy from behind, and there- 
by dividing the power of an antagonift. That with Ireland, if pre- 
ferved by wife and lenient meafures, muft alfo impart additional 
energy. The moft important political confiderations, are thofe be- 
tween Great Britain and France. It feems hardly reconcileable 
to humanity, or to any idea of divine benevolence, to ftyle 
any country the natural enemy of another : but human affairs, 
alas, are feldom condu(3:ed with pure benevolence and humanity, and 
cannot poffibly be, till all nations become benevolent and humane. 
If France muft not be ftyled the natural enemy of Great Britain, fhe 
has, for many centuries, been a conftant and jealous rival ; eagerly em- 
bracing every opportunity to leflen Britifh profperity and power ; aa 
impulfe which will probably continue till all men fhall become philo- 
fophers ; or, in other words, fhall be ruled by the maxims of univerfal, 
reafon ; a perfedtion too vifionary to be expe£led, as man. In all 
ages and climates, and under whatever forms of government, has ever 
been found to be chiefly influenced by his habits and paflions. Such 
being the cafe, it has ever been regarded as the political intereft of 
England, to balance and divide the enmity of France, by a ftri£l al- 
liance with fonve limitaneous ftate. In this point of view even Savoy 
has been found ufeful, though its power be only adequate to a flight 
diverfion. Nor are the German ftates bordering on France, Swabia, 
and the two Circles of the Rhine, nor even Switzerland itfelf, capable of 
much exertion. Hence it might feem that found policy would didtate 
as complete a confolldation of German power, as could be effeded, in 
order to give a decided and vigorous check to that of France from behind. 
The poflefl^ion of the Netherlands by the powerful Houfe of Auftria, 

was 



CHAP. n. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 6i 



TICAl, 



ANCc AND 

T10.\ S. 



was certainly of great moment to the £ifety of Great Britain, efpecially Pot, 
fince Spain and Holland have fallen into decline. The latter country I-'port 
prefents, however, a conne(£l;ion of fuperlative importance to England, Rhla 
being her grand mart of trade with the Continent. Ruflia, a moft power- 
ful monarchy, though once drawn into the vortex of the prefent grand 
commotion, is too remote to afford lafting afliftance ; but her amity is 
valuable in a commercial view, and as flie might, by no great ftretch of 
oriental power, detach an army into Hindoftan, and overturn our opu- 
lent pofl'eflions. An alliance with Pruflia has ever been regarded as 
defirable, though not of fuch confequence againft France as that with 
Auil:ria, The connedion with Portugal has been enforced by mutual 
advantages of commercial intercourfe *; and by the family compa£t be- 
tween France and Spain. As to Denmark and Sweden, their friendihip 
or enmity is little momentous; but as Sweden has long maintained a 
ftri£l connedion with France, it is moft natural that Britain fliould ba- 
lance it, by cultivating that of Denmark. 

Such feem to have been the leading ideas of political writers, con- 
cerning the chief relations to be maintained by the Britifh empire. 

* Firmly eflablifhed by the Methven treaty, 1703. Tliefe confiderations were written before 
the connedion of RuiCa, Sweden, Denmark, and Pruflia, with France. 



62 ENGLAND. 



TOMS,. 



CHAPTER III. 

Civil Geography. 

Manners and Ciijloms — Language. — Literature. — The Arts. — Education. — Uni- 
■verfities. — Cities and Towns. — Edifices. — Roads, — -Inland Navigation. — 
Manvfadures and Commerce. 

Manners HpHE fingularity of manners in England, has often excited the fur- 
AND Cus- X pjj^e of foreigners, and the attention of our own ethic writers, 
who have attempted to deduce the fources from moral and phyfical 
caufes ; eftimating as the firft, the freedom diftufed over the country, 
which permits the indulgence of individual inclination ; and recurring 
for the latter, to the perpetual variations of the climate, producing ef- 
fedls of eledtric fympathy on the animal fpirits. 

The confideration of national manners may be conveniently referred 
to four divifions : i. Birth, marriage, death; 2. diet j 3. houfes and 
drefs ; 4. amufements. 

The ceremonies of baptifm, marriage, and burial, admitting of few 
variations in mofl Chriftian countries, it becomes unneceflary to con- 
fider that divifion. The Englifh are generally efteemed to exceed in 
the ufe of animal food ; but, after the recent importations of French 
emigrants of all clafTes, this pofition begins to be doubted. If ftomachic 
difeafes be really more frequent than in other countries, they may more 
juftly be afcribed to our potations of heavy malt liquor, which defervedly 
flrike foreigners as a fingularity in Englifli diet. Even our lightefl 
liquors of that fort have not efcaped their remark ; for a late French 
traveller has obferved, that the Englilh commonly drink at their meals 
a fort of medical ptlfan, which they call fviall beer. Our anceftors 
prided themfelves in the variety and richnefs of their ales, and old 
writers enumerate many forts, as Cock, Stepney, Stitchback, Hull, 
Derby, Northdown, Nottingham, Sandbach, Betony, Scurvy-grafs, 

5 • Sage- 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 6j 

Sage-ale, College- ale, Chirla-ale, Butler's-ale, &c. ', nor even* at prefent Manners 
do we refufe praile to the various qualities of our Burton'^ Dorchefter, .r,j„s. 
Taunton, Scottifh, an-l other ales. But the moft peculiar malt beverage 
is porter, which ought to be folely coinpoled of brown or high-dried 
malt, hops, liquorice, and fugar, but is fometimes debafed by other 
ingredients : that of London is particularly famous, and is an article of 
exportation, being efteemed a luxury on the banks of the Delaware 
and the Ganges. Punch was, another national liquor, compofed of 
fpirits, water, acids, and fugar, but its ufe is now in the decline, 
though the late Dr. Cullen efteemed it a falutary potation, in a molft 
and variable climate. The prodigious confumption of tea is another 
peculiar feature, the ufe of that plant being rare in other European 
countries ; to phlegmatic conftitutions it may be beneficial, but among 
the common clafles, its enervating powers are often attempted to be 
corredled by the uie of fpirituous liquors. The latter bane has been 
long known in'Ruflia, and other northern kingdoms, but in the milder 
climes of Great Britain and Ireland, is deftruAive of the health and 
morals of the people. The legiflature has been often forced to inter- 
pofe to prevent the growth of drunkennefs, wretchednefs, and vice j 
and it is to be wifhed, that a late committee of the houfe of commons 
had fandlioned a motion that was made to reftridt fpirituous liquors to 
their ancient boundaries, the fhops of the chymifts. It was objeded, 
that by private diftillation and fmuggling, the evil would continue, 
without yielding any revenue ; but the prohibition muft have made a 
deep and falutary impreffion, and the contagion muft have been re- 
ftri£ted to far narrower bounds. In all events, it is the moral duty of 
the legiflature to increafe the price of fpirits almoft to prohibition, and 
to withdraw taxation from malt liquor, which ought to remain a ftout 
and cordial beverage for the poor. 

The fimplicity of the Englifli cookery, ftrikes foreigners as much as 
that of the drefs, which, even among the great, is very plain, except 
on the days of court gala. A Frenchman drinks his wine during dinner, 
but the late Mr. Gibbon has remarked ', that the luxury of a daily table 

' Chatnbeil. 191. » Poaii. Works. 

in 



64 ENGLAND. 

MANNERf in England, permits a gentleman to tafte half a dozen foits of wine 
ToMii'^^" during dinner; and to drink his bottle of claret afterwards. The red 
wine of Portugal is, however, a greater favourite than that of France, 
as its aftringent and antifeptic qualities, ar€ found highly falutary in a 
moift climate. A late French traveller ^ has remarked, that the Engllfh 
knov/ not the proper ufe of coffee ; but will fwallow feveral cups of a 
brown water, inftcad of one cup of the real ftrong coffer, drank in 
other countries. 

The houfes in England are peculiarly commodious, neat, and 
cleanlv •; and domeftic architecture, feems here arrived at its greateft 
perfection. The drefs, as has been before obferved, is rather plain 
and neat, than 'fplendid, a praife which alfo applies to that of the 
ladies, who have now abandoned the tight form fo prejudicial to health, 
and have affumed much of the Giecian eafe and elegance. 

The amufements of the theatre and of the field, and various games 
of fkill or chance, are common to moft nations. The baiting of bulls 
and bears is, it is believed, nearly difcontinued ; one of the moft pe- 
culiar amufements of the common people, is the ringing of long peals, 
with many changes, which deafen thofe who are fo unhappy as to live 
in the neighbourhood of the church. 

Prior to the middle of the fixteenth century, the Englifti and French 
were regarded as barbarous nations by the more poliftied Italians. The 
reign, and female blandifhments of the court of Elizabeth, feem to have 
had a wonderful effect in civilizing the manners. The tranfition has 
been well pourtrayed by an ancient writer, whofe fimple language, 
given in modern orthography, may perhaps amufe the reader. 

" There are old men yet dwelling in the village where I remam, 
" who have noted three things that are marveloufly altered in Eng- 
■" land within their found remembrance. One is the multitude of 
" chlmnles lately ereded ; whereas in their young days there were 
" not above two or three, if fo many, in many uplandifh towns of the 
" realm, (the religious houfes, and manor places of their lords, always 
" excepted, and peradventure fome great perfonages,) but each one 
" jnade his fire againft a rere dojfe in the halJ, where he dined and 

3 St. Fond. Paffim. 

- " dreffed 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 65 

" clreflfed his meat. The fecond is the great amendment of lodging ; N|akni;rs 
for, faid they, our fathers, and we ourfelves, have lain full oft upon !jo°s. 
ftraw -pallets, covered only with a flieet, under coverlets made of 
dagfwa'tn or hopharlots^ (I ufe their own terms,) and a good round 
log under their heads, inftead of a bolder. If it were fo that our 
fathers, or the good man of the houfe, had a mattrafs or flock bed, 
and thereto a fack of chaff to reft his head upon, he thought himfelf 
" to.be as well lodged as the lord of the town, fo "well were they con- 
" tented. Pillows, faid they, were thought meet only for women in 
" child-bed. As for fervants, if they had any fheet above them, it 
" was well, for feldom had they any under their bodies, to keep them 
*' from the pricking ftraws that ran through the canvas, and raifed 
" their hardened hides. 

" The third thing they tell of, is the exchange of wooden platters 
" into pewter, and wooden fpoons into filver or tin. For fo common 
" were all "forts of wooden veflels, in old time, that a man fhould 
" hardly find four pieces of pewter, (of which one was peradventure 
a falt-feller,) in a good farmer's houfe ; and yet, for all this frugality, 
if it may fo be juftly called, they were fcarce able to live and pay 
their rents at their days, without felling of a cow, or a horfe, or more, 
" although they paid but four pounds at the uttermoft, by the year. 
*' Such alio was their poverty, that if a farmer, or hufbandman, had 
" been at the alehoufe, a thing greatly ufed in thofe days, amongft fix 
" or feven of his neighbours, and there, in a bravery, to fhew what 
" ftore he had, did caft down his purfe, and therein a uoble, or fix 
" {hillings in filver, unto them, it is very likely that all the reft would 
" not lay down fo much againft it ; whereas, in my time, although 
*' peradventure four pounds of old rent be improved to torty or fitty 
" pounds, yet will the farmer think his gains very fmall, toward the 
*' midft of his term, if he have not fix or feven years rent lying by him 
" therewith to purchafe a new leafe ; befides a fair garnifli of pewter 
*' on his cupboard, three or four feather-beds, as many coverlids, and 
" carpets of tapeftry, a filver falt-feller, a bowl for wine, if not a whole 
" neft, and a dozen of fpoons to furnifh up the fuit. This alio he 
*' taketh to be his own clear j for what ftock of money foever he ga- 
VOL. I. K " thereth 



66 ENGLAND. 

MANNER'S " thereth in all his years, it is often feen that the landlord will take fuch 
TOMS. "^' " order with him for the fame, when he reneweth his leafe (which is 
" commonly eight or ten years before it be expired, fince it is now 
" grown almofl: a cuftom, that if he come not to his lord fo long be- 
" fore, another fhall ftep in for a reverfion, and fo defeat him outright,) 
" that it fhall never trouble him more than the hair of his beard, when 
" the barber hath wafhed and fhaven it from his chin*." 

This remarkable change in the reign of Elizabeth, was carried, as 
ufual, to the oppofite extreme ; and the fame author loudly execrates 
the contemporary luxury of attire. " I have met," fays he, " with 
" fome in London fo difgulfed, that it hath paffed my fkill to difcern, 
*' whether they were men or women." He adds, " neither was it ever 
*' merrier with England, than when an Englifhman was known by his 
*' own cloth ; and contented himfelf with his fine car/ie hofe, and a 
" mean flop (trowfers) ; his coat, gown, and cloak, of brown, blue, 
*' or puce, with fome pretty furniture of velvet or fur, and a doublet 
*' of fad-tawney, or black velvet, or comely filk ; without fuch garifli 
" colours as are worn in thefe days, and never brought in but by the 
*' confent of the Fsrench, who think themfelves the gayefl men, when 
" they have moil diverfity and change of colours about them." 

Under this divifion of geography have been generally arranged what 
are called national charadlers, but which, in fad:, are commonly monu- 
ments of prejudice and injuftice, and particularly noxious to the minds 
of youth. It fhall, therefore, only be remarked, that the cold reftraint 
which fome foreigners have afcribed to the Englifh, has been candidly 
judged by a recent voyager ', to exift only in appearance. A more ge- 
nuine attribute of the Englifh is integrity, which has carried their 
credit and commerce to an extent before unknown in the hiftory 
of nations. 
Language. Moft European languages are derived from the Gothic or the Latin. 

To the Latin origin belong Italian, French, and Spanifh ; to the Gothic, 
the German, Dutch, Flemifh, Danifh, Swedifh, and Norwegian, From 
the fituation of the country, and other caufes, the Englilli participates of 

■♦ Defcription of Britain, in Holinftied's Chronicle, vol. i. fol. 85. ' St. Fond, ton:i. i. p. 61. 

both 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 6; 

both thofe grand fources ; and unites In fome degree the force of the I-incvagi-. 
Gothic with the melody of the Latin dialeds. The ;incient ground, 
and native expreflion, originate from the Gothic divifions of the Belgic, 
Saxon and Daniih ; but particularly from" the Belgic, as will appear 
from comparifon with the Dutch and Friiic. The languages of Latin 
origin, have, however, fupplied a vaft wealth of words, fometiraes 
neceffary, fometimes only adopted becaufe they are more fonorous, 
though not fo emphatic as the original Gothic. There is no evidence 
of the exiftence of Celtic words in our language, whatever fome anti- 
quaries have imagined, for the words they indicate may alfo be found 
in Iceland, a country never peopled by the Celts. 

Numerous manufcripts exift, written in the i\nglo-Saxon, or Old 
Englifh language, and one of its moft claffic authors, is the great Alfred 
himfelf. It appears from many works, written long after the conqueft, 
that the French language, though colloquial among the great, fcarcely 
imparted any tinge to the national tongue. The conquefts of 
Edward III, in France, and other circumftances not proper to be here 
difcufled, effetSled in the fourteenth century, a change in vain attempted 
-by the Norman conqueror. Chaucer, who wrote at that period, pre- 
fents almofl; the tirft rude dawn of what may be termed the Englifli 
language. In the fame century, that enterprifing traveller. Sir John 
Mandeville, fupplies one of the firft fpecimens of Englifh profe : as he 
was a man of fome fcience for that time, has interfperfed feveral words of 
Latin origin ; and his book was much adapted to public curiofity, he 
may with fome juftice be regarded in the new light of a father of the 
Englifh' language. Gower, the poet, rather preceded Chaucer ; and 
ferves to evince, that Chaucer did not introduce any innovations, but, ' 
as may well be fuppofed, wrote in the language of his time. 

In the fucceeding century, the fpeech had made fuch rapid advances, 
that even as early as the reign of Henry VI, we find it vary very little 
from that of the reign of Henry VIII. There are papers preferved by 
Rymer and others, written in the reign of Henry VI, and compofed 
with a force und precifion which may appear furprifmg. The works 
of Fortefcue, in the following reign of Edward IV, are not only 

K 2 didated 



68 ENGLAND. 

Lakguage. diaated by excellent fenfe ; but, fetting afide the orthography, might 
even be perufed by the common reader. 

In the reign of Elizabeth, a century after, the Englifh language had 
acquired fuch copioufnefs, dignity, force, and melody, that, perhaps, 
in the eye of very diftant pofterity, moderns may be fuppofed never 
to have exceeded ; what is gained in elegance, being generally loft in 
power. Sydney's defence of poefy, may be regarded as a good 
fpecimen of Englifli profe ; not to mention Hooker's Ecclefiafti- 
cal Polity, and other large works of that period, which continue to be 
read and admired. The common tranflation of the Bible, is a noble 
fpecimen of the dignified profe of the following reign ; beyond which 
it is unneceffary to conduft this fketch, as our libraries abound with the 
fucceeding publications. 

The conftrudion of the Engliflh language is peculiar, and renders the 
ftudy of it very difficult to foreigners. The German, and other Gothic 
dialers, prefent declenfions of nouns, and other correfpondencies with 
the Latin ; while in the Englifh all fuch objeds are accompliflied by 
prefixes. Anomalies alfo abound, and are too deeply rooted, ever to 
be eradicated by grammatical rules. Further remarks would be foreign 
to the plan of this work, which however requires occafionally fhort 
fpecimens of the various languages of the globe, to enable the reader to 
jud"-e of the relative origins of nations : for this purpofe the Lord's 
Prayer is generally chofen, which fhall here be given in Anglo-Saxon, 
and in modern Englifh. 

Uren fader tliic arth in Heofnas. Sie gehalgud thin noma. To cymeth thin Rye. Sie thin 
wiUa, fue is in Heofnas and in eortho. Uren hlaf oferwiftlic fel us to daeg. And forgeve us 
fcyld'a urna fue we forgefan fcyldgum urum. And no inlead ufig in cullnung. Ah gefrig ufich 
from ifle. Amen. 

Our father which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name ; thy kingdom come ; thy will be done 
on earth as it is in heaven ; give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our debts as we forgive 
our debtors ; and lead us not into temptatioc, but deliver us from evil. Amen. 

Literature. Englifti literature Is a vaft and inviting theme, but a few fugitive 

remarks muft here fuffice. Of the traditionary verfes of the Druids, 
no relic probably exifts ; and the Roman conqueft does not appear to 
have inculcated letters with much diffufion, for while we have claffical 

writers 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 69 



TUKE. 



writers of almoft every other European kingdom, fubdued by that great Litera.- 
nation, of France, Spain, and even of Africa j no author of thofe pe- 
riods claims a Britifli origin. The country was feized by the Saxons 
before BritilL literature faintly dawned in Gildas, A. D 560. Irifh 
literature commences about the fame period, and continued for fome 
centuries, to fupply numerous writers in the Latin language, while 
England remained almofl: deflitute. But Beda, in the eighth century, 
redeemed this defe£l, in himfelf a hoft, and like Chaucer, the wonder 
of his time. The Danifli invafions were ruinous to literature, both in 
Great Britain and Ireland, and the great Alfred was obliged to exert 
his utmoft endeavours, in order to reftore fome degree of learning, even 
among the clergy. That admirable prince did not afpire to Latin compo- 
fttion, but tranflated fome works of merit and utility, as the hiftories of 
Orofius and Beda, into the Anglo-Saxon. Aflerius is perhaps the only La- 
tin writer, who can be named between the age of Bedeand the year 1 100, 
if we except a few lives of faints : but the Saxon Chronicle is a noble 
and neglefted monument of this interval, which being the only civil 
Hiftory of England, for a fpace of 400 years, ought to be carefully 
collated with all the manufcripts, and publifhed with all the fplendour 
of typography. About the year iioo, Englifh literature commences 
a firm and fteady pace. A numerous train of hiftorians, poets, and 
other writers, fills the pages of biography. In the fourteenth century, 
Roger Bacon afpires even to the praife of eminent genius. In the fol:- 
lowing century, the civil wars between the houfes of York and Lan- 
carter, were deftrudlive of literature and the arts ; nor will it be eafy to 
name an illuftrlous author of that period, but the introdudion of 
printing in the reign of Edward IV, fornis a memorable epoch. Thg 
writers of the fixteenth, and following centuries, are numerous and 
well known. 

On a comparative view of European literature, it may be obferved 
that the Italians, its firft reftorers, excel in poetry, hiftory, and other 
departments of the Belles Lettres ; but about the year 1600, their tafte 
began to decline, and a mental effeminacy arofe, which is confpicuous- 
in the fantaftic focieties and academies, and in. the extravagant flat- 
teries which every writer thought due in politenefs to another ; the 

teriu 



^^ ENGLAND. 

Lit ERA. ^£''i^"> lUnJlrions becoming as familiar as that of Signior and Madama^ a 
TURK. a wafte of literary fame, which rendered it of no value. The French 

even originally excelled in romance and light poetry, and that pleafing 
and minute fpecies of biography, called memoirs ; they have produced 
few works of original genius, but yield to no nation in fcientific pro- 
du£lions, and. in literary difquifitions, written with good fenfe, preci- 
fion, and accuracy. Spanifh literature forms a vaft treafure, little 
]j:nown to other nations ; and fcarcely any department can be named, 
in which excellent writers do not appear. The native German, 
Danifh, and Swedifli literature, is but of recent celebrity. To com- 
plete the fole intention of this parallel, the grand feature of Englifh 
literature, is original genius, tranfmitted even from Roger Bacon, to our 
Shakefpeares, Miltons, Newtons, and Lockes ; not to dwell here on 
claims more minute, but equally firm. In the fcientific departments, 
England muft yield to France, except in the various branches of ma- 
thematical knowledge, the inftitution of the Royal Society, and the 
genius of Newton, having attradled the greateft talents within their 
fphere, to the negledt of other departments of curious inveftigation. 
The Englifh clergy, who far exceed in learning any other body of that 
defcription in Europe, have always cultivated claflical literature, with 
tliftinguiflied zeal and predilection. 

An old writer obferves, that during the civil war under Charles I, 
there were " more good, and more bad books, printed and publillied in 
" the Englifh tongue, than in all the vulgar languages of Europe *." 
Perhaps Germany may now exceed our lltei-ary efforts; yet more novels 
are fuppofed to be publifhed in England in one month, than in all 
the reft of Europe in a year. Our literary journals, in which we may 
alfo claim a great degree of excellence, may indicate to foreigners, the 
vaft extent of modern Engliih literature. 

The prefent ftate of the arts in England, is worthy of fo opulent and 
refined a country, and the progrefs has been rapid beyond example. 
The late Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, has delineated from the 
papers of the induftrious Vertue, a pleafing and animated pidure of 
the hiftory of the arts in this country. Some faint traces of painting 

* Chamberl, 191. 

occur 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 71 



1 U R E . 



occur in the thirteenth century; but the names and country of the I.itera- 
artlfts do not appear, except that of WilUam of Florence, where the 
art had fahitly begun to revive. In the reign of Edward I, the mag- 
nificent caflles built in Wales, atteft the genius and fkill of the archi- 
tects, while their individual fame is lofl in obfcurity : and towards the 
end of the fourteenth century, rich monuments of architedture and 
fculpture, are interfperfed with fome few remains of painting. The 
Miffals in particular, and other manufcripts, begin to be illuminated 
or adorned with miniature paintings of great luftre ; and as the Gothic 
archited-ure is by fome conceived to have originated from the fhrines 
for relics, fo the larger paintings feem mere amplifications of the ma- 
nufcript miniatures. But while the neighbouring Flanders began to 
difplay many native names, England continued, till the laft century, to 
import her chief painters from abroad, as Holbein, Antonio More, 
Zucchero, Janfen, Mytens, Rubens, Vandyke, Lely, Kneller, &c. &c. 
Yet in miniature and engraving, there were excellent native artifts in 
the feventeenth century ; and in the beginning of that century, an 
eminent native architedl, Inigo Jones. In the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, even the noble architecture of St. Paul's, did not 
redeem the other arts from great decline, till Hogarth inftituted exam- 
ples of ethic and chara£teriftic painting, which have defervedly excited 
the admiration of Europe. His fame as an artift has been eclipfed by 
his inventive genius, but his pi(3:ures of Marriage a-la-Mode, and 
many others, are finilhed with a care, minutencfs, and harmony, worthy 
of an eminent Dutch mafter. The prefent reign has not only been 
diftingullhed by patronage of the arts, but been fortunate in exube- 
rance of artifts of deferved reputation. To enumerate the living might 
be invidious, or occafion fufpicions of partiality, but among t/ie de- 
ceafed may be named Sir Jofhua Reynolds, eminent in hiftory and 
portrait, and by his Icientific difquifitions on the art ; Gainfborouch 
and Wilfon in landfcape, &c. &c. Though in the feventeenth century, 
Faithorne, and one or two others, fhewed great fkill and fpirit in en- 
graving on copper, yet our chief artifts, even in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, were French, till the national fame was railed by Strange, 
Woollet, Worlidge, and others, who have been fucceeded by fuch a 

3- numbeir 



74 



ENGLAND. 



Liter A. 

TORE, 



Education. 



UniTCrfuIes. 



number of excellent artlfts in this department, that England excels 
every country, and the prints executed in London attract univerfal ad- 
miration and imitation. Architecture and Sculpture now alfo boaft of 
many diftinguiflied native names; but in mufic we ftill revere the fuperior 
{kill of the Germans and Italians, though our mafters far excel thofe of 
any othp'- country, and France in particular, where, however the hor- 
rible dixJords fafliionable for 2co years, begin at length to yield to the 
German and Italian tafte. 

In a view of any country, education forms one of the moft important 
topics, as its confequences extend to the eflence and well-being of the 
community. The education of the lower claffes in England, had be- 
come extremely negleded, before the benevolent Inftitution of the 
Sunday fchools. There can be no doubt that where the common 
people are the beft inftruded, there they will be found the moft quiet, 
contented and virtuous ; as they feel a confcious felf refpedt, are ac- 
cuftomed to be treated with regard by each other, and will cheerfully 
extend the fame reverential condu£t towards their fuperiors in the 
favours of fortune. Political theories, being founded merely on ana-. 
lo"-ical reafoning, and no two cafes, climes, nor countries, being pre- 
cifely fmiilar, they become very hazardous in experiment ; but a prac- 
tical eftimate of the advantages of general education, may bfe formed 
by comparing the negleded peafantry of Ireland, with the peaceable 
Highlanders of Scotland, where public fchools exlft in every parifh. 
The middle and higher ranks of Engliih, fpare no expence in the edu- 
cation of their fons, by private tutors at home, or at what are called day- 
fchools and boarding fchools. The former kind in which the mafter 
only attends to mental culture, feems preferable to the latter, which re- 
quires additional cares of the child's health, diverfions, and condadl. 
Our moft eminent public fchools, are thofe of St. Paul's, Weftininfter, 
Eton and Winchefter ; and from them have arifen fouie of the moft 
diftinguiflied ornaments of their country. The fcholars in due time 
proceed to the univerfities of Oxford and Cambridge, foundations of an 
extent and grandeur that imprefs veneration. The number and cEra 
cf the colleges will appear from the following lift. 

Ufiiverjity 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 



7?> 



Univerfity of Oxford. Education. 

I2?)3. Baliol College. — Foundei-, John Baliol, (father of John, King of Scotland,) and his 
wife, Dervorgilla, Cmintefs of Galloway. 

1276. Mertoii College. — Walter Merton, Bifhop of Rochefter. 

1292. Univerfity College. — William. Archdi. aeon of Durham '. 

1316. Exeter College. Walter Stapleton, Bifhop of Exeter. 

1323. Auriell Collejje. — Adam de Brome, Almoner to Edward II. 

1340. Queen's College — Robert Eglesfield, Chaplain to Queen Philippa. 

'379 New College." — William of Wickham. . < 

1438. All Souls. Archbidiop Chicheley. 

J458. Magdalen College. —William of Wainflet. 

I6f3. Braze Nofe. William Smith, Bidiop of Lincoln. 

J516. Corpus Chrifti Richard Fox, Bifhop of W' inchefter. 

1539 Chrift's Church. ^Wolfey and Henry VIII. 

IJ56. Trinity College. — Sir Thomas Pope. 

I557' St John's. — Sir Thomas White. 

1571. Jcfus College. — Dr. Price. 

1613. Wadham. — Nicholas Wadham, Efq. 

1624. Pembroke. — Thomas Tefdale, Efq *. 

There are befides feveral halls, or fmaller colleges, and fome recent 
foundations. The laudable favour of the Oxonians, adores Alfred as 
the founder of what is called the univerfity college, and even affigns 
the date of 886 ; but candid antiquaries affert, that the paffiige in one 
or two old Chronicles, alledged in fupport of this idea, is a manifeft 
interpolation, not to be found in thebeft manufcripts : and though great 
fcbools of divinity may have previoufly exifted at Oxford, fuch were 
alfo known at other places, which lay no claim to the title of univerfity, 

Univerfity of Cambridge. 

1284. Peter-houfe. — Hugh Balfliam, Bifhop of Ely. 

1340. Clare hall. — Elizabuth d. Burg, Countefs of Ulfter. 

1347. Pembroke-hall. Mary de Valentia, Countefs of Pembroke. 

1348 and 1557. Gonville and Caius. — The Doiflors fo named. 

1353. Trinity hall. William Bateraan, Biihop of Norwich. 

1356. Bennet, or Corpus Chrifti. — Henry Duke of Lancailcr. 

1443. King's College. Henry VI. , 

1446. Queen's College.— Margaret ofAnjou. 

1474. Catharine-hall. - Dr. Woodlark. 

1497. Jefus College. - John Alcock, Bifliop of Ely. 

1516. Chrift's College, / nr ^ ^ -_., 

icii. St. John's \ '^"'■g3''^':'Countersof Richmond, Mother of Henry VII. 

1520. Magdp.Ien College. — Thomas, Lord Audley. 

1546. Tr nity College. -Henry VIII. 

1589. Emanuel.— Sir Walter Mildmay. 

1588. Sydney College. — Frances Sydney, Count«fs of Suflex f. 

s Cough's Cam. I. p. 302, &c. ♦Ibid, = Ibid. II. 124, 131. Gray's Poems, Notes. 

VOL. I. L Of ■ 



74 ENGLAND. 

Education. Of the two unlverfities many minute dercriptlons have appeared. 
Oxford is the more majeftic, from the grandeur of the colleges, and 
other public buildings, and the fuperior regularity and neatnefs of the 
ftreets ; but the chapel of King's college, at Cambridge, is fuppofed to 
excel any fmgle edifice of the other univerfity. Both of thofe magni- 
ficent feminaries imprefs every feeling mind with reverential awe, not 
only by their architeftural dignity, but by a thoufand collateral ideas of 
ancient greatnefs and fcience. 

To attain the degree of bachelor of arts, a refidence of twelve terms, 
or three years, is necefl'ary at Cambridge, four at Oxford. In both 
univerfities, three years'^more muft elapfe, before the fcudent can com- 
mence mafter of arts ; after which feven y^rs are required before he 
can become bachelor of divinity j "and four more for the dodlor's 
degree. That of do6lor of laws may be acquired, in feven years after 
he is declared mafter of arts. 

Female education is condudted in England with great elegance and 
expence. Even in the middle ranks of life, young women are gene- 
rally taught mufic and drawing, a plan which furprifes foreigners, who 
feldom teach thefe arts, except in cafes of decided propenfity. They 
are, mdeed, of little or no ufe in future life ; but they enlarge and cul« 
tivate the mind, and ferve to prevent the dangers of idlenefs. 

Cities. ^^ giving a brief account of the chief cities and towns in England, a 

few of the mofl: important fhall be arranged according to dignity, opu- 
lence, and population ; and the others fhall be ftated without preference, 
in a kind of progrefs from the fouth-weft to the north. 

London. London, the metropolis of England, and perhaps the moft populous 

and rich city on the face of the globe, is fituated in an extenfive plain, 
or valley, watered by the Thames, and only confined on the north by 
a few fmall elevations; being a place of great antiquity, and firfl men- 
tioned by Tacitus. It was in former times of far lefs extent, and fur- 
rounded wiih walls, but now includes Southwark, in itfelf a city, on 
the other fide of the Thames, and Weftminfter, another city on the 
weft ; fo that like fome places of ancient geography, it might be named 
Iripolis^ or three cities. The noble river Thames is here about 440 
yards in breadth, and is crowned with three bridges, the moft ancient 

of 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. ys 

of which was formeily covered w^th houfes and fhops, now removed ; Cinns and 
, , . . . . ^ . . ,,-,-, Towns. 

but the mconveniencies it prelents to navigation, cannot be io calily 

remedied. The Thames is crowded with a foreft of marts, and con- 
veys into London the weakh of the globe, forming an excellent port, 
without the danger of expofure to maritime enmity. It is, however, 
a great defed, that inftead of open quays and ftreets, on the banks of 
the ftream, the view is obftrudted, on both fides, by irregular mafles of 
building, which do not even admit of a path. London prefeats almoft 
every variety which diveriihes human exiftence ; upon the eaft it is a 
fea-port replete with mariners, and with the trades connedied with that 
profeflion. In the centre it is the feat of numerous manufadlures, and 
prodigious commerce ; while the weftern, or fafliionable extremity, 
prefents royal and noble- fplendour, amldft fcenes of the higheil luxury, 
and moft ruinous diflipation. 

Few cities can boaft a more falubrious fituation, the fubjacent foil 
being pure gravel, by which advantage, united with extenfive fewers, 
the houfes are generally dry, cleanly, and healthy. Provifions and ■ 
fuel are poured into the capital, even from diftant parts of the 
kingdom, the latter article being coals, from the counties of Northum- 
berland and Durham, transferred by fea, and thence denominated fea- ' 
coal '. The fmoke is efteemed to purify the dampnefs of the air, but 
injures the beauty of the edifices ; the fublime architedure of St. Paul's, 
for inftance, being obfcured by fable weeds. London requires in one 
year 101,075 beeves, 707,456 ' flieep, with calves and pigs in propor- 
tion ; the vegetables and fruits annually confumed in the year, are 
valued at a million fterling'. 

The population of London has by fome been exaggerated to a mil- 
lion of fouls ; but by the moft recent and authentic accounts, it does 
not contain above fix hundred thoufand. Its length from Hyde-park 
Corner on the weft, to Poplar on the eaft, is about fix miles ; the breadth 
unequal, from three miles to one and lefs ; the circumference may be 

^ Mr. Middle-ton, in his View of Middkfex, 1798, fiippofes that half a million of chaldrons 
are yearly confumed in that county. ' 'lb. 411. 

* Ibid. 267. Mr. Pennant, Brit. Zool. iv. 9. fays, 60,000 lobftcrs are annually brought to 
London, from near Montrofe. 

L 2 about 



76 ENGLAND, 

CiTics AND about fixtecn miles. The houfes are almoft univerfally of brick, and 
Towns. ^ifpofed with infipid fimilarity ; but in recompence, moft of the ftreets 
are excellently paved, and have convenient paths for foot-paflengers, 
a mark of refpedl to the common people, almoft unknown to the capi- 
tals on the Continent. Another national feature, is the abundance of 
charitable foundations, for almoft every infirmity and diftrefs incident 
to human nature. The multitude and rich difplay of the fhops im- 
prefs ftrangers with aftonifhment, nor are they lefs furprized at the 
conftant torrent of population rolling through the principal ftreets, nor 
at the fvvarm of carriages at all times crowding all the roads to the capital, 
and the nodurnal illuminations which extend even to four or five miles 
of the environs. Though the impreflion ot the tide be felt as far 
as Staines, the Thames at London, and a confiderable way below, is 
untainted with fait. Its waters are railed by machinery, and conduded 
in innumerable pipes for domeftic ufes, while the parts more remote 
are fupplied with water from fome fmall ponds near Hampftead, and 
from that laudable work of Middleton, the New River, which conveys 
a copious addition from the north. The water of the Thames is faid 
to impart peculiar qualities to the liquor called porter ; but this idea 
perhaps only tends to ftrengthen the monopoly of the London 
brewers. 

The environs of London prefent a fpedacle almoft as grand and In- 
terefting as that of the metropolis itfelf. Extenfive ftreets of villas and 
houfes, are continued in almoft every diredion, within feven or eight 
miles. Yet few of the public edifices in London can pretend to much 
majrnificence. The cathedral of St. Paul's forms one of the chief ex- 
ceptions ; the exterior architedure of this principal cathedral of the 
proteftant faith, being majeftic to a degree of fublimity, but the inte- 
ricr is defcdive in decoration. The tombs recently ordered, in imitation 
of thofe at V/cftminfter, will contribute to obviate this remark. In the 
colonnade, fountains, &c. it yields to St. Peter's at Rome; and, in general, 
the public edifices of London are in dlfadvantageous pofitlons, without 
proper avenues or points of profped. It is furprifing that fountains, or 
jets d'eau, which fo much diverfify the ornaments of a city, though in 
a garden they be puerile, Ihould be almoft unknown in London, ex- 
cept 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. , ^^ 

cent a diminutive fpecimen in one of the courts of the Temple. Weft- Cities and 
niinfter-abbcy may claim the next rank to St. Paill's cathedral, being 
not only in itfelf a grand imprefiive edifice, of the Gothic clafs, but as 
being the ianduaiy of the illuftrlous dead, of all ranks, periods, and ■ 
prbfeffions, from the vidorious monarch down to the humble peda- 
gogue. It was founded by Sebert, King of the Eaft Saxons ; was 
afterwards ruined by the Danes, and re-founded by Edward the Con- 
feflbr, whofe tomb is the moft ancient now remaining. The prelcnt 
edifice was the work of Henry III; and Henry VII added an elegant 
chapel, and his tomb, the work of Torrigiano ; in the vaults under 
this chapel the late monarchs and their offspring have been depofited. 
The body of the edifice is crowded with illuftrious tombs, decreed by 
the nation, or erefted at the expence of individuals ; this part is open 
to general infpedion ; and" others more retired, are difplayed by the 
attendants for a trifling remuneration. Adjacent are the two houfes of 
parliament, and Weftmlnftcr-hall, a vaft room, 230 feet long, and 
70 wide, with a curious cieling of Irlfh oak, and apartments on the fide, 
in which are held the principal courts of juftice. 

The churches and chapels exceed 200 in number, and a few are of 
beautiful architedlure. Some are the produdlions of Inigo Jones ; as is 
alfo the noble banqueting-houfe at Whitehall, v;ith a mafterly cieling 
painted by Rubens, reprefenting the apotheofis of James I. 

Near London-bridge, a pillar of 193 feet elevates his bold front 
above moft of the fpires, and is called the Monument, being deftined 
to commemorate the conflagration of London, in the reign of Charles 
II. The Tower is only venerable from ancient fame ; and remarkable 
for the curiofities which it contains. The new edifice erefied by the 
Company trading to the Eaft Indies, has a confiderable degree 'of ele- 
gance, and fome of the halls of the companies have a refpedlable appear- 
ance. The Bank is a ftrudture of the Ionic order, more remarkable for 
Intrinfic wealth than exterior magnificence. The architeclure of the 
prifon called Newgate is fingularly appropriate. Somerfet Houfe 
prefents an elegant fpecimen of recent architedure, but may, perhaps, 
in future times be found as deficient in folidity as it is at prefent incon- 
venient in the height and fteepnefs of the flairs, and in fome other 

3 rcfpedi. 



78 ENGLAND. 

CiTii s AND refpeds. The terrace of the Adclphi is a plcafmg piece of architedurc, 
Towns. ^^j prefents an interefting profpedl of the river. The Pantheon is an 
elegant edifice, refembUng that at Rome, but dedicated folely to public 
amufements. The royal palace of St. James's is an irregular building, of 
very modefl: afpefl:. The queen's palace, formerly Buckingham-houfe, 
only afpires to elegant convenience, but contains fome valuable paintings, 
and an excellent library,formed folely by the tafle of the reigning monarch. 
The palace of Kenfington prefents an exuberance of valuable pitlures, little 
known, and rarely vifited. The houfes in the Weft end of the town, of 
themfelves fhew the gentle gradations of rank in England, thofe of the 
chief nobility being rarely diftinguifhable from the others ; the more 
remarkable are, Foley-houfe, the Duke of Manchefter's ; the late Mrs. 
Montague's, in Portman fquare ; Chefterfield-houfe; Lord Spencer's, in 
the Green-park ; Marquis of Lanfdowne's, Berkeley-fquare ; Duke of 
Northumberland's at Charing-crofs ; Burlington houfe, with a fine 
colonnade behind the front wall, and thofe of the Duke of Devonfliire 
and the Earl of Bath, all in Piccadilly ; nor muft Cumberland-houfe 
and Carleton-houfe, in Pail-Mall, be forgotten. 

York. Next to the capital in dignity, though not in extent nor opulence, 

is York, which is not only the chief city of a large and fertile province, 
but may be regarded as the metropolis of the North of England. The 
name has been gradually corrupted from the ancient Eboracum, by 
which denomination it w^as remarkable even in the Roman times, for 
the temporary refidence and death of the Roman Emperor, Severus. 
This venerable city is divided by the River Oufe ; and the Gothic 
cathedral is of celebrated beauty, the weftern front being peculiarly 
rich, the chief fpire very lofty, and the windows of the fineft painted 
glafs. York divides with Edinburgh the winter vifits x)f the Northern 
gentry. 

Liverpool. But Liverpool, in Lancafhire, is now generally allowed to approach 

the neareft to London in wealth and population, being the feat of a 
vaft commerce, which has been continually on the increafe, fmce the 
beginning of this century, when it was merely a village. It is firft men- 
tioned in the reign of William the Conqueror ; yet in Leland's time, 
wasnot even a parifh, but had only a chapel, the parifli-church being that 

of 



CHAP. in. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 79 

of Walton. In 1600, Liverpool was admitted to the hicrh honour of Cities and 

1 OWN S 

being conftituted a parifla. In 1710 the dock was conltrudlcd ; and 
the chief merchants came originally from Ireland, a circumftance which 
has given a diftindl tinge to the mannei-s of the town. Tlienceforth 
the progrefs was rapid, and in 1760 the population was computed at 
25,787 fouls". In 1773 they amounted to 34,407, in 1787 to 
56,670 ; at prefent they may be computed at between 70 and 8o,oco. 

The number of (hips which paid dutv at Liverpool, in 1757, was 
1371 ; in 1794 they amounted to 4,265. In the African trade, a 
diftinguifhing feature of Liverpool, there was only one livlp employed 
in 1709 ; in 1792 they amounted to 132. It was computed, that be- 
tween the end of Auguft 1778, and that of April 1779, Liverpool fent 
out no lefs than 170 privateers'". In the recent a£t for the contribu- 
tion of feamen to the royal navy, according to the fhips regiftered in 
each, the ellimate is as follows : 



London, 


5725 


Hull. 


731 


Bri'ftol, 


666 


LiverpooT, 


1711 


Whitehaven, 


700 


Whitby, 


573 


Nevvtaille, 


1240 


Sunderland, 


669 


YarmoHth> 


506, 



Briftol is ftill a large and flourifhing city, though much of its com- BnM'. 
merce with the Weft Indies and America have palTed to Liverpool. 
This metropolis of the Weft of England gradually rofe to eminence in 
the Anglo-Saxon period ; and was fo flourifliing and opulent in the 
reign of Henry II, that, befides other charters, he granted the pofTeffion 
of Dublin in Ireland ; and a colony from Briftol was accordingly 
tranfplanted ''. The trade with Ireland has continued chiefly to center 
in this city : even in that reign, as ancient writers inform us, the port 
of Briftol was replete with veflels from Ireland, Norway, and other 
parts of Europe. Briftol is pleafantly fituated at the confluence of the 
Froome with the Avon. Befides the cathedral, there is a large church 
of Gothic conftru£lion, that of Redcliffe, founded in the thirteenth 
century, and improved and repaired by Canyng or Canyngs, an opur 
lent merchant of the fifteenth century, celebrated by William of Wor- 
eefter '\ In the treafury room of this church, is an ancient cheft, the 

9 Aikin's Man. 333. et feq. '° Ibid. 364, 371. " Barrett's Briftol, 49. 57. 

'* Barrett's Briftol, 573. 627. 

fource 



8o ENGLAND. 

OiTJEs AND fource afcribed to feveral literary forgeries. The hot-wells in the 
neighbourhood appear to hg,ve been known in 1480 ; but the water 
was chiefly ufed externally, till about the year 1670, when a baker 
dreaming that his diabetes was relieved by drinking the water, he tried 
the experiment, and recovered ". Since that period its reputation has 
increafed, and many commodious and elegant eredions have contri- 
buted to recommend thefe wells to invalids. In the adjacent rocks are 
found beautiful cryftals, which, before the introdudion of artificial 
gems, were greatly in fafhion for female ornaments. The trade of 
Briftol is chiefly v^ith Ireland, the Weft Indies, or North America, 
Hamburgh, and the Baltic ; that with Guinea, not the moft laudable, 
is refigned to Liverpool. By the navigation of the two rivers Severn 
and Wye, Briftol alfo engrofles moft of the trade of Wales. In 1787, 
Briftol employed about 1600 coafting vefTels, and 416 fhips engaged in 
foreign commerce '*. Inhabitants about 80,000. 

Baih. The proximity may here authorize the mention of Bath, efteemed 

the moft elegant town in England. The hot-baths, from which it de- 
rives its name, were known in the Roman times, nor was their celebrity 
loft even in the dark period of Anglo-Saxon hiftory. But the town 
has been greatly enlarged and decorated in the laft century. The waters 
are ufed both internally and externally, chiefly in gouty, bilious, and 
paralytic cafes, being frequented at two times in the year, what is called 
the fpring feafon, from April to June, and the autumnal from September 
to December. Two thirds of the company are attra6l;ed merely by 
. amufement, fociety, and diffipation, in all which it is only fecond to 
London. Situated in a vale, Bath is very hot in fummer. The houfes 
are conftrudled of white ftone, which abounds in the vicinity. 

But next to Briftol in point of opulence, muft be clafl^ed the towns of 
Manchefter, Birmingham, and Sheffield. 

Mancliefter. Manchefter, in Lancaftiire, was known in the Roman times under 

the name of Mancunium, a fmall Roman ftation ; but it continued in 

obfcurity till the time of Elizabeth ", when Camden mentions its manu- 

fafture of woollen-cloths, then called cotto?is. During the civil wars 

' under Charles I. Manchefter remained in the hands of the Parliament. 

»3 Barrett's Biiftol, 93. '+ Ibid. 190- "Aikin'sMan, 149. 

In 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 8i 

In 1708, the inhabitants were only computed at 8000. In 1757, they Ctus and 
fell fliort of 20,000, at prefent they are fuppofed to amount to about 
70,000. The cotton manufadtures of Manchefter are fufficiently 
known over Europe ; and the machinery, greatly indebted to the ge- 
nius of an Arkwright, excites allonifhment at the progrefs of human 
art and induftry '*. 

Birmingham, in Warwickfhire, was originally a village, belonging to Brming- 
a family of the fame name, whofe monuments remain in the old 
church. Leland mentions it as a town inhabited by fmiths and cutlers, 
in the time of Henry VIII ; and by lorimers, now called bit-makers. 
The extenfion and improvement of Birmingham originated in a great 
degree from Mr. John Taylor, who introduced the manufacture of gilt 
tuttons, and japanned and enamelled works ; but the toy manufafture 
was known in the reign of Charles II. The great fabric, called Soho, 
belonging to Meffrs. Boulton and Watts, is fituated about two miles 
from Birmingham, but in Staffordfhire. Between the year 1741 and 
1790, Birmingham had received an augmentation of feventy-two ftreets, 
4172 houfes, and 2332 inhabitants": the prefent population is com- 
puted at 60,000. 

Sheffield, in the moft fouthern part of Yorkfhire, is ftyled by Le- shefSeld. 
land the chief market-town in Hallamfhire, (for in the North, many 
particular diftridts ufurp the name of (hires.) The company of cut- 
lers of Hallamfhire, was eflablifhed by adt of parliament in 1625 ; but 
Sheffield had been diftinguiflied for a kind of knives, called whittles, and 
other articles of cutlery, as early as the thirteenth century ; yet, till 
within the laft half century, the manufaflures of Sheffield were con- 
veyed weekly to the metropolis, on pack-horfes. In 1751, the river 
Don was rendered navigable to within two miles of the town, which 
facilitated the export. The plated goods commenced about 1758. In 
the year 1615, the population only amounted to 2152; in 1755 to 
12,983; in 1789 about 30,000. At prefent the population may be 
about 45,000 ". 



ifi 



Aikin's Manchellcr, 149. 156. " Hutton's HilL of Birmingham. 

" Aikin's Man. 539. ct feq. 

VOL. I. M The 



62 ENGLAND. 

Cities and The Other chief towns in England, not afpirlng to fuch pre-eminence, 
lowNs. though feveral be of far more importance than others, Ihall be clafled, as 
before mentioned, in a kind of geographical order, beginning at the 
South-weft, and proceeding to the North. 
Falmouth. Falmouth, in Cornwall, the moft wefterly port in England, is chiefly 

remarkable for the arrival and difpatch of packet boats ; but Exeter, in 
Exeter. ti^^g adjacent county of Devon, is an ancient and refpedlable city. It is 

the feat of an extenfive commerce in coarfe woollen goods, manufa£lured 
in a part of Somerfetfhire, and in Devon and Cornwall '*. They are 
exported to Italy, and other parts of the Continent, to the annual value, 
as is fuppofed, of 600,000/., and the Eaft India Company purchafe yearly 
to a confiderable amount. Befides the native wool of the above- 
mentioned counties, Exeter imports from Kent about 4000 bags a- 
year. Some fhips are alfo occupied in the cod-filhery of Newfound- 
land, and In the Greenland capture of whales. The Imports are from 
Spain, Italy, Hamburgh, and the Baltic ; and coals from the North of 
England and Wales. It is, moreover, the refidence of many genteel 
families ; and the frequent refort of others from the neighbouring 
counties. 
Dorchefler. Dorchefter, the chief town of the county of Dorfet, is a place of con- 

fiderable antiquity, fituated on the river Frome; but has no manufac- 
tures, and Is only celebrated for Its malt liquor. 
SalJibury. Saliibury, the principal town of Wiltfhlre, Is chiefly remarkable for 

extreme neatnefs, and for its cathedral, a beautiful piece of Gothic 
architedure, with the lofileft fpire In England, the height being 400 
feet. There is a manufadure of flannels, and another of cutlery goods 
and hardware, the fuperiority of the fcilTars being particularly noted. 
Wilton, in the fame county, is famed for the manufadure of beautiful 
carpets. 
Windicfter. Winchefler, the chief city of Hampfhire, was, for many centuries, 

the metropolis of England, a pre-eminence which it did not wholly lofe 
till the thirteenth century^". The port was Southampton, but thefupe- 
rlor fafety and convenience of that of London, gradually reftored the 

'9 Aikin's Engl, delineated, p. 335. *" Milnci's Wincheft. 

J latter 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 83 

latter to that metropolitan dignity which it held in the Ro;nan period. Cnius aj.» 
Winchefter remains a venerable city, with many vcitiges 01 ancient 
fame and fplendour. It is lltiiated in a bottom, amid open chalky 
downs, upon the fmall river Itchyn. The cathedral rather impreires 
the idea of majeftic gravity, than of magnificence ; and has no fpire, 
having been ere£ied before that mode of architedure was ufed. The 
afnes of feveral Saxon monarchs are here preferved with reverence. 
Not far from the cathedral ftands the celebrated college, founded by 
"William of Wickham, and which has fent forth many illuftrious cha- 
radliers. The regulations of this fchool are, in fome inftances, peculiar 
and fevere ; but in this, and the other grand Englifl-i feminaries, the 
equality of the pupils, except in refpe(£l of age and abilities, and even 
the fubferviency in which the younger are held by the el-Ier, tend to 
fteel and fortify the mind againft the fubfequent cares and emulations of 
life. In the center of the city is a fmall, but moft elegant Gothic 
crofs ; and at the weftern extremity is the fliell of a palace, built under 
the dire£tion of Sir Chriflopher Wren, yet heavy and inelegant ; it was 
begun by Charles II, but left unfiniflied at his death. It has fince been 
ufed for French prifoners, and in 1796 was the refidence of about 640 
emigrant priefts from France. 

In the fame county is fituated Portfmouth, the grand naval arfenal Portfmoutb. 
of England. The harbour is noble and capacious, narrow at the en- 
trance, but fpreading out into an inland bay, five or fix miles in length, 
and from two to four in breadth. The advantages derived from nature 
have been improved by the art and induftry of fucceffive generations ; 
and to a patriot, Portfmouth prefents one of the moftinterefling fcenes 
to be found in the Britifh dominions. The regular fortifications to- 
wards the land, in themfelves happily a novelty to the Britifh eye ; the 
magnitude and variety of the maritime objects and manufactures, and 
the profpeft of Spithead, the grand focus of naval armament, confpire, 
with a thoufand relative ideas concerning the power of England, fii- 
preme in every fea, to excite our aftonifhment and exultation. 

Lewes is efteemed the chief town of SufTex ; the fituation is lofty Lewes. 
and pidlurefque, efpecially the fite of the ~ ancient caftle, belonging to 
the powerful Earls of Warren and Suflex. Beneath, in a ple.-'fant 

M 2 plain, 



84 



ENGLAND. 



Cities and 
Towns. 



B.ighthelm- 
ftone. 



Canterbury. 



Hereford. 



Gloucefler. 



plain, watered by the River Oufe, ftand the ruins of an ancient^ 
nunnery. 

Chichefler retains fome little traffic. Brighthelmftone is a fafhionable 
refort for the fea air and bathing ; an extenfive beach extends four 
miles under lofty cliffs, and on the other fide are wide open downs, 
compofed of numerous verdant hills, diverfified with winding cavities ;■ 
towards Shoreham are fome pits of a kind of bitumen, which might, 
perhaps, be ufed in fome manufadure. When dried and rolled by the 
weaves, it forms balls of various fizes, frequent on the beach, and for- 
merly ufed as fuel by the poor, though fince forbidden, on account of 
the noxious fmell. Brighthelmftone not only prefents the neareft opea 
Ihore to the capital, but is diftinguifhed for the peculiar raildnefs and 
falubrity of the air. 

Canterbury, the chief town of Kent, and the metropolis of the 
Englifh church, is chiefly remarkable for ecclefiaftical antiquities; and 
the county town is Maidftone, noted for hops and thread. Kent pre- 
fents many other important towns, as Deptford, Greenwich, Woolwich, 
Gravefend, Chatham, Rochefter, and the faftiionable reforts of Margate, 
Ramfgate, and Tunbridge. Dover and Deal are remarkable havens. 

Having completed this brief furvey of the chief towns to the fouth 
of the Severn and the Thames, thofe of the middle and northern 
counties may be again commenced from the weft. 

Hereford, the capital of a county bordering on Wales, was known in 
the Saxon times as an epifcopal fee. The caftle, fuppofed to have been 
founded in the reign of the Confeflbr, is on the left bank of the river 
Wye. The cathedral is large, but the town prefents little remark- 
able, having gone into great decay: the only manufadure is that 
of gloves*'. 

Gloucefter, the capital of the county Co called, is admired for the 
regularitv of the four principal ftreets, joining in the center of the town. 
It avails itfelf of the traffic of the Severn, which, among other fifh, 
affi^rds a luxurious fupply of lampreys. This town has been recently 
celebrated for its neatnefs, and the cheapnefs of provifions. 



** Cough's Camden, ii. 450. 



Worcefter 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 



85 



Worcefter is alio fituated on the noble river Severn, over which there Cities and 
is a beautiful brido;e. The manufa£tures are chiefly gloves and woollen 

° . . . . . ' Worcelter. 

fluffs ; and the porcelain maintains a high reputation. 

On the Eaft, the firft town of note is Coventry, efteemed the moft Coventry, 
inland and centrical of the Englifh towns, whence, perhaps, the mili- 
tary phrafe of fending a man to Coventry, where he would be the moft: 
remote from fervice. The manufadnres are chiefly ribbons, with a 
few gauzes and camlets. The beautiful crofs, eredted in 1541, after 
being much damaged by the lapfe of years, has been taken down ". 

The next memorable town is Norwich, the capital of Norfolk, from Ncrwich. 
its fize and confequence juftly ftyled a city *. It is, however, not men- 
tioned till the year 1004, when it was ruined by the Danes. The 
worfired manufa£tory is fuppofed to have been introduced here by the 
Flemings, in the 12th century, and was followed by that of fayes 
arras, bonbazeens, &c. Of late the damafks, camlets, crapes, fluffs, 
&c. here wrought, have been computed at the yearly value of 700,000/.; 
but the fafhionable ufe of cottons, and the interruption of commerce by 
war, have confiderably leffened the confumption. The wool is chiefly 
from the counties of Lincoln, Leicefler, and Northampton ; the chief 
exports to Holland, Germany, and the Mediterranean ". Norwich is 
of courfe opulent and exienfive j but the flreets are confined and 
devious. 

Yarmouth is a noted fea-port, with a beautiful quay, and remarkable Yarmouth. 
for its fifheries of mackarel in May and June, and herrings in October 
and November : the latter cured by fait, and dried in the fmoke of 
wood, are called red-herrings, and^ befides home confumption, form a 
confiderable article of export to Spain and Italy. 

In proceeding northwards, Lincoln muft arrefl attention, though Lincoln, 
now much fallen from its former fame. The interior of the cathedral 
is admired for its lightnefs and magnificence. The fheep of the county 
form a celebrated breed, but the wool goes chiefly to Norwich. Lin- 
coin trades in coals, imported on the Trent. 



Cough's Caroden, vol. ii, p. 345. *^ Aikin, 216. 

• A Biihop's fee conftitutes a city. 



In 



86 ' ENGLAND. 

C.TiEs A MB In a chorography of England, Leicefter and Shrev/fbury might deferve 
^^^''^' defcription, but its geography can only embrace the moft important 
topics. The city of Chcfter mufl: claim the next confideration. It is of 
Roman origin, and the chief ftreets are fuigular in their conftrudion, 
being excavated beneath the level of the ground, while a covered 
portico, in tlie front of the houfes, affords an elevated and fheltered 
foot-p:ith ; beneath are the fhops and warehoufes, on the level of the 
ftreet, to which the paffenger defcends by occafional ftairs. The trade 
of Chefter is not confiderable, but it carries on a fhare of the 
traffic M'ith North Wales ; and its two annual fliirs are famous for the 
fale of Irifn linens. It is the favourite refidence of many genteel 
families from Wales ^*. 
Lancafter. Near an extenfive bay of the Irifh Sea, which might now be termed 

the bay of Lancafter, while antiquaries affed: to retain the Roman name 
of Morica7}ibe, ftands Lancafter, an ancient and populous town. The 
name is in the North pronounced Loncafter, the proper etymology, as 
it ftands upon the River Lon. When the counties of Cumberland and 
Weftmoreland belonged to the Scots, this was regarded as a kind of 
frontier place, and was defended by a ftrong caftle, fituated on a com- 
manding eminence. Lancafter afterwards gave the title of Duke to 
princes of the royal blood ; and the contentions of the houfes of York 
and Lancafter are well known. There is a bridge of five arches over 
the Lon, which opens into a confiderable haven ; the feat of a 
moderate commerce, efpecially with the Weft Indies. 

On the Eaft, the extenfive proviace of Yorkfliire contains many 
fiouriftiing towns, befides the capital, York, and Sheffield, already 
defcribed. On the Humber, the wide receptacle of many rivers, 
ftands the great fea-port of Hull, or Kingfton-upon-Huli; the latter 
name being only that of the rivulet The town v/as founded by 
Edward I. Several privileges were obtained from Richard II ; and 
the firft ftaple of trade was ftock-fifh imported from Iceland. In the 
civil wars of laft century, Hull difplayed the firft flag of defiance 
aeainft the Monarch. The harbour is artificial, and is fuppofed to 
' prefent the largeft dock in the kingdom. The trade is important 

'* Pennant's Tours. Aikin, 90. 



Hull. 



W 



ith 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. ^ 87 

•with America, and the foiith of Europe, but chiefly with the Bahic ; Cities and 
and feveral fhips are employed in the northern whale-hfliery. Tlie 
coafting traffic is extenfivc in coals, corn, wool, and manufatftories ; 
and Hull fupplles the commerce of many northern cotinties, having 
not only communication with the Trent, and other branches of the 
Humber, but with the rivers and canals of Yorkfhire *'. 

Leeds, Bradfield, Halifax, and Wakefield, are the chief centres of Leeds. 
the great manufadures of woollen cloths and ftufis. Leeds is the 
principal mart for broad-cloths, or what foreigners term fine Englifh 
cloth. It is fituated on the river Eyre, in an extenfive vale ; and the 
population is computed at fixteen thoufand : the cloths are woven in 
the neighbouring villages, but are dyed, prepared, and fold, at Leeds. 
The cloth-hall appropriated to the fale is a vaft edifice j and the 
whole bufinefs is tranfafted within the fpace of an hour on the market 
days. Halifax is in an elevated fituation, and very populous. It is 
the chief market for the thinner woollen cloths, fuch as fluffs, cali- 
mancos, &c. Scarborough, on the eaftern coaft, is a place of cele- 
brated refort for fea-bathing, and the mineral water ; the fite is 
romantic, but the port is fmall, and chiefly frequented by fifhing 
veffels. 

Durham-Is a pleafant and venerable city, extending partly over an Durham, 
eminence ; the river Were, winding around in the form of a 
horfefhoe, renders it peninfular. Near the neck of land is placed 
the caftle, of which little more than the keep remains ; which is 
furrounded by the pleafant garden of the Bilhop's adjacent palace. 
Towards the point of the peninfula ftands the cathedral, a moft 
auguft edifice, in a moft auguft fituation, with deep decliviiles on the 
fouth and weft, down to the river ; the banks of which are finely 
wooded, and rich in the wild beauties of nature, which have been 
improved, not injured, by the tafte and opulence of the clergy. The 
bridge on the eaft is narrow and meanly executed ; but on the fouth 
there is an elegant modern bridge ; and on the weft that of Bifliop 
Flambard is admired for the lightnefs and beauty of the arches. 
About a m.ile from the town, on this fide, ftands Nevil's Crofs, where 

'' Aikin, Engl, dclin. 56. , 

David 



83 ENGLAND. 

CiTiFSANo David II King of Scotland was taken prlfoner after -a bloody conflid. 
The cathedral was built about the year 1004, at lead the lower part, 
which belongs to what is called the Saxon form of archltedlure ; and 
is now repairing at the expence of the Bidiop and Chapter. Some 
branches of the woollen manufadure are carried on at Durham, 
and a few elegant caipete have been lately made there in a kind of 
Mofaic form. 

Stockton on the river Tees, Sunderland at the mouth of the 
Were, and South Shields on that of the Tyne, are fea-port towns 
in the bifliopric, (for fo the county of Durham is commonly ftyled 
in the north,) of confiderable fize, trade, and population. Hart-le- 
Pool is only a bathing place. 
Newcafile. On the river Tyne ftands Newcaftle, fo termed from a fortrefs 

ereded by Edward I. This is a large and populous town, or rather 
city, placed in the centre of the grand coal-mines in the counties 
of Durham and Northumberland, which have for centuries fupplied 
London and moft of the eaft and fouth of England with that fuel ; 
which has perhaps contributed more to the manufadures and com- 
merce, and confequent wealth and power of this kingdom, than any 
other material or circumftance. The coal fleets fometimes amount 
to five hundred fail ; their ftation is at Shields, and the quays of 
Jarrow and Willington. Even as a aurfery of feamen the trade is 
invaluable". In all parts of the neighbourhood are feen large carts, 
loaden with coals, and proceeding towards the port, on inclined planes, 
without the help of horfes or men, to the great furprize of the 
ftranger ^'. Near Newcaftle are alfo found quarries of grind-ftone ; 
and many glafs-houfes fmoke around, the produdions of which have 
been recently of remarkable purity. Other exports are, pickled falmon, 
Jead, fait, butter, and tallow. The fuburb of Gatefliead ftands on 
the fouth of the Tyne ; and is conneded with the city by a grand 
bridge. The (hops and crowded ftreets recal the idea of London ; but 
the latter ai-e generally narrow, fteep, and incommodious. 
^ .- Berwick-upon-Tweed being on the Scotifli fide of the river, fhall 

fee referved for the defcription of that country. The chief remaining 

** Cough's Camden, iii, 252". *' St, Fond, Voyage en Angl. i. 163. 

town 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 80 

town ill England is Carlifle, the capital of the county of Cumber- Cities anb 
Innd, placed at the confluence of the rivers Pettril and Caldew with owns. 
the Eden ^'. The old fortifications remain nearly entire. It is 
fuppofed to have been the ancient Luguballia ; but neither the caftle 
nor cathedral are remarkable. The chief manufadures are linens, 
printed and checked, whips and fifh-hooks. The town is little 
populous ; and is chiefly memorable for tranfadtions in the ancient 
wars between Scotland and England. 

Wales, a country abounding in the fublime and beautiful features 
of nature, contains many towns of note ; and the defcription of a 
few has been referved to this place, for the greater clearnefs of 
arrangement. 

Caermarthen, the capital of a county, is alfo regarded as the principal Caermar- 
town in - South Wales : it {lands upon the river Towy, and was '^^^'^• 
anciently defended by a caftle now demolifhed. The haven is fliallow, 
and the trade of courfe not very confiderable ". 

Pembroke, on a creek of Milford Haven, is a fmall town of little Pembrolce. 
commerce. 

Caernarvon is efteemed the chief town of North "Wales, for the r^ 

' Caernarvon, 

beauty of the fituation, regularity of the ftreets, and above all for the 

grandeur of the caftle, one of the moft magnificent in Europe, founded 

by Edward I in 1282. Here was born Edward II furnamed 

of Caernarvon, who was immediately created the firft Englifh 

Prince of Wales, his father having equivocally promifed to the van- 

quifhed Welfh a Prince born in their own country, and who could not 

fpeak one word of Englifh. The town has a confiderable trade with 

London, Briftol, Liverpool, and Ireland ; and has a beautiful quay 

along the fide of the Menai, a ftreight between North Wales and 

Anglefea ^'. 

In a brief enumeration of the principal edifices in England, the royal Edifices. 
palaces demand of courfe the firft attention. Windfor-caftle, fituated 

*'' GougK's Camden, !ii. 175. For the rivers, Houfman 30. 
*' Cough's Camden, ii. 504. 507. ""* Pennant's Wales, ii. 223. 227. 

VOL. I. N on 



90 



ENGLAND. 



Euii-icis. on an eminence, near the Thames, has an appearance truly grand, and 
worthy of the days of chivalry. The view extends as far as the cathedral 
of St. Paul's, and the whole fcene ftrongly impreffes the circumftances fo 
vividly delineated in Gray's pathetic ode on Eton College. This palace 
contains many noble paintings, particularly the cartoons of Raphael. 
Hampton-court is in a low^ fituation, ornamented with aqueduds from 
the river Colne. This palace is alfo replete with interefting pidlures. 
The royal gardens alone remain at Richmond, but are totally eclipfed 
by thofe of Kew, which are truly worthy of a great and fcientific 
« prince ; the ground, though level, is diverfified with much art, and the 

colledion of plants from all the regions of the known world, fills the 
admirer of nature with delight and furprize. They are fo difpofed, 
that every plant finds as it were its native foil and climate, even thofe 
that grow on rocks and lava, having artificial fubftitutes. 

The royal palace at Greenwich has been long abandoned, but the 
obfervatory does credit to fcience. It is a plain edifice, well adapted 
to aftronomical obfervations, and at prefent ably fuperintended by Dr. 
Mafkelyne. Dr. Herfchell's obfervatory, inftead of containing his 
telefcope, is fufpended from it in the open air, at Slough, near 
"Windfor ; where he is continually extending the bounds of aftrono- 
mical knowledge. 

Among the houfes of the nobility and gentry, or palaces, as they 
would be termed on the Continent, the firft fame, perhaps, belongs to 
Stowe, the feat of the Marquis of Buckinghamfhire, which, for its 
enchanting gardens, has been long celebrated. When Mr. Beckford's 
magnificent eredions at Fonthill are completed, that fame will be far 
furpaffed. The prefent intention, however, will be better accomplifhed 
by a brief view of the edifices, as they occur in the order of counties 
above arranged. 

Cornwall. — Mc^unt- Edgecombe, Lord Edgecombe. 
Devonftiire. — Powderham-caftle. 

Wiltfliire.— Wilton, Earl of Pembroke's ; Fonthill, Mr. Beckford's; Longleate, Lord Wey- 
mouth ; Wardour-caftle; Stourton, Mr Hoare's. 

Hampfliire.— The Grange, Mr. Henley ; the Vine, Mr. Chute. 

Surrj-.— 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 



91 



Surry.— Earl Spencer's at Wimbleton ; rareliam calllc, Bifliop of Wiiichefter ; Oatlands, Edifices. 
Clartmoiit, Efher; Dulwich, Loid Thurlow. 

Siiflex.— Arundel callle, Duke of Norfolk; Goodwood, Duke of Richmond; 
Cowdray. 

Kent, — Kiiovvle, Duke of Dorfet ; PendMirft, near Tunbridgc, a famous feat of the 
Sydneys, &c. 5cc. 

EfTex.— Wanftead, Earl of Ti'ncy ; Audley-end ; Havering, Duke of Ancaftcr. 
Middlcfex. -Sion-houfe, Duke of Northumberland; Ollerly-park, Mr. Child; Holland- 
houfe. Lord Holland, &c. &c. 

Bucks. — Cllfdon ; Stowc ; Biilllrode, Duke of Portland &c. &c. 

Oxfordfliire — Blenheim, Duke of Marlborough ; Ditchley, Earl of Litchfield ; Newnham, 
Eurl of Harcourt, &c. 

Gloucefterfhire — Badminton, Duke of Beaufort ; Berkley-caftle, Ear! of Berkley ; King's 
Wefton, Lord de Clifford. 

Herefordfliire — Aconburv, Duke of Chandos ; Brampton Bryan, Ear] of Oxford; Clifford- 
caftle, Lord Clifford. 

Worccfterfhire — Crome-court, Earl of Coventry ; Hartltbury, the Bifhop ; Haglcy Lord 
Lyttleton. The Leafowes of Shenllone is in Shropfhire. 

Warwickfln're. — Tamworth callle. Earl Ferrers ; Warvvick-caftle. 

Northampton. — Althorp, Earl Spencer; Eallon, Earl of Pomfret ; Burleigh, Earl of 
Stamford ; and Apthorp, Earl of Wellmoreland. 

Bedfordlhire. — Wooburnabbey, Duke of Bedford ; Luton', Marquis of Bute. 

Hertfordlhire. Hatfield, Earl of Salifbury ; Moore Park, Lord Dundas. 

Huntingdonfhire. — Kimbolton Callle, Duke of Mancheflei^; Bugden, Bidiop of 
Lincoln. 

Cambridgelhire.—Thorney-abbey, Duke of Beaufort ; Maddingly, Sir John Cotton ; Milton, 
Mr. Knight, 

Suffolk — Euflon-hall, Duke of Grafton ; Broome-hall, Lord Cornwallis. 

Norfolk — Houghton, Lord Cholmondley ; Raynham, Lord Townfhend ; Holkham, Earl of 
Leiceller. 

Lincoln — Grimfthorpe, Duke of Ancaflcr. 

Rutlandfhire.— Okeham and Burley, Earl of Winchelfea ; AflUon, Earl of Cardigan. 

Leiceflerfliire - Belvoircaftle, Duke of Rutland ; Groby, Earl of Stamford. 

Nottinghamfhire. — Nottingham caftle, Duke of Newcaftle ; Welbeck, Duke of Portland; 
Workfop, Duke of Norfolk. 

Derbyfhire - Chatfworth, Duke of Devonfhire ; Keddlefton, Lord Scarborough. 

Staffordflrie —Beau Dcfert, Earl of Uxbridge ; Dudley-caftle, Lord Dudley, &c. 

Shropfhire.- Okcley-p:irk. Lord Clive ; Atcham, Lord Berwick. &c. 

Chefhire — Cholmondley-hall, Earl of Cholmondley ; Eaton hall Earl of Grofvenor. 

Lancafhire. — Stonyhurft, Duke of Norfolk ; Knowfley, Earl of Derby. 

Yorkfhire. - Sheflitld manor, Duke of Norfolk ; Wcntworth-caftle, Earl of Strafford ; Wrefel. 
caftle ; CaRle Howard, Earl of Carlifle ; Whalton-caflle, Earl of Aylefbury ; Hornby caftle. 
Earl of Holdernefs ; Kiveton, Duke of Leeds &c. &c. 

Wellmoreland — Pendragon-caftle, Louther-hall, Lord Lonfdale ; Appleby, Earl of Thanet. 

Cumberland — Greyllock caftle, Duke of Norfolk ; Naworth, Earl of Carlifle. 

Durham. — Raby caftle. Earl of Darlington ; Bifliops Aukland, Bifhop of Durham ; Luniley- 
caftle, Earl of Scarborough ; Hilton-caftle, &c. &c. 

Northumberland. — Alnwick, Duke of Northumberland; Morpeth. caftle, Earl of Car* 
lifle, &c. 

N 2 Wales 



Bridges. 



92 ENGLAND. 

Edifices Wales abounds in elegant edifices, as Winftay, tlie feat of Sir William WatkiasWynn ; Lord 

Biilklcy's near Beainiiarais ; Duke of Beaufort's in Bteckiiotkiliiic ; Chlik caiUc, in Dtnbigli- 
fliire ; Hawarden-caftle, in Flintfhire ; Swaiifey and Cardiff Catties, in Glamorganfhire ; Powis. 
caftle in Montgommery ; Pitlon-caflle. in Pembrokefliire, &c. &c. 

Among public buildings muft not be omitted the noble hofpitals for 
feamen and foldiers, at Greenwich, and Chelfea. Many of the county- 
halls have no inconfiderable claims to elegant architedure. 

The bridges are worthy the fuperiority ot the Englilh roads : and a 
furpriiing exertion in this department, is the recent conftrudion of 
bridges in caft-iron, an invention unknown to all other nations. The 
firft example was that of Colebrook-dale, in Shroplhire, ereded over 
the Severn, in 1779. This bridge rcfts on abutments of ftone-work, 
the main rib confifting of two pieces, each 70 feet long, conneded by 
a dove-tail joint, faftened with fcrews ; the fhorter ribs, crofs-ftays, 
braces, &c. &c. would be little intelligible without a delineation. The 
road over the bridge is , made of clay and iron flag, 24 feet wide, and 
one deep ; the fpan of the arch 100 feet 6 inches j height from the bafe 
line to the centre 40 feet ; the weight of iron employed 378 tons 10 
hundredweight''. Another iron-bridge has fince been ereded in the 
■vicinity. A ftupendous iron-bridge was thrown over the harbour at 
Sunderland, about five years ago ; the height of which is 100 feet, and, 
the fpan of the arch 236. The chief defed of the bridge at Colebrook 
was underftood to be, that it formed one entire wholp, incapable of 
partial repairs ; but that at Sunderland is compofed of detached pieces 
of cafl-iron, which, if damaged in any of the parts, may be withdrawn, 
and replaced by others. It is fupported between two ftrong and ele- 
vated ftone piers ; and the arch is fur mounted at either end by vafi 
hoops, lupporting the platform, or pafTage of the bridge, which is thus 
rendered almoft level. When viewed from beneath, the elegance, 
lightnefs, and furprifmg height, excite admiration ; and the carriages 
appear as if pafTmg among the clouds. 

Several other bridges have been conffruded on this new and flngular 
plan, but not of fufficient importance to demand defcription, after kich 
great examples. It is faid to be in agitation to throw fmiilar fabrics 
over the Thames, at Staines and Datchet. Many projedors have 

*' Gongh's Camden, ii. 417. 

eagerly 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. gj 

eagerly contended for the rebuilding of London bridge ; If caft-iron Bridges, 
were employed, it would be more commodious for navigation, and 
would imprefs the beholder wirh aftonifhment, at the unrivalled pomp 
and grandeur of Englilh manufadlures. 

This article is important to the bcft interefts of the country, and de- I"land Na- 

vigatioii. 

mands particular attention. It is believed that what is called the 
Caerdyke, extending from the river Nyne, a little below Peterborough, 
into the river Witham, three miles below Lincoln, was intended for 
inland navigation : this canal is about forty miles in length, and muft 
have been originallv very deep, though now ahnoll Hlled up ^ . It is 
fuppofcd to have been a work of the Romans. No trace of further e:c- 
ertion in this department appears, till the year i6o8, v>'hen the canal, 
or rather aqueduil, called the New River, was projected and begvm by 
Sir Hugh Middleton : it was finiflied in five years, and winds through 
a long courie from Ware in Hertfordfhire, to the grand ciltern of 
lilington. But, in fa^t, the earlieft inland navigation that can be au- 
thenticated, is the Sankey canal, leading from the coal-pits at St. Helen's, 
in Lancafhire, to the River Merfey, and conftrucled in order to 
convey coals to Liverpool ''. The length of the canal is twelve miles, 
with a fall of ninety teet. The act of parliament paffed in 1755 ; the 
original intention was only to render the rivulet called Sankey Brook, 
navigable ; but ir was found more advantageous to form a canal along 
its courfe. The llirveyor was Mr. John Eyes. 

But the Duke of Bridgewater is juftly venerated as the grand founder 
of inland navigation ; his Ipirit and opulence were happily leconded by 
Brindley, than whom a greater natural genius in mechanics never 
exifled. It was in the year 1758 that the firft a£t was obtained for 
thefe great defigns. The firft canal extends from VVoriley mill, about 
feven computed miles from Manchefter, and reaches that town by a 
courfe of nine miles, a circuit of two miles being necelfary for the lake 
of the level In this (hort fpace aimoll every difficulty occurred that 
can arife in fimilar fchemes ; but mountains and rivers yielded to the 
genius of Brindley. There are lubterraneous paflages to the coal in the 
mountai.i, of near a mile in length, fometimes cut through the folid 

2° Phib'ps, Hift. of Inland Navigation, 1795, 410, p. 72. '' Ibid. Addenda 29. 

rock,. 



94 ENGLAND. 

Inland Na- rock, and occafionally arched over with brick ; widi air-funnels to the 
top of the hill, fome of them thirty- feven yards perpendicular. This 
beautiful canal is thrown over the river Irwell, by an arch of thirty-' 
nine feet in height, and under which barges pafs without lowering their 
mafts. Yet the expcnce of this noble canal, in the then comparatively 
cheap flate of labour and provifions, was only computed at looo gui- 
neas a mile. The various machines and inventions of Brindley, for 
its conftrudion and prefervation, defervedly excite wonder, but a de- 
tail cannot be here expedled. The Duke of Bridgewater foon after- 
wards extended a canal of twenty-nine miles in length, from Longford 
bridge, in Lancafliire, to Hempftones in Chefliire. 

After this deferved tribute to the fathers of inland navigation in 
England, it will be eligible to review the other canals in a geographical 
manner, proceeding from the north to the fouth. In the county of 
Durham, a canal was projedted by Brindley, frorp the romantic village 
'of Winfton, on the river Tees to Staindrop, and thence by Darlington 
to Stockton : but this defign, and others not yet carried into execution, 
fliall be palTed over, and only the moft important of thofe which have 
been executed fhall be commemorated. 

Firft in order is the Lancafter canal, extending from Kendal, in Weft- 
moreland, by Lancafter, to Weft Houghton, in Lancalhire, a fpace of 
about feventy-four miles. 

The canal from Leeds to Liverpool, diredled in a northerly courfe 
by Skipton, winds through an extent of 117 miles ; and from this 
canal a branch alfo extends to Manchefter, begun in 1771. 

From Plalifax to Manchefter is another confiderable canal, commonly 
called that of Rochdale ; length thirty-one miles and a half, begun 
in 1794. 

Another canal extends from Manchefter towards Wakefield ; and 
another called the Peak Foreft canal, ftretches from the former, fouth- 
eaft, about fifteen miles. 

Another joins the River Dun, feveral miles above Doncafter, to the 
River Calder, near Wakefield. 

2 To 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 95 



\TION. 



To pafs fever al of fmaller note, the Cheflerfield canal extends from Inland Na. 
Chefterfield, in the county of Derby, to the Trent at Stockwith, acourfe "^'^^ 
of forty-four miles and three quarters, begun in 1770. 

In Lincolnfhire, one canal extends from Lincoln to the Trent, and 
another from Horncaftie to Sleaford. Grantham canal reaches from 
that town to the River Trent, a courfe of thirty miles. 

The grand defign of Brlndley was to join, by inland navigation, 
the four great ports of the kingdom, Briftol, London, Liverpool, and 
Hull. Liverpool is accordingly conneded with Hull by a caaal from 
that long navigable river the Trent, and proceeding north to the Merl'cy. 
The canal which joins thele two rivers is ftyled the Grand Trunk ; and 
was begun in 1766, under the dire£lion of that great engineer; but was 
not completed till 1777 ; the length is 99 miles. It was attended with 
great difficulties, particularly in paffing the river Dove, in Derbyfhire, 
•where there is an aqueduft of twenty-three arches, the tunnel through 
the hill of Hare-caftle, in Staffordfhire, is in length 2880 yards, and 
more than 70 yards below the furface of the ground, and was executed 
with great labour and expence ". But the utility correl'ponds with the 
grandeur of the defign : fait from Chelhire, coals and pottery from Staf- 
fordlhire, and manufactures from various places, are tranfported on this 
canal. 

From the Grand Trunk five or fix branches extend in various direc- 
tions : among which muft not be omitted that to the River Severn, near 
Bewdley, which connedls the port of Briftol with thofe of Liverpool 
and Hull j the length is 46 miles ; completed in 1772. 

From the city of Chefter one canal extends to the Merfey, and ano- 
ther to Nemptwich ; another proceeds fouth to Shrew fbury, uniting the 
Merfey and the Severn j with north-weft, and fouth^eaft branches of 
confiderable length. 

From Coventry, in the centre of the kingdom., canals extend to the 
Grand Trunk ; to Afhby-de-la-Zouch, and to the Braunfton, or Grand. 
Jundion Canal. 

'^ Gary's Plans, p. i6, zj; 2.8. The account of the Grand Trunk in Philips, is very de- 
feftive ; he may here be referred to in general for the others. See alfo Houfman, 122. 

What 



9S ENGLAND. 



VIGATION. 



luLANnNA- What Is called the Staffordfliire canal, extends from the Grand Trunk 
to the River Severn ; and is met by the Kington canal, which reaches 
to Kington, in Hcrefordlhire, fo as almoft to join the Rivers Trent and 
Wye. It may be here obferved, that in this delcription the grand 
courfes of navigation are attended to, rather than the minute names 
and divifions of the canals. 

Several inland navigations pafs by Birmingham. The Union canal 
completes a courfe of forty- three miles and three quarters, from 
Leicefter to Northampton, whence the river Nen is navigable to 
the fea. 

Another canal extends from Gloucefter to Hereford : and the fouth 
of Wales prefents feveral navigations of confiderable length, particu- 
larly that from Brecon, in Brecknockfhire, to Newport in Mon- 
mouth {hire. 

The Severn is not only joined with the Trent and the Hu'mber, by 
"various courfes of navigation, but is united with the Thames, by a canal 
extending by Stroud to Lechlade, a courfe of near forty miles. 

Other canals branch out from the Thames in various diredions : that 
of Oxford extends to the Grand Trunk, or rather joins the Coventry 
canal, after a courfe of ninety-two miles. 

The Braunfton, or Grand Jundion canal, reaches from Brentford, on 
the Thames, and joins the Oxford canal at Braunfton, in Northamp- 
tonfhire, after a courfe of ninety miles. It is ftyled the Grand Jundion, 
becaufe it may be faid to unite the numerous courfes that pervade the 
central counties, with the capital of the kingdom. 

On the fouth of the Thames, a canal proceeds from Reading to 
Bath ; and another from VVeybridge to Bafingftoke ; and a third from 
Weybridge to Godalming. 

A fmall canal or two have been executed In Devonfliire. The 
Andover canal, in Hampfliire, extends from Andover to Southampton 
water. Suflex prefents two canals, that of Arundel, and that of 
Lewes. 

When we refled that all thefe laudable efforts of improvement and 
civilization, have been executed within thefe forty years, there is 

room 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHT, 



97 



merce. 



room for well-grounded hopes, tJiat in the courfe of centuries the iKLAwnNA- 
kingdom may be interleded, like another China, with innumerable *''0'^'^'<'"- 
canals, to the inconceivable advancement of agriculture, commerce, and 
the national induftry and profperity. The fum already expended in 
thefe noble works, has been computed at five millions and a half; but 
how much more ufefully employed, than in fruitlels wars, which con- 
fume fifty millions in one year ! 

The Manufadures and commerce of England, form fo extenfive a Manufa..'>urc« 
theme, that only a brief and fugitive idea of them, can be here at- ^'"^ c:"™- 
tempted. The earlieft ftaple commodity of England was tin, a metal 
rarely found in other countries. The Phoenicians firft introduced it 
into commerce, at leaft five or fix hundred years before the Chriftian 
a^ra; and their extenfive trade foon diffufed it among the Oriental 
nations. The Romans, upon their conquefi: of thefe i-egions, did not 
negled this fource of wealth ; but as Cornwall was not conquered by 
the Anglo-Saxons, till the reign of AthelRan, we know not whether 
the Cornifh Britons carried on any confiderable traffic in this com- 
modity, though it be probable that it was at lead exchanged for the 
wines of France. Yet even in the reign of John, the produd was (o 
inconfiderable, that the mines were farmed to -Tews for loo msrk"; • 
but in that of Henry III, they began again to yield a large profit, 
which has gradually increafed ". 

Cornwall, like mod countries that abound with minerals, prefents an 
external afped of defolation : a feries of barren hills, and bleak heaths, 
pervades its whole length ; and the violent winds from the fea check 
the vegetation of trees and fhrubs. The tin mines are numerous, an-d 
of various defcriptions. This metal is either found in the mafs, in 
what are called lodes and ^ools ; or in grains, or bunches, in the rocks • 
or detached in fcparate (lones, called fiodes or Jlrings ; or in a courfe 
of fuch ftones called the benheyl or living Jlring ; or in the pulverized 
fliape of fand« ' After having been pounded in a mill, it is melted into 
blocks of 320 pounds weight. In the ore it is ftyled black tin ; but is 
fomctimes, though very rarely, found in a metallic fl;ate. 

3' Borlafe's Cornwall. 
VOL. I. O TIlC 



98 



ENGLAND. 

Manufac- The fingularhy and importance of this firfl: national ftaple, may 

TURFS AND aDoloG-ize for this difcuffion ; but the abundance of the other topics 

Commerce. . 

will require more brevity. Wool had been regarded as a grand ftaple 
of England, as early as the twelfth century, but was chiefly exported 
in a crude ftate, till Edward III encouraged fettlements of Flemifh ma- 
nufadurers. Wool foon became the ftandard of private property, 
and the prime article of commerce. Taxes and foreign fubfidies were 
eftimated by facks of this commodity *. Great quantities of raw wool 
continued to be exported to the Netherlands and Hanfe Towns ; but 
in the reign of Elizabeth it began to be chiefly manufadtired at home, 
• and the exportation of woollen cloths was then valued at a million and 
a half annually. The exportation of raw wool w'as at length pro- 
hibited ; and the woollen manufadures preferve great importance, 
though they no longer attradl fuch particular regard, amidft the exube- 
rance of Englifli manufadures. 

In recent times, the manufadures of iron and copper, native mine- 
rals, have become great fources of national wealth ; nor muft the new 
and extenfive exportation of elegant earthen-ware be forgotten. The 
cotton manufadure is difFufed far and wide, forming a grand fource of 
induftry and profperity. That of linen is not much cultivated in Eng- 
land, though nature would rather demand that flax fhould be cultivated 
in this fertile country, while fheep and wool were reftrided to the 
hilly paftures of Scotland. The manufadures of glafs and fine fteel, 
clocks, watches, &c. are defervedly eminent and extenfive. As the 
nation is indebted to Wedgewood for converting clay into gold, fo to 
Boydell for another elegant branch of exportation, that of beautiful 
prints. 

Befides manufadured articles, England exports a number of native 
produds too numerous to be here mentioned. 

The Englifli manufadures have been recently eftimated at the annual 
value of 63,600,000/. and fuppofed to employ 1,585,000 perfons". Of 
thefe the woollen manufadure is fuppofed to yield in round fums, 

* Campbell's Political Survey, vol. ii". p. 151, 152. A vvoik opulent in materials, but of moft 
tedious and uncouth execution. 

^' Mr. Grcllitr, in the Monthly Mag. January 1801. 

15,000,000/. 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 



99 



15,000,000/. the leather 10,000,000/. the iron, tin,and lead 10,000,000/. Mamufac- 
the cotton 9,000,000/. The other chief manufadlures, which yield qI^I^\^^° 
from I to 4,000,000/, may be thus arranged, according to their con- 
fequence, fteel, plating, &c. copper and brafs, filk, potteries, linen and 
flax, hemp, glafs, paper. 

The Commerce of England is, at the prefent period, enormous, and 
may be faid to extend to every region of the globe. It was conceived 
that the defedion of the American colonies, would have proved detri- 
mental in this view ; but the commercial confequences have been little 
important. The trade with the Weft Indies furniflies another grand 
refource ; and that with the Eaft Indies alone, would have aftonilLed 
any of the celebrated trading cities of antiquity. The following tabic 
■will prefent a more complete view of the fubjedl, than could other- 
wife be conveyed. It relates folely to the port of Londoq^ for one 
year, ending 5th of January, 1795, fmce which the commerce has 
increafed. 



Names of the Countries. 


Value of Imports 
into London. 


Value of Exports from 
to Foreig 


the Port of London, 
n Parts. 








Biitilh 


Foreign 










Manufaftures. 


Merchandize 






' £. 


d. 


£. u d. 


I- 


s. 


d. 


Ireland 


2,209,501 3 


4 


168,687 i3 3 


914,352 


4 


4 


Bri'tifli Weft Indi'es 


6,072,117 5 





2,219,043 13 II 


579'453 


6 





Conquered Iflands 


1,226,064 13 


8 


260,976 II 


110,817 


18 





Britifh American Colonies 


307,412 13 





654,842 19 4 


25i>55i 


6 


2 


Guernfey and Jerfey 


91,936 I 


2 


12,001 13 IQ 


21,616 


16 


8 


Gibraltar 


12,947 16 


8 


83,473 14 II 


69.3'5 


2 


8 


Honduras Bay 


14,696 4 


2 


2,029 '8 II 


2'J5° 


16 


2 


South Fifhery 


197,680 8 


6 


. 2. 6 8 




.. 


._ 


Afia, including Eaft Indies 


8,916,950 2 


10 


3,398,680 1 4 


185,190 


16 





Africa 


66,013 8 


4 


90,593 12 9 


188,743 


16 


6 


Turkey 


641,860 19 


2 


32,065 12 


'23.776 


7 


2 


Streighta 


8,399 '4 





... .. 


-- 




.. 


Venice 


82,107 16 





6,203 '7 'I 


16,305 


7 


2 


Ital/ 


1,215,012 15 





80,980 18 9 


340 786 





8 


Spain - 


1,070,697 18 





205,096 4 4 


265,169 


3 


4 


Portugal 


644,6 3 


S 


182,780 6 2 


119,813 


12 


6 


Madeira 


7.479 '6 


8 


27,998 6 10 


6,886 


i8' 


2 


Canaries 


6,763 ig 


10 


20.116 18 4 


377 


5 


2 


France 


I 30 6 


8 


3,216 5 3 • 


63,625 


10 


6 


Auftrian Flanders 


> 37.249 5 



8 


>29'4'3 9 7 
7,608,223 


887,642 


iS 
6 


lO 


Canied forward 


22,929,632 10 


4, 147 '975 









2 




Holland 



100 



ENGLAND. 



Commerce. 



Names of the Couutries. 


Value of Imports 
into LonUon. 




Yalue of Export 


;$ from 
Foic 


I the Port of London, ( 
ign Parts. 


t» 












Btitifh 




Foreign 














Manufactures. 




Merchandize. 






c- 


I. 


d. 




£. 


i. 


£■ 


i. 


Brought, forward 


22,9^9,632 


10 


8 




7,6o8,2?3 





4''47 975 6 





Holland 


1,203,515 


3 


6 


^. 


1.4,458 3 


7 


1,968,687 3 


4 


Germany 


1.089,307 


19 


4 




1,044,634 18 





6,176, ICO 14 


8 


Pruffia 


196,657 


3 


2 




54,380 14 





272,719 17 


4 


Poland 


104978 


10 


4 




7.022 II 


10 


57.067 2 


4 


Sweden 


262,727 


3 


4 




33-845 5 


6 


111,457 14 


4 


Ruffia 


, 1,269.688 


9 


6 




95.519 8 


8 


491,244 9 


2 


Denmark and Norway 


166,366 


I 







147.340 5 


II 


545.509 19 


8 


Greenland 


26,753 


II 


2 




— — 


— 


— — 


— 


United States of America 


811,511 


18 


& 




2,351,280 12 


I 


429 248 7 


8 


Florida 


16239 


16 


D 




38,067 


3 


8,855 





Foreign Weft Indies 


56 240 


2 







«.767 13 


10 


do 





Prize Goods 


1,572,868 


8 


8 








Inclu Jed in the account 








4 


• 

I 




S 


of each country. 






29,706,476 


'7 


''39<5,539 '3 


14,208,925 14 


6 




RECAPITULATION. 








The aggregate value of goods imported 


into London 


in one yeai' 




29,706,476 17 


4 


Brltifti Manufaftures exported £ 


'. II 


.396 


.539 


'3 8 








■Foreign Merchandize, do, 




M 


..208, 


,925 


.4 6 




25,605,465 8 


2 



Value of goods imported in upwards 

of 9000 coafting vcflels, averaged 

at 500/. each. ■ 
Value of goods exported coailways 

in about 7000 vefiels, at 1000/. 

each, 



1 



4500,000 o o 



7,000,000 o o 



Total amount of property (hipped and luifiiipped In the River Thames, in 
the courfe of a year, eilimated at - - - \ 



1 1 ,500,000 o o- 



66,811,942 5 6 



If to this eftlmate be added thofe of the ports of Liverpool, Briflol, 
&c. how enormous muft be the amount '*. 

From the States of North America, are chiefly imported tobacco, 
rice, indigo, timber, hemp, flax, iron, pitch, tar, and lumber : From the 
Weft Indies, fugar, rum, cotton, coffee, ginger, pepper, guaiacum, 
farfaparilla, manchineal, mahogany, gums, &c. From Africa, gold duft, 
ivory, gums, &c. From the Eaft Indies and China, tea, rice, fpices. 



Colquhoun (or Cohoun) on the Police. 



drugs. 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. lot. 

drugs, colours, filk, cotton, falt-pctrc, fliawls, and other produds of the CoMMERct. 
loom. From our remainhig fettlements in North America, are imported 
furs, timber, pot-afh, iron ; and from the various States of Europe, 
numerous articles of utility, and luxury. 

On introducing the Income Tax, Mr. Pitt gave the following eftimatc 
of the annual income of Great-Britain ". 

The land rental, after deducing one-fifth - - - ^' 20 000,000 

The tenant's rental of land, dednfling two-thirds of the rack-rent - 6,000.000 

The amount of tytlics, deducting one fifth - - 4,000,000 

The produce of mines, canal navigation, &c. deducing one fifth - 3 000,000 

The rental of houfcs, dcdiifling one-fifth - - - 50000.0 

The profits Oi proteffions - - - - 2.000,000 

The rental of Scotland, taking it at one eighth of that of England - 5,000,000 

The inconieof perfonsrefideiit in Great Britain, drawn (rom poffinions beyond the feas 5 000 coo 

The amount of annuities from ihe public funds, a'ter dcdufling oHe-fifth .'or) 

exemptions and modifications " " " j »-00 

The profits on the capital employed in our foreign commerce • 12,000,000 

The profits employed on the capital in donicllictrade. and the profits of flvill 1 „ 

I- J a f 28,000,000 

and mduitry - , . . j ' 

In all ;^. 102,000,000 

By others, the landed property of Great-Britain has been com- 
puted at the rental of 33,000,000/. which, at thirty years purchafe, 
would yield 990,000,000/. ; the rental of houfes in England and 
Wales '*, at 7,436,000/. and eftimating that of Scotland at about a fixth, 
the value at fifteen years purchafe, might be about 130,000,000/. 
The cattle and farming-ftock, about 100,000,000/. the furniture, 
apparel, &c. 26,000,000/. The navy and merchant-fhips have been 
valued at 16,000,000/. ; the goods in the hands of merchants and 
wholefale dealers, more than 13,000,000/. and thofe in the hands of 
manufadlurers and retail traders, more than 22,000,000/. Including 
the money, of which the eftimate is far from certain, the whole capital 
of Great-Britain may be calculated at more than one thoufand, two 
hundred millions *. 

^' New Annual Regifter, for 1799, p. 1T4. '* Grellicr, Month. Mag. Sept. iSoo; 

• In the beginning of the eighteentii century, Gregory King fuppofed the value of England 
and Wales to be 650,000,000/, MS. Had, No. i,8gb. The national debt now approacheB 
500,000,000/. 

In 



103 ENGLAND. 

Commerce, In the year 1797, the amount of the exports, according to Cuftom- 
houfe accounts, was 28,917,000/. and of the imports, 21,013,000/. *, 
, yielding, as is fuppofed, clear profits on foreign trade, to the amount 

of at lead 10,000,000/. The number of merchant veflels is fuppofed 
to amount to 16,000 ; and it is fuppofed tliat 140,000 men and boys 
are employed in the navigation. 

* Mr. Pitt in 1799, computed the imports at 25, and the exports at more than 33,000,000/. 
In Feb. 1801, the foreign exports at 17, the domeftic 20,000,000/. in all 37,000,000/. 



( »o3 ) 



CHAPTER IV. 
Natural Geography. 

Climate and Scafons. — Face of the Country. — Soil and Agriculture. — Rivers. — 
Lakes. — Alountains . — Forejls . — Botany . — Zoology. — Alincralogy. — Mineral 
Waters — Natural Curiojities. 

np HE climate of Great-Britain is perhaps more variable than that Climatb 

of any other country on the globe, as the vapours of the Atlantic ■*'<° 

Ocean, are oppofed to the drying winds from the Eaftern Continent. 
The weftern coafls in particular, are fubjed to frequent rains ; and the 
eaftern part of Scotland is of a clearer and dryer temperature than that 
of England. The humidity of the climate, indeed, clothes the delicious 
vales and meadows with a verdure unknown to any other region ; but 
is injurious to the health of the inhabitants, by caufing colds and 
catarrhs, the frequent fources of more deadly diforders, particularly of 
confumptions, which are fatal to many in the prime of youth. The 
moift and foggy climate confpires with the great ufe of grofs animal 
food, to produce that melancholy, which is efteemed by foreigners a 
national charadlerillic. As trees particularly attrad the moifture of the 
atmofphere ; it may be queftioned whether the noted abundance of 
them in England, contribute to the general falubrity. 

In confeqiience of the mutability of the climate, the feafons them- 
felves are of uncertain tenour. Aged people have always been given 
to magnify the advantages of their youth, but many obfervers, endowed 
with philofophical flcill, and candid judgment, have agreed, that fince 
the year 1775, a confiderable change has taken place in the tempera- 
ture of the year, both in Great Britain and Ireland ". Tiie winters 
in general have been more moift and mild, and the fummers more 
humid and more cold, than will be found on an average of preceding 

■ See Memoirs of the Irifh-Academy, vol. ii. 

6 years. 



io| ENGLAND. 

Ci.iMATi years. The year might more properly be divided into eight months of 
Seasons. winter, and four of fummer ; than into any theoretic arrangement, origi- 
nating in the fonthern latitudes. What is called the Spring, dawns in 
April, commonly, indeed, a mild month ; but the eaflern winds prevalent 
in May, fecm commlfTioned to ruin the effbi ts of reviving nature, and 
dcftroy the promife of the year. June, July, Auguft and September, 
. are ufually warm fummer months ; but a night of froft is not unknown, 
even in Auguft, and fometimes a cold Eaft wind will blow for three 
days together ; nor of late years are fummers unknown of almoft con- 
frant rain *. What the gardeners call blight, feems alfo more comm-on 
in England than in any other region ; and whatever be the caufe, is 
frequently very deftrudlive, efpecially to the hop-plants and the fruit 
trees. The winter may be faid to commence with the beginning of 
Oiftober, at which time domeftic fires become neceflliry ; but there is 
feldom any fevere froft till Chriftmas, and January is the moft ftern 
month of the year. Yet, as our fummers often produce fpecimens of 
winter, fo now and then gleams of warm funfhine illuminate the 
darker months-, though rarely amounting to what the French call 
u?i cte de St. Martin, or Martinmas fummer. March is generally the 
moft unfettled month of the year, interfperfed with dry froft, cold 
rains, and ftrong winds, with ftorms of hail and fleet. 
Face of the A chief ftcp to the ftudy of Geography, confifts in the knowledge of 

ountr). ■^vhat may be termed the phyfiognomy of the country, yet has no province 
in this fcience being fo completely negledted. We have even maps of 
Scotland and Switzerland, without mountains, and maps of China without 
canals. The chief features of any country are its hills, vales, and rivers; 
and of a maritime ftate, the fea-coaft. Mr. Pennant, in his Ar£tic Zoology, 
has given an admirable defcription of part of the Englifh fliores, which 
Ihall here be abbreviated, with an alteration in the arrangement, as he 
choofes to begin with the Streights of Dover. 

Fro'U the mouth of the Tweed to Bamborough, extends a fandy 
fhcre ; and the moft remarkable objed; is Lindesfarn, or Holy Ifland, 
divided from Northumberland by a level, which is dry at low water, 

* The fiimTiK-r of I £00 was remarkable for dryncfs and warmth, fcarcely any rain falli'og 
from the 6:h of June to the 20th of Augiiil, when a thunder ftorm fncceeded. 

but 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 105 

but out of which the flowing tide oozes fuddenly, to the terror and Facf of 
peril of the unwary traveller. From Bamborough Caftle, to Flambo- CoJntky. 
rough-head, are moftly low cliffs, of lime-ftone, and other materials ; 
and at Sunderland cf a peculiar ftone ufed in building, and which 
feems the work of marine infcfls. Scarborough (lands on a vaft rock, 
projeding into the waves ; but Flamborough-headis a far more magnifi- 
cent objed, being formed of lime-Rone, of a fnowy whitenefs, and 
ftupendous height, vifible far off at fea. Grand caverns open on the 
north fide, *' giving wide and folemn admiffion, through mod exalted 
" arches, into the body of the mountain ; together with the gradual 
" decline of light ; the deep filcnce of the place, unlefs interrupted by 
*' the ftriking of the oar, the collifion of a fwelling wave againft the fides, 
*' or the loud flutter of the pigeons, affrighted from their nefl:s in the 
*' difl:ant roof, afford pleafures of fcenery, which fuch formations as 
" this alone can yield. Thefe alfo are wonderfully diverfified. In 
" fome parts the caverns penetrate far, and end in darknefs ; in others 
" are pervious, and give a romantic paffage by another opening, equally 
*' fuperb. Many of the rocks are infulated, of a pyramidal form, and 
" loar to a great height. The bafes of moft are folid, but in fome 
" pierced through and arched. All are covered with the dung of the 
" innumerable flocks of migratory birds, which refort here annually 
" to breed, and fill every little projection, every hole, which will give 
*' them leave to reft *." 

Hence to the Humber are commonly clay cliffs ; and near Spurn- 
head amber is fometimes found. The extenfive coaft of Lincolnlliire 
is flat, and, according to Mr. Pennant's opinion, has been gained from 
the fea ; though, in fome parts, the fea has in its turn invaded the land, 
and the remains of a foreft are vifible under the waves. The county 
of Lincoln, and part of fix others, are the low countries of Britain ; and 
the coaft is diftinguifhable by churches, not by hills. The fhores of 
Norfolk and Suffolk prefent fometimes loamy or clayey precipices, 
iometimes hillocks of fand, and fometimes low and flat fpaces. Hun- 
ftanton-cliff rifes to the height of about eighty feet, compofed of chalk 

* Pennant's Ardic Zoology, vol. i. p. xv. 

VOL. I. P and 



io6 ENGLAND. 



Face of and friable flone, reding on a bafe of what is called Iron-coloured 
Country, pudding ftone *, projefting into the fea. The coaft of Effex is gene- 
rally low ; but to the fouth of the Thames, arife continued clitfs of 
chalk, with layers of flint, refembling mafonry. The North Foi eland 
is a lofty chalky promontory ; and the Cliffs of Dover are known to 
every reader of Shakcfpeare, 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Pennant did not extend his animated 
defcription to the fouthern and weftern coalls : cliffs of chalk and clay 
are interfperfed with flat gravel, till the Ifland of Portland prefents its 
bold rocky front. The weftern fliores abound with granite, and other 
filiceous rocks. 
Soil and "^^^ ^°^^ ^'^'^ agriculture of England, are topics which have recently 

Agriculturf. been illuftrated in fuch a multiplicity of meritorious works, that the 
fubje£t labours under thie abundance of the materials. A few very ge- 
neral remarks muft here fuffice. The foil is greatly diverfified, but in 
general fertile ; and In no country Is agriculture more thoroughly un- 
derflood, or purfued in a grander flyle, except, perhaps. In Flanders 
and Lombardy. The nobility and gentry, moftly refiding upon their 
eftates in iummer, often retain confiderable farms in their own hands, 
and pradtife and encourage every agricultural Improvement. The 
writings of Mr. Young, the inflitutions in the weft, and the Board of 
Agriculture, recently ere£led, have contributed to diflufe a wide and 
lafting knowledge of this interefling branch. The intermixture of the 
n-reen crops v.-lth thofe of grain, the ufe of turnips, the Irrigation of 
meadows, the regular fubftitutlon of crops appropriated to the ftate of 
the land, the art of draining condu£led on fcientific principles, may be 
mentioned among the recent advances of knowledge ; nor muft the Im-, 
provements in the breed of flieepand cattle, introduced by Bakcwell and 
others, be forgotten. 

Amidft fuch topics of juft exultation, it is mortifying to refiedt upon 
two circumftances, the deficiency of a proper fupply of grain, and the 
immenfe extent of the wafte lands in this Induftrious country. The 
cultivated acres in England and Wales are computed at upwards of 
39,000,000, while thole uncultivated are 7,888,777. Of thefe It is 

» Thefarsiliu of Kii-wan from the Latin : better from the Greek, hallafite. 

1 1 fuppofed 



T U 11 E , 



CHAP. IV. NATURxYL GEOGRAPHY. 107 

fuppofed that not above half a million is wholly unimprovable, and ^'^'^,*J^" 
perhaps a million is only fit for plantations, .while of the remainder one 
quarter is fit for tillage, and three fourths for meadow and upland 
pafture'. Mr. Middlcton* computes the arable land in South Britain at 
only 14,000,000 of acres, upon a general view of the coufumption of 
the country, as we import corn proportionate to the produce of 
378,000 acres. He fuppofes the ftate of crops on each 10,000,000 of 
acres to be as follows : 

Wheat - - 2,750 000 Acres. 

Oats and beans - - 2,500000 

Barley and Rye - - 750,000 

Roots - - 1,000,000 

Clover - - 1,000,000 

Fallow - - ■ 2,ooo,coo 



Total 10,000,000 



The utility of fallow is a dubious topic ; and the million in clover 
may be arranged as pafturage, which otherwife occupies not lefs than 
21,000,000 of acres, while 2,000,000 are affigned to woods, copfes, 
and hedge-rows' ; and more than 1,500,000 are unavoidably confumed 
in roads, rivers, and waters, &c. The fubjedl can only be well dif- 
cufled by the moft competent judges; but it may be curforily obferved, 
that as the radical error of French agriculture, was an excefs of land 
under grain, whence there was a deficiency of pafture, of cattle, and 
confequently of manure, fo that the arable ground was ftarved ; fo in 
England there may, perhaps, be an excefs of pafturage. Whatever be 
the caufes, a growing population, certainly increafing luxury and wafte, 
the negledl of the wafte lands, or other fources, the confumption of 
grain in this country, has, it is believed, fince the middle of the laft 
century, particularly fince 1767, generally, exceeded the produce; and 
the evil has gradually increafed to an alarming extent. On an average 
of eleven years, clofing with 1793, the annual deficiency amounted to 
587,163 quarters of grain* ; nay, in 1795, the fcarcity demanded a ftiil 
further fupply of 1,177,000 quarters ; which alfo, divided by 1 1, will 



3 Firft Report of the Committee of the Hoiife of Commons, p. 22, 
"ViewofMiddlefex, p.484. s lb. 4S6. "^ lb 481. 



P 2 



produce 



io8 ENGLAND. 

Soil AND producc the whole annual defed of 694,163 quarters. Computing 
ture""^ produce at three quarters an acre, the land required, exclufive of the 
feed, would be 231,388 acres cropped with corn ; while about half as 
much muft be added for fallow and the rotation of . crops. For an 
abundant fupply 500,000 of acres might be requifite, which might 
feemingly be affumed with little difBculty from at leaft 1,500,000 
wafte acres in South Britain, which are fit for tillage. Yet this calcu- 
lation would infer that the deficiency does not exceed the twenty- 
eighth part of the whole, which feems too fmall, as the bread has been 
doubled in price ; and, indeed, thefe theoretic views can never pretend 
to much exaftnefs. If South Britain annually produce 11,500,000 
quarters of wheat, the deficiency can hardly be fuppoled lefs than a 
tenth part. Scarcity, indeed, multiplies the confumption, as the poor 
are reduced to the ufe of bread only ; but flill the rife in the price of 
that article, appears to exceed any fair calculation. 

Horticulture, or the art of gardening, is alfo purfued in England 
with great affiduity and fuccefs. The large fupply of the capital in 
vegetables and fruits, and the high prices given for early produce, occa- 
fion fuch a fpirit of cultivation, that each acre thus employed, is fup- 
pofed to yield about 120/. annually, the confumption in the metropolis 
being computed at more than i,ooo,oool. annually. While Mr. Mid- 
dleton computes the hop-grounds in South Britain at 4.1,000 acres, he 
allows lOjOoo for nurfery grounds, 50,000 for fruit and kitchen gar- 
dens, and 20,000 for pleafure-grounds, that is, the unprofitable parts of 
the latter, the reft being padured for cattle, or mown for hay. Of 
ornamental gardens, laid out with a juft attention to the beauties of 
nature, and free from the uncouth affedations of art, England is de- 
fervedly regarded as the parent country \ The firft idea has been 
referred to Milton's defcription of Eden ; and a paper in the Guardiaa 
is fuppofed to have induced Bridgman, a fafhionable defigner of gar- 
dens, to begin this reform, which was fuccefsfully followed by Kent, 
while the Duke of Argyle introduced the various foliage of exotic trees. 
One of Kent's beft Avorks was the garden at RouQiam, while Claremont.. 
Elher, and other places, alfo proclaim the extent of his powers. The 

' Lord Otford on Modern Gardening. 

nev^r 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY, 



109 



new defigns were feconded by leveral gentlemen of tafte ; and Kent Soilano 
was followed by Brown, wbo has been fucceeded by Repton, and ^vIk^' 
other mafters of great abilities. In the courfe of little more than half 
a century, this tafte has not only been diftufed in Great Britain, but has 
been imitated in feveral favourite fpots on the Continent, even as far as 
the rude climate of Ruilla. 

But the rivers and mountains of a country conftitute its moft im- Rivers, 
portant features ; and without juft delineations of them, the geogra- 
phical portrait cannot boaft much truth or refcmblance. England is 
interfedied by four important rivers, the Severn, the Thames, the Hum- 
ber, and the Merfey. Tlie Severn I'ifes from the mountain Plenlimmon, Severn, 
and after an eafterly courfe to Shrewfbury, bends its progrefs almofl 
fouth to Gloucefter, whence it flows fouth-weft into the Briftol Chan- 
nel, a progrefs of about 150 miles, navigable as far as Welch-pool. 
Its chief tributary ftreams are the Northern and Southern Avons, 
the Teme and the Wye\ 

The Thames originates in Cotfwo!d-hills,Gloucefterfhire ; and main- Thames, 
tains a fouth-eafterly dire£lion, to its egrefs into the German Ocean, 
after receiving the Cherwel, the Teme, the Kennett, another Wye, the 
Mole, and Lee. The Medway flows into the eftuary of the Thames, 
as the Wye into that of the Severn. The courfe is computed at 140 
miles, navigable to Cricklade '. 

The Humber is a name almoft confined to a large eftuary, which Humber, 
receives many confiderable rivers that fertilize the central parts of 
England. Of thefe the Trent is the moft important, which rifes at 
New-pool, in Staffbrdftiire, and proceeding North-eaft, enters the 
Humber, after a diredt courfe of about 100 miles, being navigable to 
Burton in Staffbrdftiire. The other principal rivers that iflue into the 
Humber, are the Dun, a navigable ftream v\hich runs by Don- 
cafter ; the Aire navigable to Leeds, and the Calder navigable to 
Halifax, both fmgularly ufeful in tranfporting the woollen manu- 
fadures ; the Warf, navigable to Tadcafter; and the noble river Ure,, 
or Oufe, which runs by York, and forms another grand branch of the 



' Campbell, I, 146. 



Ibid. I. 139. 



Hunaber, 



no ENGLAND. 

Rivers. Humber, navigable to Rlppon : nor mufl: the Derwent be omitted, 
which is navigable to New Malton ; nor, though lad and lead, the 
Hull. The Humber may be regarded as the ftem of a venerable oak, 
which, as uiual with that tree, fpreads its chief branches in a horizontal 
direction. 

Mei-fey. Though the Merfey prefent a grand eftuary, its courfe is not of 

great extent. It arifes in the Weft Riding of Yorkfliire, and runs to 
the fouth-weft ; but the eftuary bends towards the north. The dire£t 
courfe is not above 50 miles ; and is navigable to Stockport : as the 
Irwell to near Manchefter, and theWeever to near Northwich, and the 
mines of rock-ialt. 

In briefly defcribing the other navigable rivers of this kingdom, it 
may be proper to return to the Severn, and proceeding fouth-weft, 
purfue the outline of the coaft. The Avon is navigable to Bath, the 
Perrot to Ilchefter, the Tone to Taunton, the Taw to Barnftaple, and 
another branch to Biddeford ; the Camil of Cornwall, to Wedbridge, 
while the Plym, Dart, and Ex, can alfo be pervaded to a confiderable 
height. Another Avon is navigable to near Salifbury, the Itchyn to 
Winchefter, the Arun to Arundel, the Oiife to Lewes : the Rother, 
which forms the haven of Rye, is yet navigable, though fallen in fame. 
The Stour admits boats even to Canterbury ; but the Medway prefents 
a navigable ftream as far as Tunbridge. On the north of the Thames, 
the Lee is navigable to Bilhop's Stortford and Hertford: the Crouch 
conveys boats from the fea to Hull-bridge in EfTex ; the Black-water 
to Chelmsford, and another branch to Colchefter. The Stour is navi- 
o-able to Sudbury ; tJhe Orwell to Stow, the Deben to Woodbridge : the 
Yare and Waveney prefent accefs to FouUham and Bungay. Next is 
the eftuary called the Wafli, which receives the Oufe, the Nen, the 
Welland, the Witham, all ftreams of confiderable navigation. 

On the North of the Humber, the Tees admits veflels to Stockton ; 
the Tvne to Newcaftle. On the Weft, the Eden is navigable to Car- 
lifle; the Lon to Lancafter and Hornby; the Dee to Chefter; the 
Conway to within two miles of Llanrwft ; the Tivey to Llanpiter. 
Milford Haven prefects branches navigable to Haverford-weft, and to 

near 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. iii 

near Wifton: and laftly, the Wye may be purilicd as far as Hay, Rivers. 
in Brecknockdiire. 

In general it may be obferved of the Britilh rivers, that tlic length of 
their courfe is inconfiderable, when compared with that of the Conti- 
nental ftreams. The length of the Thames compared with that of the 
Danube, is only as i to 7, and with that of the Nile, as i to i 2. The 
Kian Keu of China, and the river of Amazons in South America, ex- 
tend throu"-h a progrefs of more than fifteen times the length of that of 
the Thames. The rivers of the Southern and middle parts of England, 
prefent a ftriking contraft to thofe of the North ; the former purfuing a 
flow and inert courfe over mud, between level banks, amid rich and 
extenfive meadows j while the latter roll their clear torrents over 
beds of gravel, between elevated banks, and rocky precipices ; and even 
when verdant levels occur, the ftream ftill retains its banks and beds 
of gravel. 

The mountains form another grand feature of geography. They Mountams, 
feldom appear fmgle, but are either dlfpofed in lines or ridges, called 
chains, or in anomalous clufters. When they can be arranged under 
the firft form or denomination, as the Alps for example, or the Pyrenees, 
they aiford great clearnefs to, geographical limits and defcriptions. It 
is not, however, to be conceived, that a chain of mountains forms one 
feries, as delineated in fmall maps, for the leading fummits diverge on 
both fides into extenfive ribs, gradually melting into the champaign 
country. And the clufters, if accurately furveyed, will generally be 
found to prefent central elevations, whence fmaller branches irradiate. 

While Bennevis, the higheft mountain in Scotland, is not much 
above one quarter of the height of Mont Blanc, the fovereign of the 
Alps, the Englifh and Welch fummits afpire to heights ftill lefs confi- 
derable; Snowden being only 3568 Englifh feet above the fea, while 
Bennevis is 4387, or by other accounts, 4350. But Wharn, or Wharn- 
fide, in Yorkfhire, was eftimated at 4050 *. 

Even 

* In the map of the Weft Riding, fn Gary's EngHfh Atlas, Wharn is fai'd to be 1780 yards, 
or 534c feet^; while ln;;Ieborough is 1760 yards, or 5280 feet ; and Pennigant 1740 yards, or 
5320 feet. This meafurement is from the map of Yorkfhire, by Jeffries. 

Mr> 



112 ENGLAND. 

MouN'T.uNs. Even at the prefent day, the geogrnphy of fome parts of New- 
Holland, is better underftood than that of fome parts of Great Britain. 
There is not even a feparate map of the Enghfh rivers, though France 
fet an example of this kind, a century and a half ago; nor has there 

Mr. Koufman, in liis Defcription of Cumberland, &c. (Carlifle, i?oo, 8vo.) is the moft 
recent authority for the height of the Biitifli mountains, which he exhibits in the following 
table : 

" Heights of the Mountains above, the Level of the Sea. 

Feet. 
Snowdsn, in Wales, by Waddington - - 345^ 

Whernfide Do. - - 4050 

Pendle hill Do. - - 3411 

Pennygent Do. - — 393° 

Ingleborough, Do. - - 39^7 

Helwtllyn, by Donald - - 33^4 

Skiddaw, Do. - - - 3270 

Crofs-fell, Do. - - • 3390 

Saddleback, Do. - - - ' 3048 

Benlomond - • - 3240 

Benevifh - - - - 435° 

Ben-y-bourd higher -J By Pennant. 



I 



Laghin-y-gair 

Benwewirti, ) Perpetual fnovr. 

Skiddaw, by the experiments of Mr, Walker, from the plane ) 

of the fea, at Whitehaven _ _ J 353° 

Crofs-fell, by Pennant - - 3839" 

But great fliill and preclfion are required in meafuring the heights of mountains, A late ex- 
cellent mathematician, Mr. Ewart, of Lancafter, meafured the height of Ingleborough, with 
feleft and high priced inftruments, and great care. Here is the refult, as communicated to me 
by Dr. Garnett : 

Height of Ingleborough above the level of the Sea, in feet and decimals. 

By barometrical admeafurement - 2377,12 

By trigonometrical _ _ - 2380,79 

Difference only - 3,67 

Wham catinot be above too feet higher, while Pendle and Pennigant are lower. The mea- 
furements by Donald are probably near the truth ; Crofsfell being, in Dr. Garneti's opinion, 
the higheft mountain in England. 

Mr. Houfman has, however, given a good general view of the Englifh mountains. On coming 
from the fouth (p. 5.) they begin in Derbyfhire, flrerching a little into Chefhire. The tops of 
the ridges are commonly wet and boggy, and produce heath, bent-grafs, and niflies. They are 
alnioft univerfally calcareous. Near Penrith (p. 8.) they almoft wholly difappear. The fummit 
of Crofsfell (p. 18.) is fcarcely 1 000 yards above the fea, and prefents a large heap of loofe 
whitiih free-ftone, or, more probably, argillaceous grit. 

been 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. ii 



J 



been any attempt to delineate the chains of mountains in England. Mjvntains. 
The imperfedion of the materials muft therefore apologize for any 
errors or defeds in the fubfequent flight fketch. The mountainsof 
Cheviot may be faid to form a regular ridge, running from the fouth- Cheviot, 
•vvefl:, where they join thofe of Galloway to the north-eaft. But there 
is a central ridge which pervades England from north to fouth, beginning Central 
at Geltfdale foreft, 14 miles S. E. of Carlifle *, and pafllng on the weft of 
Durham and Yorkflaire, where it contains mines of coal and lead, but is 
fplit into infignificant appellations o^ fells and la%vs. Kelton-fcll, Stan- 
more, Widehill-fell,Wi!dboar-fell, Bow-fell, Home-fell, Bunhill, &c. &c. 
arife on the weftern limits of Yorkfliire. Cumberland and Weftmoreland 
prefeut many detached mountains, Skiddaw, &c. which can hardly be 
reduced to any diftind arrangement ; but thofe of Craven, in the Weft 
Riding of Yorkfhire, as Wharn, or as commonly called by the country 
people, Wharnfide, Ingleborough, and Pennigant ; and Pendle on the 
eaft of Lancafter j" ; belong to the Central Chain, which proceeds 
fouth, through Derbyfliire, ftill abounding with minerals and natural 
curiofities ; but here it feems to terminate, fpreading a little into 
Chefhire. Still, however, a central chain of fmaller elevation, may be 
traced, in a zig-zag line, to near Salifbury, with two diverging and 
irregular branches on the eaft, one towards Norfolk, another into Kent, 
while a third rung fouth-vveft into Cornwal. To the firft belong the 
hills of Gogmagog, in Cambridgefliire, «Scc. to the fecond the hills of 
Hampfliire, Surrey and Kent. Malvern hills, in Worcefterihire, de- 
viate from the central ridge, while thofe of Cotfwold, in Gloucefter- 
fhire may be regarded as a continuation of it. The hills of Mendip, 
Polden, Sedgemoor, Blackdown, in Somerfetftiire ; the Tores and 
Wilds of Dartmore, in Devon ; and the hills and upland downs of 

* The heaihy tradl extends to Bewcaflle and Nichol Foreft, but is level. Houfm. 427. 
f That Inglcboro\v-hill, Pendle, and Pennigent, 

Should named be the higheft. betwixt our Tweed and Trent. 

Drayton's poly Oliilon, Sor^ 28. 
It is remarkable that Wham, the higheft is om'f.ed. 

VOL. I. Q^ Cornwal, 



114 ENGLAND. 

Mountains. Cornwal, extend this clialn to the Land's End : and after pafllng this 
Jafl; rocky province, it expires in the Iflands of Scilly *. 

Wales is a country abundant in mountains, efpecially the northern 
provinces ; but their orology remains indeterminate, and it woukl re- 
' quire the adlual furvey of aa experienced engineer, to reduce them to 

Siio'.vjau. chains or groupes. To begin with the North, Snowdon commands the 
firfl attention, a mountain of eminent height and fame; The top is 
called Y Widdfa, or the confpicuous, forming alraofi; a point, and pre- 
fenting a view of the county of Chefter, the mountains of Yorkftiirc, 
part of Scotland and Ireland, and the IHes of Man and Anglefey '°. 

Mr. Pennant does not fpecify the ftone that compofes it (probably a 
granite) ; but he obfcrves that " large coarfe cryftals are often found 
" in the fiflures, and very frequently cubic pyrita;, the ufual attend- 
" ants on Alpine tracts." From Snowdon, a line of mountains ex- 
tends by the fea to Plenlimmon, a boundary of North Wales, whence 
iflue the noble rivers Severn and Wye. Of thefe hills, Urrou Seth, 
"Caer Idris, and Moyle Vadiau, are the moft memorable. The hills on 
the Eaft of North Wales, are far from attaining fuch confiderable ele- 
vation, and gradually decline to the hills of Shropfhire, of which the 
Wrekin is one of the moft noted f . 

* Among the fmaller elevations may be named the Chihern-hills, (whence the vague office 
of Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds) reaching from Tring in Hertfordfhire, to Henley, in Ox. 
fordlhire. In the latter county are Nettlebed and Shotover-hills. 

f Mr. Aikin, in his Tour in Wales, has coniiderably illullvated this fubjcfl. He obfcrves 
(p. 19.) that the Ferwyn mountains occupy the Eaft fide of Merioneth, branching into Denbigh 
and Montgomery ; length about fixteen milts, breadth from five to ten. Cader Idris is the 
fccond in height of the Welch mountains (about 3000 feet) and from it extends a primitive 
chain, running N. N. E. in the Arrans and Arranigs, confiltiug of porphyry and granitell. The 
fecond grand ridge, that of Snowdon, alfo runs N. N. E. and conlllk of fchillofe hornblende, 
micaceous fchillus, granite, and porphyry, with fome large blocks of ferpeutine : this chain ex. 
tends from Penmacnmawr, towards Traethmawr; and aftei forming conic peaks at intervals, 
it ends in the northern horn of Cardigan-bay, ihat is the foutheru promontory of Caernar- 
vonshire. 

May not the mountains of Weftmortland and Cumberland be confidered as elongations of thefe 
two chains, that of Snowdon paffing from the promontory on the well of the bay of Lancafter, 
by Helvellyn, and ending in Saddleback and Sklddaw ; while the other pafles from near the 
river Ken, by Shap Fell, &c. ? 

*" Pennant's Journey to London, p. 1 70. 

A chaia 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. ^5 

A chain proceeds due fouth to near Cardiff, in South Wales ; it is of Mountains. 
far inferior height, and a fmali branch diverges to the weft, confifhing 
of Cwn Cothy, Mynydd, Carreg, Brifley, and Cvvni Kerrun-hills. On " 
the eaft of South Wales, are the hills of Herefordfhire, the Black Moun- 
tain, Cufop-hill, Hargeft, Stockley-hill-, &c. 

In the Northern ■ and Weftern mountains and hills, chalk is un- 
known, while it forms a chief material of thofe of the South and Eaft. 
An eminent naturalift obferves, that a line drawn from Dorchefter, in 
the county of Dorfet, to the county of Norfolk, would form a boundary 
of the great chalky ftratum which interfeds the kingdom, none being 
found in any quantity to the north or weft of that line ". The north- 
ern mountains are moftly compofed of lime-ftone, free-ftone, flate or 
fchiftus, with mines of lead or coal ; thofe of Derbyfliire prefent vaft 
mafles. of lime-ftone, interfered with thick veins of toad-ftone, by fome 
aflerted to be the produce of fire, while others aflign an aqueous origin *, 
and numerous foflils and minerals, the confideration of which is re- 
ferved for a future article. The fummit of Skiddaw prefents white 
fhivery flate, or argillaceous fchiftus ; but fome of the Weftmoreland 
mountains contain filiceous fchiftus f ; and it is probable that granite 
may exift in thofe of Cheviot. The vaft bafe of Ingleborough, near 
30 miles in circuit, confifts of lime-ftone ; on the eaft fide full of flrells 
to near the fummit, which, is of grit and fand-ftone flag; the fofTiis, 
black and brown marble, thin flate near Ingleton, rotten-ftone or tripoli, 
and fome lead-ore '". And fuch is this chain to its termination ; while 
further to the fouth, the eafterly elevations are of chalk ; and thofe on 
the weft, as Mendip hills, in Somerfetflilre, are wholly calcareous. 
The granite begins at Dartmoor, in Devonfiiire, and continues through 
Cornwall, where it occurs of various colours, the grey granite, or moor- 
ftone ; the red, or Oriental ; the white, the yellow, and the bluifh, or 

»' Pennant's Journey from Chefter to London, p. 214. '" Guide to tlic Lakes, 265. 267. 

* Tills toad-ftone is by the miners called cat-dirt, but they unluckily apply the fame name to 
a very different fubftance (a grecnifli lime-ftone) ; a circumftance which has deceived St. Fond, 
ivhen he afferts that lead ore is found in the toad-ftone, which is never the cafe. 

\ Called by Houfman (p. Ag.) hard grey flint. Fine blue flate abounds in Borrowdr.le, lb. 
He Hiys, (p. 229.) that near the fummit of Wharn, there is a thin feam of coal, and another is 
faid to correfpond with it on a hill on the oppofite fide of Dentdnle- 

Q^ 2 pigeon- 



ii6 ENGLAND. 

Mountains, pigeon-coloured ". Near the Lizard and Mullion, are rocks of ferpen- 
tine and fteatites, the latter being alfo found in a fingular variolite, at 
Thorverton, between Exeter and Upton Pyne. The china-ftone, or 
petunfi, ufed in makuig fine porcelain, is here a decorapofed granite, 
the feirpar having become foft Uke Uthoraarga. 

The Welch mountains abound in various granites, with large mafies 
of quartz and Terpentine : a French traveller '•*, obferves a finillarity 
between the fubftances of the Welch mountains, and thofe of Wicklow 
in Ireland, whence he infers a primitive jun£lion. While on'the eafl: of 
England the lime-ftone fucceeds the chalk (of which change the noble 
promontory of Flamborough-head, already defcribed, affords a ftriking 
inftance) on the coaft towards Wales, are found granite, and other pri- 
mitive rocks. The Wrekin, about ten miles eail of Shrewfbury, is 
chiefly compofed of reddifh chert, or petrofilex, with filiceous fand-ftone, 
bafalt, and a kind of granite ". The great coal diftrid of Colebrook- 
dale, reftg on indurated clay, while that near Briftol is accompanied by 
black freeftone, and even the calcareous freeftone near Bath, is inter- 
fperfed with numerous veins of coal. The Malvern-hills on the S. W. 
of Worcefterfliire, run N. and S. about ten miles, and afford many gra- 
nitic rocks with chert and hornblende flate '^ Thefe' few notices 
muft fuflice on the compolition of the Englilh mountains, a fubjedl: 
which only begins to attradl the attention which its curiofity 
deferves. 

Forefts. T^o the reader of poetry, the word Jhre/^ conveys the idea of a region 

replete with thick and tall woods, interfperfed with romantic lawns 
and murmuring rivulets. But in England a forefl: is fometimes bare of 
trees, or not unfrequently only prefents a few vv'ithered oaks ; and the 
term is even applied to upland downs and heaths. Many of the forefts 
vv'cre, even in the Anglo-Saxon times, efteemed royal demefnes ; but 
the Norman monarchs were fo much addicted to the chace, that up- 
wards of fixty forefts at one time, appertained to the crown ; of which 
the chief now remaining are the forefts of Dean, in Gloucefterfhire, 
Sherv^'Ood, in Nottinghamfhire ; Windfor, in Berkfliire ; and the New 

'3 Pryce's Mineralogy of Cornwal. Matcn's Weftevn Tour, &c. 

^ Coquebctt Jouro. des Mines. " Townfon's Trafts, p. 163. " Ibid. 216. 

7 Fere ft. 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. ii; 

Foreft, in Hampfliire. The royal forefts conllituting fo large a part of Forests. 
the kingdom, of a diftintl nature, and regulations ditlcrent from other 
regions, many grievances arofe, till the Barons exa£led from Henrys 
III. the fore ft- charter; in which feveral defpotic laws were revoked, 
and more equity extended to the neighbouring proprietors and 
tenants. 

Befides the principal forefts above-mentioned, other diftri(f>s ftill re- 
tain the name, as Dartmoor-foreft, in Devonfliire ; linfield-chail", in 
MiddlefeK ; Witham, and Epping-foreft, and that of Hsnault, in 
Eflcs ; Sacy and Wittleborough-foreft, and Rockingham-foreft, in 
Northamptonfhire ; Pcak-foreft, in Derbyihire ; Malvern-chafe and 
Wyre-foreft, in Worceftcrfnire ; Cannock-chafe, and Neidv/ood-forelt, 
in StafFordlliire ; Mogg-foreft, and Clun-foreft, and that of Hays and 
Mocktree, in Shroplhire ; Macclesheld-forefl:, in Chefhire ; Netherdale- 
foreft, and Langfter-chafe, in the Weft Riding of Yorklhire ; the forelt 
of Galtres; and Arkengarth and Stainmore, and Leyne, in the North 
Riding; Teefdale and Wered.le-forefts, in the county of Durham ; 
Rofendale-foreft, in Lancafhire ; Sleddell and Marti ndale- forefts, &c. 
in Weftmoreland ; Geltfdale and Inglewood-forefts, in Cumberland.. 

Among the numerous fpecies of vegetables which are natives of Gene.ai 
Britain, fcarcely any are adequate to the fuftenance and cloathing of |rkifli Bot 
man. Our frequent rains, our blaftjng winds, and the fcanty portion ">'■ 
to which we are ftinted, of the light and heat of the fun, de. rive us en- 
tirely of thofc vegetable treafures, which, in the tropical climates, offer 
themfelves in overflowing exuberance, to fatlsfy the wants and lux- 
urious defires of their human inhabitants. The never-failing verdure 
of our plains and hills,' covered with a rich carpet of graftes ar:d papi- 
lionaceous plants, fliews how admirably our country is qualified for the 
fupport of graminivorous quadrupeds; and we find accordingly that 
our ancient forefts abounded in ftags and roe-deer, as our cleared and 
cultivated laitrls do now Vvdth fneep and. cattle. This feem.ing partiality, 
of nature, in thus fcanting to man the fupply of vegetable food, whiie 
it is profufely offered to the grazing herds of every kind, by obliging the 
early fettlers in this ifland to depend for their fupport, principally on. 
the flefli of animals, gave them ftronger motives to perfonal .exertion, , 

thaa 



i.iS ENGLAND. 

BorANv. than an equal ftate of civilization in a warmer climate, could have af- 
forded. While the native of the tropical regions was receiving from 
the unpurchafed bounty of nature, his regular and plentiful fupply of 
cocoa-nuts, bananas, an.d bread-fruit, the Briton was obliged to earn 
his daily food, by the hard labour of each day, to chafe the flying deer 
throup-h the woods, or to dlfpute his prey with the boar or the wolf. 
Thus, by the feverity of the clttnate, and the want of vegetable food, 
was the lirft germ of exertion ripened into aftivity, which, by the com- 
bined influence of luxury and neceflTity, has at length laid all the vege- 
table riches of the globe at our feet. 

In the general progrefl^ion of fcience, botany has advanced with rapid 
• ■fieps,nnd has been cherifhed with peculiar fondnefs in our native ifland. 
The Flora of Britain, though it cannot boaft the mofl: fplendld and ex- 
quiiite of vegetable produdions, yet contains as great a variety of genera 
and fpecies, as any other country of equal extent. The invefligation 
of indigenous, as well as exotic plants, is continually carrying on here 
M'ith increafuig ardour, and every year brings new accefl^ions to our 
crowded ranks of native vegetables. It cannot be expedled, therefore, 
that v>'e fhould give a particular account of each fpecies, and it would 
be but little agreeable or ufeful, to ofier to our readers a barren lift of 
Linnsan nomenclature : we ihall, therefore, chufe a middle courfe, 
by givin"- a general view of the natural families under which the plants 
of England arrange themfelves, and particularize by name only, fuch 
fpecies, as from their utility or rarity, or other circumftances, may be 
•\s'orthy of individual notice. 
Gr.>fr«. The tirft for importance and variety is the family of grasses. 

■Almoft^every part of the country that is not under tillage, is princi- 
pally covered with grafs. Under almoft all the difi'erences of foil and 
■fituation, we find the chief covering of the richeft, as well as of the 
luoft barren trads, made up for the moft part of thefe plants : to thefe 
we are indebted for the luxuriant verdure of our paftures, for the clofe 
velvet carpeting of our downs and fheep-walks, and the more fcanty 
cloathing of our mountainous diftrids. Twenty-feven genera, and a 
hundred and ten fpecies of grafs are natives of our ifland, moft of them 
ef commoa occurrence in fituations where they are found at all. None 

of 



CHAP, IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. ii, 

of them have been proved to be poifonous, either to man or beafl:, on Botany. 
the contrary, whether frefli or dried, they I'urnilh a grateful food to all 
our domeftic cattle. The moft important grafTcs in meadows and paf- 
tures, are the Anthoxanthum odoi-atum (fweet fcented vernal grafs) ; 
Phleum pratenfe (cat'stail grafs); Alopccurus pratenfis and agreflis 
(fox-tail grafs ^ ; two or three fpecies of Agroftis (bent- grafs) ; Aira 
flexuofa and coefpitofa (hair-grafs) ; Holcus lanatus and avcnaceus 
(foft-grafs ;) Poa trivialis pratenfis, &c. (meadow-grafs) ; Dadlylis glo- 
merata (cock's-foot grafs) j Feftuca avina pratenfis elatior, &c. (fefcue 
grafs) ; Avena pratenfis and flavefcens (oat-grafs). Other fpecies are 
natives of marflies and wet places ; thefe are generally the largeft ami 
moft luxuriant, and if in quality they be fomewhat inferior to the pre- 
ceding, yet the defe(fl: is probably more than compenfated by the quan- 
tity of herbage that they fupply. Of thefe the principal are Alopecurus 
geniculatus ; Milium cftufum ; Melica unifiora and nutanii ; Poa 
aquatica, 'fluitans, nemoralis ; Feftuca gigantea ; Arundo phrogmites, 
epigeios calamagroftis. Light fandy loils, efpecially the flat parts of 
the eaftern and fouthern coafts, abound in grafl'es that are hardly to be 
met with in the interior of the iiland ; the herbage of thefe affords a 
coarfe and fcanty pafture, and they are eminently diftingulflied from 
their kindred fpecies, by the length and ftrength of their creeping- 
roots. The inhabitants of Skey, and the other v/eftern iflands of Scot- 
land, manufadlure them into durable ropes : and while growing, they 
ferve the very important purpofe of binding together the loofe fand, 
which otherwife would be drifted far up the country : the moft emi- 
nently ufeful for this purpofe are Phalaris arenaria ; Aira canefcens-; 
Arundo arenaria; Elymus arenarius, and Hordeum maritimum. Upon 
the fides and fummits of our mountains, are found a few graiTes that 
do not appear elfewhere, mixed with fome others of more genera! oc- 
currence ; as, however, in thefe bleak and" elevated Tituations, covered 
with fnow for fome months in the year, and fhrowded in clouds for the 
principal part of the remainder, itwould be fcarcelypofhble forthcfe plants 
to bring their feeds to maturity, we obferve in them a wife and ftriking 
deviation from the common courfe of nature. Like the reft of their 
tribe, they throw up flowering ftems and bear bloffoins ; but thefe are 

iucceedad 






■120 E N G L A N I). 

BoTANv, fucceeded, not by feeds, but by bulbs, v/hich in a fliort time vegetate 
and are already furnifbed with a leaf and roots, before tbey fall to t 
ground : all the viviparous grades except one (Feftuca vivipara) if tranf- 
planted to a lower and warmer fituation, accommodate themfelves to their 
new climate, and produce feeds. The following individuals compofe 
this remarkable clafs, Phlcuni pratenfc ; Aira casfpitofa ; .Poa aquatica 
alpina annua ; Cynofurus criftatus ; Feftuca vivipara ; Triticura repens. 
Befides thefe there are others of a more hardy conftitution, which ap- 
pear to be the true natives of the mountains, and multiply their fpecics 
by feed in the ufual way; of thefe the principal are Phleum alpinum, 
Poa flexuofa and ca:fia. The tarer graifes may be divided into thofe 
which are found almoft folely in corn-fields, and which probably have 
been imported from the Continent with feed-corn ; and into thofe which 
are mofl certainly natives ; to the firft clafs belong all the five fpecies of 
Panicum ; Briza minor ; Bromus arvenfis : to the fecond belong Phleum 
crinitum ; Alopccurus bulbofus ; Agroftis fpica venti, Sefleria csrulea, 
Stipa pumata. 

Nearly allied to the graffes in general habit, arc the eight genera, 
Schoenus, Cyperus, Scirpus, Eriophorum, Juncus, Carex, Sparganium, 
and Typha, comprehending about ninety fpecies. All thefe are natives 
of moors, bogs, and pools; they ferve to give confiftency to the deep 
mud or peat, in which they are rooted, and when young afford a coarfe 
pallure to fheep and cattle; feveral of them are ufed for matting, thatch- 
ing, and fur chair bottoms. The ftately Typha (huU-runi) is one of 
the principal ornaments of our fens, and negleded pools, and the feveral 
fpecies of Eriophorum (cotton-grafs") enliven many a dreary mile of 
bog, by their gracefully pendent tufts of cotton, Tlie following are 
the rarer fpecies belonging to this clafs, Cypherus longus (Engllfh Ga- 
langale) found only near St. David's Head, Pemhrokefliire ; Scirpus 
Multicaulis ; Eriophorum alpinum ; Juncus filiformis, biglumis ; 
Carex cinerea di flans. 
Pniiiona- The . Legumlnous, or papilionaceous plants, fo called from their 

ccous, winged bloflbms, forn a very important clafs in Britifh botany. 

They are divided into nineteen genera, and fixty-four fpecies. The 
herbage of all when frcdi, and of many when dry, is a mofl grateful 

food 



■CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. J2i 

food to horfes, cattle, and flieep, and feveral of them, as the clovers and Botany. 
■vetches, are largely cuhivated for this purpofc. Moft of this clafs are 
climbers, and adorn our thickets and hedges with elegant feftoons of 
blolToms and foliage ; a few have been introduced into our gardens and 
fbvubberies, as the Fumarla folida and lutea (Fumitory) ; Spartium 
fcoparium (broom); and Lathyrus latifolius (everlafting pea) ; many 
more, however, even of fuperior beauty, have not yet found a place 
there ; of thefe the principal are two fpecies of fumitory, F. capreolata 
-and claviculata ; Lathyrus fylveftris (narrow-leaved everlafting pea), 
Vicia fylvatica and Cracca (v«?0Gd and tufted vetch), plants eminently 
diftinguiflied for their luxuriant growth, their elegant finely divided 
leaves, and their tufted blonfoms. Of humbler ftature, but yet of equal 
beauty, are Genifta tin£loria and Anglica (dyers weed and petty furze); 
XJlex nana (dwarf furze) ; Anthylhs vulneraria (kidney vetch) ; and 
Aftragalus glycyphyllus (wild liquorice), with yellow flowers; Ononis 
arvenfis - (wreft harrow); Orobus tuberofus (heath pea) ; Hedyfarum 
onobrychis (faint-foin) and Aftragalus hyppoglottis (mountain milk 
vetch), with purple flowers ; and the Lathyrus Niflblia, diftinguiflied 
from the reft by its entire grafs-like leaves, and its folitary crirtifon 
bloflToms. Almoft all the EngliCh papilionaceous plants flourifli beft in 
light calcareous foils, either rocky or fandy ; and fome of them, as the 
Anthyllis vulneraria, and Hedyfarum onobrychis, may be reckoned 
certain indications of chalk or lime-ftone. There are few rare plants 
belonging to this clafe ; Fumaria folida and lutea; Pifum maritimum 
(fea-pea) ; Lathyrus aphaca, hirfutus, and latifolius ; Vicia hybrida, 
and Trifolium glomeratum, are the principal. 

The umbelliferous plants form a large and important clafe in the Umbelli- 
natural arrangement of Britifli vegetables, confifting of thirty-five 
genera, and about fixty fpecies. The roots and feeds of thofe kinds 
which grow on dry, light foils, are frequently aromatic ; thofe that are 
-natives of marfnes and moift meadows, are, for the moft part, in a 
greater or lefs degree poifonous. The whole clafs, indeed, is a fuf- 
picious one, and contains fpecies that are fatal, not only to man, but to 
moft of our domeftic quadrupeds. The moft actively deleterious are 
the following : Conium maculatum (hemlock) ; Oenanthe crocata 

voi>. I. R (hemlock 



f, 



erous. 



liz E N G L A N D. 

Botany, (hemlock drop-wort) ; Cicuta virofa, (water- hemlock). Afewfpecies 
by dint of cultivation, have been rendered ferviceable to man, either as 
food, or on account of their aromatic qualities ; fuch are Daucus carota 
(carrot); Crithinum maritimum (famphire) ; Angelica major ;^ Co- 
riandrum fativum (Coriander) ; Paftinaca fativa (parfnip) ; Anethura 
fccniculum (fennel) ; Carum carui (carraway) ; and Apium graveo- 
lens (celery), a plant which in its native falt-marfhes, is acrid and of 
diminutive fize, but by attentive culture becomes fucciilent, nutritive, 
and of high eftimation. The vegetables belonging to this clafs are dif- 
tlnguifliedfrom the reft by their fmall cluftered white or yellow flowers^ 
produced at the extremity of a greater or lefs number of fpokes, ra- 
diating from a common centre, like the fticks of an umbrella, a mode 
of inflorefcence which diftinguifhes them at once from other plants, 
but difqualifies them from being ornaments to a garden; fome of thefey 
as Caucalis daucoides, and Anethum foeniculum, are certain proofs of 
a calcareous foil. The rarer fpecies are Eryngium campeftre (field 
Eryngo) ; Selinum paluftre (milky parfley) ; Peucedanum officinale 
(fea fulphur wort) ; Cicuta virofa (water-hemlock), in wet places and 
falt-marfhes ; Tordylium maximum (great hart-wort) ; Caucalis lati- 
folia (great bur-parfley) ; Athamanta Libanotis (mountain-ftone 
parfley) ; Pimpinella dioica (dwarf rock-parfley), on lime-ftone rocks,, 
and chalk-hills ; Meum Athamanticum (fpignel), in high moun- 
tainous paftures ; and Ligufticum Gornublenfe (Cornifh lavage), pecu- 
liar to the thickets and hedges of Cornwall. 
L b" t d. The ringent, galeated, hooded, or labiated plants, hold a confpl- 

cuous place in the Englifh Flora, and arrange themfelves in the Lin- 
nasan fyftem, according to the number and fituation of their ftamens, 
partly in the clafs Diandria, and partly in the Didynamia ; their 
bloflbms are fituated for the moft part in whorls or rings, containing 
five or fix individuals, and encircling the ftem from the top downwards. 
Of thefe, none, except perhaps, the Digitalis (fox-glove), deferve to be 
ranked among the poifonous plants; a confiderable number, however, 
exhibit a ftrong aromatic fmell, approaching, in fome cafes, to the foetid, 
and poflTefs other adlive fenfible properties. Thofe which are at pre- 
fent ufed in medicine, are Teucrium fcordiiim (water Germander) ; 

Mentha 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 123 

TVIentha virldis (fpear-m'int) ; Mentha piperita (pepper-mint) ; Men- Botant. 
tha pulegiunn fpenny-royalj ; Marrubium vulgare (horehound) ; and 
Digitalis purpurea (purple, fox-glove). Our moft efteemed pot-herbs 
belong to this natural clafs, and are many of them natives ot England. 
:Such as (befides the mints mentioned above) Origanum vulgare (mar- 
joram) ; Thymus ferpyllum (common and lemon thyme) ; and 
Thymus aciuos (bafil thyme), all of them abundant in chalky and cal- 
careous foils. There are not many very fliowy plants in this clals ; 
hut the Galeopfis verficolor (bee nettle) ; Antirrhinum cymbalaria, 
.'linaria, and majus, (fnap-dragon) ; and Digitalis, (fox-glove, both 
purple and white,) are eminently beautiful. The rarer fpecies arc 
Utricularia minor (fmall bladder-fnout) ; Salvia pratenfis (meadow- 
clary) ; Ajuga Alpina (mountain bugle) ; Mentha odorata (bergamot 
jnint) ; Bartfia Alpina (mountain eye-brlghtj ; Antirrhinum repens 
(blue toad-flaxl; Scrophularia fcorodonia (balm-leaved fig-wort); and 
•Orobanche coerulea (purple broom rape). Some of thefe plants have 
certain peculiarities of ftrudure, which render them worthy of notice. 
The genus Utricularia (bladder-fnout), an aquatic, may be diftinguiflied 
from all the reft, by the numerous fmall membraneous bags, attached t9 
its finely divided leaves that ferve to fupport it on the furface of the 
water ; the genera, Lathrsea (toothwort) ; and Orobanche (broom-rapej, 
are parafitical, that is, they fix themfelves in the roots of other vege- 
tables, from which they derive their nutriment, being incapable of fub- 
fifting if planted in the open ground ; they are alfo deftitute of leaves, 
confifting merely of a flefhy ftem, terminated by purplifh brown flowers. 
The Antirrhinum linaria (yellow toad-flax) is occafionally fubjedl to a 
fingular variety, in the ftrudlure of its blofibm, and when in this ftate, is 
known by the name of A. peloria. Thirty-fix genera, and eighty- 
eight fpecies, compofe this clafs. 

Perhaps the moft fplendid of all the herbaceous plants, arc thofe of Liluccons. 
the bulbous roots, which, from their general refemblance to the lily, 
have obtained the name of Liliaceous ; moft ot thefe, however, are 
natives of warmer climates ; the fandy defarts about the Cape of Good 
J^Iope, and the fhores of the Indian Ocean, produce the moft beautiful 

R 2 fpecies J 



,24 E N G L A N n. 

Botany, fpeelcs ; of thofe which are found wild in England, there are only 
eleven genera, and twenty-eight fpecies ;: and the greater number of 
thefe are of rare occurrence in a truly native ftate ; the fpring and 
autumnal crocus, the fnow-drop, the fnow-flake, the three kinds of 
Narciffus (including the daffodil), the fritillary, tulrp, and lily of the 
•valleyyas well as three fpecies of ornithogalum, or ftar of Bethlehem, 
are more familiar to us as garden plants, than as natives of our woods 
and paftures. The reft of this clafs are feven fpecies of Allium 
(garlick) ; three of Convallaria (Solomon's feal), Colchicum autumnale 
(meadow faffron) ; and four kinds of Scilla (fquill), one of which the 
beautiful and fragrant hare-bell, or wirld hyacinth, is the principal or- 
nament of our groves and thickets, at a time when they are profufe- 
of beauties. 
Sofaecous, The Rofaceous plants comprlfing the clafs Icofandria of Linnscus, 

form an important part of Engliih botany, and include twelve genera, 
and forty-one fpecies. Some of thefe are herbaceous, and others are 
deciduous trees and ihrubs. In the firft divifion, the moft worthy of 
notice are, Spirsea ulmaria (meadow-fweet) ; growing plentifully by the 
fide of brooks and ditches,, and fcenting the air about Midfummer,. 
"with its powerful cloying fweets ; Fragaria vefca (wood-ftrawberry\ 
perhaos the moft valuable of our native fruits,^ Tormentilla officinalis 
(common tormentil), one of the ftrongeft vegetable aftringents. Tee- 
the fecoad divifion belong the moft beautiful and ufeful of our hedge- 
fhrubs, the Prunus infititia, and fpinofa (bullace and black-thorn) j 
Mefpilus oxyacantha (hawthorn) ; Pyrus mahis and aucuparia (crab, and. 
mountain afti) ; feveral fpecies of Rofa (wild rofe) ; and Rubus (bram- 
ble). The cherry, the medlar, the fervice, and pear-trees, whofe fruity 
when-wild, is of fo little account, and of fuch value w^hen improved by 
cultivation, belong alfo to this clafs. The rarer among thefe plants are 
Pyrus domeftica (fervice- tree); Spircea falicifolia, (willow-leaved fpir^a); 
Rofa rubiginofa (fweet- briar) ; Rubus Id;£us (rafpberry),, in rocky 
woods ; Dryas o£topetala (mountain avens) ; Potentilla rupeftris 
(ftrawberry flowered cinquefoil) ; Rubus chamcemorus (cloud-berry) ; 
Rubus faxatUis (ftone-bramble) ; on the high mountains of Wales^ 

and 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. ,2 

and the north of England. The burnet-rofe, and white beam tree, Botany. 
are certain indications of calcareous foil ; and, indeed, almoft the whole 
clafs thrive beft on limeftone. 

The Tetradynamious, or cruciform plants, compofe a large natural c-udfoim. 
clafs, entirely diftinft from any other, the individual fpecies, however, 
of which, have lb many common features of relemblance, as to render 
it, in feveral cafes, by no means eafy to afcertain their fpecific diiTer- 
ences. The flower conlifts of four petals, dilpofed in the form of a 
crofs, containing one plftil and fix ftamens, two of which are fhorter 
than the reft ; thefe are fucceeded by a pouch or pod, bearing the feedvS, 
hence the clafs is divided into the pouched and podded plants. The 
tafte of all thefe is more or lefs acrid, but none are poifonous : they are 
found to be peculiarly grateful to lailors who have been long at fea, 
and thereby have contradted the fcurvy ; on this account thefe veget- 
ables have obtained the name of antifcorbutics ; their hot biting flavour 
is the moft intenfe in wet feafons, and in a fwampy foil, and is re- 
markably mitigated by cultivation in light fandy ground. Many of 
our moft efteemed culinary vegetables are of this clafs, fuch as the 
cabbage, with all its varieties of brocoli, cauliflower, &c. the turnip, the 
radifh, muftard, crefs, and horfe-radifh ; twenty-three genera, and 
fixty-two fpecies, compofe this clafs. The moft worthy of notice are 
{he feveral kinds of Lepidium, or pepperwort ; of Cochlearia, including 
the fcurvy-grafs and horfc-radifti ; of Braflica, containing the colewort, 
field-cabbage, colefeed, turnip, and fea-cabbage ; of Sinapis, including 
the white and common muftard ; Bunias catuile (fea-rocket) j Crambe 
maritima (fea-kale) ; Sifymbrium nafturtium (water-crefs) ; and Ery- 
fimum alliaria (fauce alone) ; all thefe are wholefome and agreeable 
vegetables, either in fallads or boiled. Tfatis tindoria (woad), is wor- 
thy of mention, as a dyeing drug, anciently ufed by the Britons for the 
purpofe of ftaining their fkins, and in fome eftimation even at prefent, 
as a fubftitute for indigo. The few rare plants belonging to this clafs 
are, Vella annua (annual crefs rocket) ; Sifymbrium monenfe (fea- 
rocket), in fandy-foils ; Draba incana (wreathed crefs) ; Iberis amara 
(bitter candy-tuft), on limeftone ; Thlafpi arvenfe (fmooth Mithridate 

muftardj 



.126 ENGLAND. 

.lioTA^Ny. miifiard), in clay ; Coclilearia Danica (Danifli fcurvy-grafs), m mtid 
■by the fea-fide. The only native cruciform plant adopted into our 
gardens, is Cheiranthus cheiri fwall-flower) j if, indeed, it be not 
rather to be confidered as of foreign origin. 
Radiated. One of the largeft of the natural claiTes of Englifh vegetables, is that 

■of the radiated or compound flowered plants; thef« bear flow^ering 
heads, confifting of numerous florets, inclofed in a common calyx, and 
feated on the fume receptacle ; each fertile floret is compofcd of a tu- 
bular, or ftrap-fhaped petal, and five ftamens, the anthers of which are 
.united into a hollow cylinder, through which riles the piflil ; this is 
followed by an oblong feed, terminated by a fmall column, crowned by 
a radiated feather ; by this ingenious apparatus, when the feed is ripe it 
detaches itfelf from the receptacle, and is carried in the air to a confi- 
derable diftance, and is on this account called a winged feed. Forty 
genera, and i2ofpecies, belong to this clafs. It is rather remarkable, 
that out of fo large a number of plants, many of which are very 
abundant, and of great fize, only a fingle one, the Tragopogon porri- 
folius (falfafy), (hould be applied to the fuftenance of man, and not 
even a Tingle one fliould be cultivated for the ufe of cattle ; more 
efpecially as the La£tuca virofa (ftrong-fcented lettuce), is the only 
fpecies poflefled of deleterious properties. Moft of this clafs have an un- 
grateful bitter tafte, and the fucculent ones contain a white milky juice, 
of an acrid flavour. Of all our native vegetables, they are the com- 
moneft, thriving by negle<fl:, and multiplying under perfecution ; the 
farmer and gardener are unccafingly employed in their deftrudion, for 
they contribute little or nothing to the fupport of man, and the larger 
quadrupeds ; nor is the beauty of their appearance fuch, as to obtain for 
them a place in the flower-garden. The annual kinds, however, pro- 
ducing vaft multitudes of feeds, and the perennial ones being furnifhed 
with long and deeply ftriking roots, there is no fear of their extermina- 
tion ; they occupy road fides, ditch banks, and all wafte places that are 
incapable of cultivation, and feem peculiarly devoted to the fuftenance 
of the granivorous birds, by their feeds, and of numerous tribes of in- 
fers, 'by their foliage. The fow-thifl:le, hawkweed, burdock, thiftle, 

6 cud- 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 127 

end-weed, coltsfoot, groundfel, dandelion, daify, and yarrow, are the Botant. 
moft commonly occurring genera ; a few, as the chamomile, worm- 
wood, elecampane, and feverfew, are employed in medicine. The daify, 
and butter-bur (Tufhlago petafites), are generally the firfl: bloifoms of 
the fpring, and on that account are beheld with greater fatisfadion thatT 
more fhovvy plants. The rarer individuals attached to this clafs are, 
Hieracium alpinum (alpine hawkweed), and Serratula alpina (alpine 
faw-wort), found in Wales ; Crepis foetida ((linking hawkfbeard), in 
calcareous foil ; Santolina maritima (fea-cotton weed) ; Artemifia 
ccerulefcens (blue fouthern-wood), on the fca-fliore ; Artemifia cam- 
peftris (wild fouthern-wood) ; Gnaphalium Gallicum (grafs cud-weed), 
on light fandy ground ; Senecio paludofus (marfh golden-rod) ; Inula 
Helenium (elecampane), in marflies, ditches, and wet meadows. 

The greatefl: part of the clafs Gynandria in the Linnxan fyftem of Orchis. 
Englilh plants, is occupied by the Orchis tribe, confifting of five genera, 
orchis, fatyrium, ophrys, ferapios, and cypripedium. Thefe differ re- 
markably in ftru^lure from the reft of our native vegetables ; they are 
bulbous or tuberous-rooted, have entire fword-fhaped leaves ; each root 
throws up a fingle ftem, terminated by a loofe, or crowded fpike of 
bloffoms ; the bloffoms themfelves confift of five petals, generally dif- 
pofed fo as to refemble a fly, bee, fpider, or other infe£l, of two ftamens 
feated upon the piftil of a nedary or honey-cup, lengthened into a 
horn, or diftended like a bladder ; the feeds refemble brown coarfe 
duft, and though repeatedly fown, have never yet been known to 
germinate. They are all either fingular or beautiful plants, and would 
no doubt be more frequently introduced into our gardens, if they were 
of eafier cultivation. They are of but little account as food for cattle, 
but the roots of the bulbous kinds abound in a mild farina, which 
might be ufed for human nutriment ; the jalep of the fhops is the 
powdered root of a fpecies of orchis that is found in Turkey. The 
number of Englifh fpecies belonging to the above-mentioned genera, 
is about thirty-two; of thefe the Ophrys anthropophora (man orchis); 
Ophrys myodes (fly orchis) ; Ophrys apifera (bee orchis) ; Ophrys 
aranifera (fpider orchis), are the moft fingular for the form of their 
bloffom, the general appearance of which is expreffed by their trivial 

names. 



i:8 



ENGLAND. 



Botany. 



Trees 



ILvers 



Deciduous 



Ferns, 



names. The mofl eminently beautiful kinds are, Orchis pyramidalis 
(late flowering orchis) ; Orchis raafcula (early orchis) ; Orchis conap- 
lea (red-handed orchis) ; Satyrium hircinum (lizard flower) ; Sera- 
pias grandiflora (white helleborine) ; Cypripedium calceolus (ladies 
flipper). A few are remarkably fragrant, efpecially in the cool of 
evening; thefe are Orchis bifolia (butterfly orchis); Orchis conapfea; 
Ophrys monorchis (mufk orchis). Several grow in wet boggy places, 
but by far the greater part are inhabitants of calcareous difl:ridls ; the 
county of Kent in particular, is remarkably rich in them. 

Such of our trees and fhrubs as have not been already mentioned, 
may be confidered as forming a peculiar clafs, and one of great impor- 
tance ; it is naturally fubdivided into the evergreen and deciduous. 

The mofl; valuable of our native evergreens, are the box, the pine, 
the yew, and the holly; thofe of fecondary confequence, are the juniper, 
and ivy ; the fpurge laurel (Daphne lauriola) ; the cranberry, and 
thofe extremely ornamental plants, the Vaccinium vitis idsea (red 
whortle berries) ; and Arbutus uva urfi (bear-berry). 

The deciduous timber-trees that are either aboriginal, or at leaft; have 
been long naturalized to our foil, are the oak, the chefnut, and beech, 
all of which are majl-bear'ing trees ^ or produce farinaceous oily nuts, the 
favourite food of hogs, and of many graminivorous quadrupeds ; 
the birch, the alder, the hornbeam, the abele, the black poplar, and the 
afpen, bearing catkins ; the fycamore, the maple, and the afh ; the lime, 
the elm, and wych hazle. A middle ftation between the timber-trees 
and flirubs, is occupied by the hazle, and the numerous fpecies of wil- 
low. The pulpy fruit-bearing fhrubs are, the currant and goofeberry, 
(Ribes,) the elder, the barberry, the bilberry, the cornel, or dogwood, 
the buckthorn, and berry-bearing alder, (Rhamnus,) the guelder rofe, 
and mealy-tree, (Viburnum,) and the Mezereon ; the four firft are 
wholefome and grateful to the palate, the reft; are either infipid or 
noxious. The four kinds of Erica (heath); and Andromeda polifolia 
(Foley mountain), are low, fhrubby plants, that form the mofl; fplendid 
ornaments of our bogs and moors. 

The Filices or ferns, comprize a. number of elegant plants that grow 
in moift, fljady, and uncultivated places, the ufes of which have been 

but 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 129 

but little enquired Into ; eleven genera, and about forty-four fpecies, are Botany. 
natives of Britain ; the roots of moft abound in a mild fweetilh mu- 
cilage, which in times of fcarcity has been reforted to for nutriment ; 
the larger and commoneft kinds, fuch as Pteris acqiiilina (common 
fern or brakes), are colleded and burnt for the potafli, which is yielded 
from their afhes ; the Equifetum hyemale (fhave-grafs), is much ufed 
by turners and cabinet-makers, as a fine file to fmooth their work 
with. 

Th,e fmalleft of vegetables, the mofles, are at the fame time the moft Moffes. 
numerous ; ten genera, and nearly 200 fpecies, compofe this natural 
clafs. To man and the larger animals, they appear to be of little or no 
ufe ; low and fhady places are in general over-run with them, and on 
walls, and hard dry banks, where other plants are unable to vegetate, 
thefe readily gain a fettlement j by the decay of fucceffive generations, 
a.fufficient depth of foil is at length formed for the nutriment of 
other vegetables, and this is, perhaps, the principal advantage derived, 
at leaft by man, from the exiftence of thefe plants. 

Thofe cruftaceous, and leather-like plants, which cover the fides of Lichens, 
walls and rocks, and abound on dry heaths, form the clafs of lichens, 
nearly as numerous as the preceding one ; their general ufe in the 
osconomy of nature, feems to be nearly the fame as that oi the moffes ; 
the ingenuity of man has, however, applied them to feveral other 
purpofes. The Lichen pulmonarius, has gained the name of lung- 
wort, from its fuppofed ufe in medicine ; Lichen Icelandicus, when 
boiled in water or milk, produces a kind of gruel of little account in 
this country, but in Iceland forming an important part of the food of the 
inhabitants ; the Lichen prunaftri, ferves as the bafe of feveral fcented 
powders ; that beautiful but fugitive crimfon dye, the archil, is pre- 
pared in England from the Lichen parellus, and L. calcareus (Dyer's 
lichen). Several others are employ-ed by the peafants of Wales, Der- 
byfhire, and the North of England, in dyeing their home-made woollen 
cloths. 

The clafs of Fungi includes feventeen genera, and feveral hundred FungJ.,. 
fpecies of native vegetables, almoft all of which are abandoned to neg- 
led: ; in France and Italy, feveral kinds are colledled for the table, and 

VOL. I. S . arc 



I30 ENGLAND. 

Botany. are reckoned fome of Its principal delicacies ; in this country they lie 
for the moft part under the obloquy of being poifonous, fo that only 
the five following are ufed, viz. Merulius cantharellus (Chanterelle 
mufhrcom) ; Agaricus oreades (Fairy-ring M.) ; Agaricus campeftris 
(common M.) ; Phallus efculentus (Morell) ; and Tuber cibarium 
(truffle.) 

Sea-weeds. The laft clafs of Englllh vegetables, is that of the marine Algse, or 

fea-weeds. Four genera, and between two and three hundred fpecies, 
are found upon our own fhores ; the more tender and gelatinous kinds, 
are eaten either raw or boiled, and the reft on thofe rocky parts of the 
coaft, where they can be collecled in great quantities, are burnt into 
kelp for the ufe of the foap-boilers and glafs-makers. 

Zoology. Mr. Pennant, in his Britifh Zoology, has treated this fubjed at due 

extent, and with his ufual ability. The nature of this work will only 
admit of a few imperfed notices. Of animals, that celebrated author 
enumerates twenty genera, from the horfe down to the feal and bat. 
The birds extend to forty-eight, the reptiles to four, and the fifh to forty 
genera, befides the cruftaceous and fhell fifti. 

That noble and ufeful animal, the Horfe, is found in England of 
many mingled breeds, while moft other kingdoms produce only one 
kind ". Our race-horfes defcend from Arabian ftallions, and the ge- 
nealogy faintly extends to our hunters. The great ftrength and fize 
of the Englifti draught- horfes, are derived from thofe of Germany, Flan- 
ders, and Holftein ; and other breeds have been fo intermingled, that 
native horfes may be found adapted to every purpofe of pomp, pleafure, 
cr utility. Thofe of Yorkftiire are particularly celebrated for their 
fplrit and beauty ; and the grooms of that county are equally noted 
for their fkill in the management of this valuable animal. It is fome- 
what remarkable, that while England excels all the European countries 
in various breeds of horfes, yet veterinary fchools are of recent infti- 
tution. The fpeed of Childers was computed at a mile in a minute ; and 
fuch is the ftrength of a Yorkfhire pack-horfe, that he will ufually carry 
420 pounds ; nay, a mill-horfe will fupport for a (hort diftance, a. 

•3 Pennant's Zoology, yol. i. p. i. 

weight 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 



»3i 



weight of 910 pounds. Mr. Pennant obferves, that though the Britifli Zoology. 
cavalry was remarkable, even in the time of Julius Csefar, yet we know 
not what was the primitive breed. 

The indigenous breed of horned cattle, is now only known to exift 
in Neidwood-foreft, in Staffordfliire, and at Chillingham-caftle, in 
Northumberland. They are long-legged and wild like deer, of a pure 
white colour, with black muzzles, ears, and tails, and a ftripe of the 
fame hue along the back. The breeds of our cattle are almolt as va- 
rious as thofe of our horfes ; thofe of Wales and Cornwall are fmall, 
while the Lincolnfhire kind derive their great fize from thofe of Hol- 
ftein. In the North of England we find kylies, fo called from the 
diftrid: of Kyle, in Scotland ; in the South we find the elegant breed 
of Guernfey, generally of a light brown colour, and fmall fize, but re- 
markable for the richnefs of their milk. Of late years Mr. Bakewell, 
and others, have brought the breeding of cattle and fheep to a regular 
fyftem. 

The number and value of fheep in England, may be judged from the 
ancient ftaple commodity of wool. Of this moft ufeful animal feveral 
breeds appear, generally denominated from their particular counties or 
diftrids ; thofe of Herefordfhire, Devonfhire, and Cotfwold downs, 
are noted for fine fleeces, while the Lincolnfhire and Warwickfliire 
kind, are remarkable for the quantity. The Teefdale breed of the 
county of Durham, though lately negleded, continue to deferve their 
fame. The wool is beautiful, but the length of their legs, lefTens 
their value in the eyes of the butcher. The mutton of Wales, on the 
contrary, is efteemed, while the wool is coarfe, yet employed in many 
ufeful and falutary manufa£tures. The Norfolk breed is remarkable for 
black faces and legs. Thofe of Leicefterihire are very large, and with- 
out horns. 

The moft laudable exertions have lately been made by the Board of 
Agriculture, and by individuals, for the improvement of the Englifli 
fleece. 

The goat, an inhabitant of the rocks, has, even in Wales, begun to 
yield to the more ufeful fheep ; that country being, like Scotland, more 
adapted to the woollen manufadure. It is to be regretted that fome 

3 2 means 



J32 ENGLAND. 



:.OOL0GY. 



means are not dllcovered of preventing the goat, an ufeful animal 
to the poor, from being fo deftrudtive to phxntalions and agriculture. 
The breeds of fwine are various and ufeful. 

England alfo abounds in, breeds of dogs, fome of which were' cele- 
brated even in Roman times. In the reign of Elizabeth, Dr. Caius or Kay- 
enumerates fixteen denominations of Englifh dogs. Some feem to be 
now extind ; and the blood-hound only occurs in Staffordlliire. The 
terrier, as the name implies, was ufed to force the burrowing animals 
from their holes ; the harrier, a-kin to the fox-hound, for hunting the 
hare. The grey-hound was fo called, as Caius informs us, becaufe he 
was the firfl in degree among dogs. The tumbler of that author feems 
to be our lurcher. The fpaniels from Spain, as the name imports, 
were trained as ftarters, fetters, and pointers, but the latter defcription 
is modern ; the water-fpaniel was ufed to recover the flaughtered gamej 
the fpaniel gentle, or comforter of Dr. Caius, is our lap-dog ; the fliep- 
herd's dog is BufFon's fanciful father of the whole canine progeny, 
and always difplayed its docile qualities. The maftifF, or amaze- thief ^ 
was employed in defending the houfe : to this fpecies Mr. Pennant 
afcribes the bull-dog, an animal of furprifmg fpirit and fiercenefs. The 
curs and mongrels are numerous ; but the turnfpit is now exploded. 
Of late the Newfoundland-dog, of more ufeful and generous qualities, 
has in fome degree fupplanted the maftiff; and the fpotted Dalmatian 
forms an a^lditlonal attendant on an equipage. 

The cat is one of the moft univerfal, and moft identic of animals, 
thofe of Angola excepted, with their white fleeces, and thofe of RulTia 
with a bluilh fleece, and eyes of topaz. 

Of our favage animals the moft fierce and deftrudive is the wild cat, 
which is three or four times as large as the domeftic, with a flat broad 
face colour yellowifh white, mixed with deep grey, in ftreaks running 
from a black lift on the back ; hips always black, tail alternate bars of 
black and white; only found in the moft mountainous and woody 
parts. The wolf has been long extind, but the fox abounds. It is 
fufficient to name the badger, the fitchet, the martin, the ftoat, or 
ermin, the otter, fquirrel, dormoufe, rat (the native or iron grey, has 
lately almoft vaniflied before the brown kind of India, falfely called the 

Norway 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 133 

Norway rat), and various kinds of mice. The mole, urchin, and bat, Zoology. 
feem to become more rare ; the feal is chiefly found on the coaft 
of Wales. 

In the parks of the great, the roe is now extind, but fallow deer 
abound, of great beauty, and the red deer; the latter are known 
by the terms, ftag, hind, young, or calf; while the former are ftyled 
buck, doe, and fawn ; the red kind are more vicious than the other, and 
becoming more uncom.mon. 

The chief of our birds of prey, are the golden eagle, fometimes 
found on Snowdon ; the black eagle has appeared in Derbyfhire ; the ' 
ofprey, or fea eagle, feems extin£t in England. The peregrine falcon 
breeds in Wales ; and many kinds of hawks in England. An enume- 
ration of the other birds would be fuperfluous. The nightingale, one 
of the moft celebrated, is not found in North Wales, nor any where to 
the North, except about Doncafter, where it abounds ; nor does it 
travel fo" far weft as Devonftiire and Cornwall '*. This limitation is 
remarkable, as thefe birds are found in the fevere climate of Sweden. 
Our poultry feem to originate from Afia ; our peacocks are from India; 
our pheafants from Colchis ; the guinea-fowl (the Meleagrides, or Nu- 
midian hens of the ancients) are from Africa. Our fmalleft bird is the 
golden-crefted wren, which fports on the higheft pine-trees ; and our 
largeft the buftard, fome of which weigh twenty-five potinds, and are 
found in the open countries of the fouth and eaft. But this bird fel- 
dom appears ; and our turkeys, originally from America, richly fupply 
the defed: ; the largeft are reared in Norfolk and Suffolk. One of the 
moft fingular of our water-fowl is the long-legged plover : the moft 
ufeful the mallard or wild-duck, which is chiefly caught in the fens of 
Lincolnfhire ; the numbers fent to the capital, almoft exceed cre- 
dibility. 

The reptiles are the coriaceous tortoife, frogs, toads, feveral kinds of 
lizards : of our ferpents the viper alone is venomous; other kinds are the 
ringed fnake, fometimes found four feet in length ; and the blind worm,, 
feldom exceeding eleven inches. 

■♦ Pennant's B. Z. I. 360. 

Of 



134 - ENGLAND. 

Zoology. Of fifli, the whale feldom appears near the Englifli coafts, nor tin; 
dolphin ; the porpefs, and others of the fame genus are not uncommon. 
The bafking fhark appears off the fhores of Wales. Numerous are our 
edible fea-fifh. Some of the mod; celebrated are the turbot, doree, foal, 
cod, plaice, fmelt *, mullet, &c. &c. The confumption of herrings 
and mackarel extends to moft parts of the kingdom ; but pilchards are 
confined to the Corfiifli coafts. Our chief river fifh are the falmon and 
the trout, which are brought from the northern parts in prodigious 
numbers, generally packed in ice ; but fometimes the trout are brought 
alive, in veffels provided with a well or bafon for that purpofe. It is 
faid that not lefs than 30,000 falmon are brought from one river, the 
Tweed, to London, in the courfe of a feafon. The lamprey, though a 
fea-fifh, is chiefly found in the Severn ; it refembles the eel, but has a 
line of feven -apertures near the head. The charr is chiefly found In 
the lakes of V/eftmoreland, the fides fprinkled with red fpots. The 
umber, or greyling, fomewhat refembles the trout. The famlet is the 
fmalleft of the trout kind, and has erronoufly been fuppofed the young 
of the falmon ; in Scotland it is called the par. Our carps are from 
Poland, and the inferior fort from Pruflla : the tench and perch are 
efteemed by fome as dainties of the table. 

The lobfter is found on moft of the rocky coafts, particularly off 
Scarborough. This cruftaceous filh has fingular habits; with its blunt 
claw it maintains its fituation, while that with ferrated pincers divides its 
food : the claws are reproduced, though not fo large as the firft ; they 
change their fhells every year. The craw- fifh is a fmall kind of lobfter, 
which dwells in the clayey banks of rivers. Of ihell fifh, the pearl 
mya, a large kind of mufl^el, was found in the Conway, in Wales, and 
the Irt, in Cumberland ; but it feems now confined to Ireland and 
Scotland. Pearls arife from the perforation of a kind of worm, and 
may be produced artificially, by boring the fhell, and replacing the 
mya in the water *\ The Engllfh oyfters maintain their Roman repu- 
tation ; but they feem to yield in flavour to thole of more northern 

* Mr. Pennant, iii. 371. fuppofes white bait to be the young of the bleak. 
•5 Pennant, B. Z. iv. 80. St. Fond. U, 190. 

^ ^ coun- 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 135 

<30iintries. The green from Colchefter, in EfTex, and the juicy white Zoology. 
from Mihon, in Kent, have the chief reputation. 

It feldom or never happens that countries, abundant in the pro- Mineralogy. 
dudions of agriculture fhould, at the lame time, prefent an opulent 
mineralogy. Yet England is far from being deficient in this 
rcfpecft. 

The tin mines in Cornwall have been already mentioned ; and they 
are not only venerable from' their antiquity, hut are, it is fuppofed, the 
richeft of the kind in the world. Tin is alfo found in Bohemia, Sax- 
ony, and Hungary, and in the Oriental regions of Malacca, Banca, and 
Siam, but not in fuch lafting exuberance as in the Cornlfh mines. That 
kind of filver, termed by mineralogifts horn-ore, is alfo found in that 
diftrid: ; but the profound fecrecy obferved in working it, forbids any 
inveftigation of the amount. The Huel rock boafts of what is called 
bell-metal ore ; and of wolfram *. 

Cornwall alfo produces copper at Redruth, Alftone, and the Land's 
End. The fame metal is found in Yorkfhire, and Staffbrdfhire ; bu* no 
where in fuch abundance as in the Parrys mountain, in the north- 
weft of Anglefea '*. Inftead of defcending in veins through various 
rocky ftrata, the ufual form of metallic ores, it here forms a prodigious- 
heap, and is worked in the manner of a quarry. The mountain is 
almoft bare of flirubs or grafs ; and is covered with aluminous Hate, 
under which, in grey chert, is the ore, being chiefly the yellow ful- 
phurate, which yields a quarter of copper, and a quarter of fulphur, the 
remaining half being refufe. This valuable mine was difcovered about 
thirty years ago. 

Lead is found in the Mendip-hills, Somerfetfhire ; which alfo pro- 
duce calamine and manganefe. The lead-mines in Derbyfhire are well 
known, not only for that metal, but for the beautiful veins of fluor, 
which accompany it, and which is manufadured into feveral ornamental 

* Mr. Maton informs us, thdX Huel (pronounced Whele) means a mine; that the tin pebbles 
form ftrata, in blueifli marl, mixed with fand and marine fpoils ; and the richelt mine is at Pol- 
gootli, two miles S. W. of St. Auftle. (Weftern Tour.) Opal is found in yellow copptr ore at 
Roflceir, Ibid. 

'* Aikin's Wales, 133. 

articles- 



136 E N.G LAN D. 

Minerals, articles. In general the northern central ridge of mountains, 
abounds with lead-ore. The lead- mines of Aldfton, on the eaftern 
verge of Cumberland, employ about 1 100 men. 

No metal is fo widely diftufed through the globe as iron ; and Eng- 
land not only contains excellent mines, but excels all nations in the 
.variety of fabrication. The mofl remarkable mines of iron, are thofe 
of Colebrook-dale, Shropfliire, Dean-foreft in Gloucefterfliire, with 
fome in the north of England, particularly near Ulverfton, in Lan- 
cafhire. 

Among the minor metals, zinc, in the form of lapis calaminaris, and 
blend, is found in Derbyfhire, Cornwall, and other regions. Nickel 
and arfenic fometimes appear in Cornwall ; and recently, what is called 
menachanite. But one of the moft important of this kind is plumbago, 
or black lead, which is found in the ridge of Borrodale, near Kefwick, 
in Cumberland : the mine is only opened at certain intervals of time. 

Gold has been difcovered in various quarters of England, particularly 
near Silfoe, Bedfordfliire ; but the metal has never recompenfed the 
labour and expence ". The real gold mines of England are thole of 
coal, found in the central, northern, and weftern parts, but particularly 
in the northern, around Newcaftle. This fubftance is a mixture of car- 
bon with bitumen, which laft abounds in the Newcaftle coal^ and is the 
caufe of its coalefcing when inflamed '^ An ingenious traveller has 
afcribed the whole opulence of England to her coal, as being the very 
foul of her manufa(flures, and coniequent commerce ". The coals 
of Whitehaven and Wigan are more pure ; and the cannel and 
peacock coals of Lancafliire, are fo beautiful, that they are fufpedted 
by fome to have conftituted the gdgatcs^ or jet, which the ancients 
afcribed to Britain *. A lingular fpecies of coal is found in Bovey- 
heath, Devonlhire, reCembling wood impregnated with bituminous 

•' Gough's Camden, i. 330. 

'1 Kirwan's Mill. II. App, The Briftol coal, fo abundant at Kingfwood, burns more ra- 
pidly than that of Newcaftle. 

■» St. Fond. 

* True jet is faid to be found in Lincolnniire ; it abounds in the fouth of France, and north 
of Spain, being palpably ancient timber. 

matter. 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 137 

matter. Turf or peat is common, even in Hampfhire, and other Minerals, 
fouthern counties. 

The mines of rock fait, in Cheil-iire, mufl: not be omitted. They ap- Salt Mines, 
pear to have been known to the Romans, as a place called Salince is 
here mentioned by the geographer of Ravenna. Leland has defcribed 
them in the time of Henry VIII j nor were they unknown even in the 
Saxon periods. Thofe of Northwich are the moft remarkable : at 
Namptwich and Middlewich, are only falt-fprings ; and others occur 
at Droitwich, in Worcefterfhire, and Werton, in Staffordfhire. The 
immenfe mines on the fouth fide of Northwich, were difcovered about 
the beginning of this century. The quarries, with their pillars and 
cryftal roof, extending over many acres, prefent a beautiful fpedtacle j 
the ftratuni of fait, lies under a bed of whitifh clay, at the depth of 
about forty yards. The firft ftratum is about twenty yards thick, io 
folid as to be blafied with gunpowder, this fait refembles brown fugar- 
candy. Next is a bed of hard ftone, under which is a fecond flratum 
of fait, about fix yards thick, fome parts brown, others as clear aa 
cryftal. The Witton pit is circular, 108 yards in diameter, the roof 
fupported by twenty-five pillars, each containing 294 folid yards of 
rock fak; the whole covering near two acres of land. The annual 
produce of rock fait at Northwich, has been eftimated at 65,000 tons j 
of which about two thirds ufed to be exported to Flanders and the 
Baltic ". 

Marbles, and free-ftone, or calcareous fand-ftone, of various colours 
and textures, alfo occur ; the moft celebrated of the latter are thofe of 
Portland, Purbeck, &c. Fine alabafter appears in Derby/hire ; fullers- 
earth in Berkfhire, and fome other counties. 

Nor is England lefs produdlive of mineral waters, of various pro^ MmemlWa- 
perties and defcriptions. Thofe of Bath have been celebrated fince the 
Roman times. Next to that place of fafhionable refort, may be men- ' 

tioned the hot-wells of Briftol, thofe of Tunbridge in Kent, and of 
Buxton and Scarborough in the North. Thofe of Cheltenham in 
Gloucefterftiire, have been efteemed beneficial in fcorbutic cafes ; but 

" Pennant's Journey from Chefler to London, p. 26, (He eiUmatcs the duty at zo,ooo/. ) 
Cough's Camden, ii. 436. Aikin's Manchefter, 427. 

''^OL. I.. T. to 



138 ENGLAND, 

TMiNERALs. to enumerate the rprlags of inferior note, would be infinite, as clialy- 
beat wells at leaft, muft occur in almoft every county, and new waters 
are daily flarting into celebrity. 

KaturalCu- Among the natural curiofities, thofe of Derbyfhire have always been 
efteemed the moft memorable. Hobbes and others have long fince 
celebrated the wonders of the Peak, a mountain not equal in height to 
thofe of Wales, or the more northern part of England, but perforated 
with fuch vertical chafms, and fiich furprifing caverns as have de- 
fervedly excited admiration. Thefe caves are often interfedled by fub- 
terraneous waters ; and mineralogifts feem to afcribe their formation to 
this caufe, the rock being of calcareous ftone. Thefe fubjed.s hav& 
now become too trite and familiar to allow further deicription ; and it 
fliall only be obferved, that the cavern at Caftleton, now decently called 
Peak's hole, is of a vafl: extent, and prefents fmgular afpedts, while 
Poole's hole, near Buxton, is celebrated for its lofty roof, and curious 
ftaladlites. Near Eyam is Bamforth-hole, a ftaladitic cavern of confi- 
derable extent ^'. 

Other remarkable caverns are found in the northern ridge of Englifh 
mountains. In the vale of Kingfdale, on the weftcrn extremity of 
Yorkfhire, is Yordas cave, which prefents a fubterraneous cafcade ; this 
cave is about fifty yards in length. But the moll noted is Wethercot 
cave, not far from Ingleton. It is furrounded with trees and fhrubs, 
in form like a lozenge, divided by an arch of lime-ftone, paffing under 
which you behold a large cafcade, falling from a height of more than 
twenty yards ; the length of this cave is about fixty yards, the breadth 
thirty. The vaft limeftone bafe of Ingleborough, is perforated in all 
diredtions like a honeycomb. It is the River Weafe, or Greta, which 
pervades the cave at Wethercot, and another at Gatekirk, and runs not 
lefs than two miles under ground. This ftream muft not be confounded 
with the Greta, which falls into the Tees near Barnard-caftle, and rifes 
near Brough, in Stanmore ; two rivers, the Oufe and the Swale, running 
betwixt them. Among other curiofities in this neighbourhood, muft 
not be omitted Hurtlepot, a round deep cavity, near forty yards in 

*3 Aikln's Manchefler, p. 76. St. Fond, torn. ii. 

diameter, 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 139 

diameter, almoft furrounded with rocks, about thirty feet perpendicular, Natural 
above its black waters, while the overbranching trees increafe the horrors tus.^' 
of the fcene '*. Not far to the fouth-eaft, is a lake called Malham 
Tarn, of clear and very cold water, abounding in trout. This is the 
fource of the river Aire, which runs about a mile under ground ; and 
near it is Malham cove, a kind of amphitheatre, of fmooth perpendi- 
cular limeftone, about 280 feet high in the centre. The river Kibble, 
near its origin in thefe parts, alio finks into a deep cavern ; and filently 
pervades the mountains for about three miles. Near Settle, at the bot- 
tom of fome calcareous rocks, is one of the moft remarkable ebbing and 
flowing wells in the kingdom ^s. This diftri£t alfo abounds with rare 
and curious plants : and in the grand features of nature, exceeds any- 
other region in England or Wales *. 

The lakes of Cumberland form another grand fcene of attra£lion,but 
it would be idle to attempt to deplft, in a few words, beauties which 
have been defcribed by lb many authors, and particularly by the glowing 
pencil of a Gray. Suffice it to obferve, that the three moft celebrated 
lakes are thofe of Conifton, Windermere, and and Derwent. The beau- 
ties of the firft have been compared to the delicate touches of Claude j. 
the noble fcenes of the fecond, to thofe of Pouffin ; while Derwent 
has much of the fublime mildnefs of Salvator Rofa : but moft tra- 
vellers efteem Ulfwater, the moft truly fublime. 

The mountainous regions of Wales may well be fuppofed to prefent 
many natural curiofities ; and the Parrys mine in Anglefea, is in itfelf 
a furprifing obje(St. The cataradls in Cumberland are rivalled by a re- 
markable fall of the Tees, on the weft of the county of Durham, over- 
which is a bridge fufpended by chains, feldom palled but by the ad- 

^* Weft's Guide to the Lakes ; and a cuiious pamphlet on the caves of Yorkfliire, 1781, 
£vo. By Houfman's Map, this Greta pnlTes by Iiigleton to the Lon and Lancaflcr. 

** Aikin's Manchefter, p. 91- 

• Mr. Houfman alfo gives a good account of thefe curiofities, he obferves, p. 26, that rocks 
are in Cumberland called Litms (whence the name is in Scotland applied to a cataraft) ; and 
Sour Milk Force, near the bottom of Buttcrnitre lake, is fuppofed to fall upwards of 300 yards. 
A curious cave was lately difcovered, p. K3, by miners near Crofsfell, faid to be two miles in 
length, and full of fplendid fpars. Gordale Scarr, p. 199, near Malham cove, is a dreadful rent 
through high rocks, worthy of the attention of a curious traveller. 

T 2 venturous 



TJES. 



140 ENGLAND. 

Natural venturous mliiers ; nor muft Afgarth force, in Yorkfhire, be pafied 

Near Darlington, In the county of Durham, are three pools of great 
depth, about thirty yards, called Hell Kettles, concerning which many 
fables have been current, as is ufual with all nations, concerning any 
natural phoenomena. The cliffs near Sunderland confift of a fmgular 
ftone, refembling coraline produQions ; and fo firm as to be generally 
ufed tfiere in building *. 

The fub-marine relics of a foreft, on the coafl; of Lincolnfhire, may 
be defervedly claiTed among the moll remarkable natural curiofities. 
Nor are the lofty chalk cliffs of Dover without their claim. The ca- 
vern near Ryegate, in Surrey, defcending through a hill of the fineft and 
moft fpLendid fand, muft rather claim an artificial origin. At Brolely, 
in Shropfhire, was a well fo impregnated with bitumen, that, on the 
application of a candle, the ftream took fire, and would boil a tea kettle 
in nine minutes" ; but, by opening other coal-pits in the vicinity, this 
phosnomenon dlfappeared ; a fimilar appearance and event alio oc- 
curred in Lancafhire ". But Shropfhire ftill contains a remarkable 
well of bitumen, at a place thence ftyled Pitchford. Cheddar cliffs, in 
Somerfetfhire, may alfo be mentioned among the natural curiofities ; 
and the Mendlp-hills, are not without their caverns, particularly 
Wookey-hole, near Wells, a ftalaftltic cavern of about 600 feet in length, 
divided by low paffages, into various apartments ; one of which, called 
the hall, fomewhat refembles a Gothic chapel, and is faid to be eighty 
feet in height j while the furtheft, ftyled the parlour, is of moderate 
height, but extenfive diameter. On the N. W. fide of the Mendip- 
liills, is a yet more remarkable curlofity, a confiderable cavern, at the 
bottom of a deep ravine, near the little village of Berrington, or Bur- 
rington. Here are a number of human bones, gradually incorporating 
■with the llme-ftone rock ; there being a continual- dripping from the 
loof and fides, which depofits a ffaladlitic fediment on the bones. Se- 
veral nodules contain perfecft liuman fkulls. At the further end, 

• The like flone occurs in Ingiia, and the paliice of Peterhoff is conftiiiftcd wjtlj it. The 
Amtnonitic ftone of Broad Marilon, Somerfetfhire, is another Angular produftlon. 
"' Phil. Tranf, No. 334. and 482. *' Cough's Camden II. 397. 412. 

where 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. mi 



1;li.-. 



vi'here the height is about fifteen feet, there is a large conic flaladite, British 
which nearly meets a pillar rlfing from the floor. This cave was only 
difcovered about two years ago ; and as the matter increafes fo faft, it 
is conjedured that it would foon have been clofcd up "". Hence it is 
probable that thefe bones are of no remote antiquity, and may, per- 
haps, be the remains of fome wretches who had here taken Ihelter from 
the cruelty of Jeffries, after the infurredion of Monmouth *'. 



ENGLISHISLES. 

In the Southern, or Englifli Channel, firft appears the Ille of Wight, ifieofWigKt. 
by the Romans called Fe^is, by the Saxons Vihtlond, of an oval form, 
about twenty miles in length, and twelve in breadth. This ifle is 
fertile and beautiful, and decorated with many pidlurefque villas ; the 
principal haven is that of Newport. The chief mineral produds are 
pipe clay, and fine white fand, for the fabrication of pure glafs ; and at 
Alum-bay, on the north fide of the Needles, are found confiderable 
quantities of native alum '. It is faid that more corn was once raifed ' 

in the Ifle of Wight in one year, than the inhabitants could confume in 
eight. One of the moft remarkable buildings is Carifbrook-caftlcj 
where Charles I was imprifoned ; it was built foon after the conqueft, 
as appears from the Book of Doomfday. The lofty white rocks, ilyled 
the Needles, feem to have been disjoined from the weftevn extremity of 
the ifle, by the violence of the waves. There were formerly three ; 
but about the year J 782, the tallefl:, which rofe about 120 feet above 
the low-water mark, was overthrown, and totally difappeared \ 

^ Tranfaft. of the LJnnxan Society, vol. v. Philofoph. Mag. vii. 14.6. 

* There is a remarkable cave, or rather pit, fuppofed to have been an ancient mine calkil 
Penpark-hole, about five mile? to the north of Briftol. A pamphlet, publiHied by Mr. Catontt 
contains the dimenfions of this horrible chafm, and an affefting ;iecuiuil of the fate of Mr 
Nevvnam, who fell into the giilph while he was meafnring i'S depth. 

' Gough's Camden, i. 143. * Woiiley's Ifle of Wight, p 274. 

At 



142 . ENGLAND. 

British At the diftance of about feventy miles from Wight, to the S. "W. 

'^'■^'' arifes the little ifle of Alderney, off the Cape la Hogue ; which is after- 
wards followed by the more important ifles of Guernfey and Jerfey j 

Giieinfey. Sark being a fmall ifle interpofed between the two latter. Guernfey, 

. the largeft of thefe ifles, is twelve miles long, nine broad, and about 

thirty-fix in circuit. It is a verdant ifle, though the foil be hilly, and 

Jerfey. barren of wood. The only town Is that of Port St. Pierre *. Jerfey 

is about twelve miles in length, and fix in breadth, a well watered and., 
fertile ifland, producing excellent butter and honey. The wirfters are 
milder, but more windy, than thofe of England. The breed of fheep, 
with four or fix horns, feems now unknown. The northern fide of 
the ifland is high, but the fouthern fubfides into pleafant vales, covered 
with orchards. It is faid that this ifle has fometimes produced in one 
year 24,000 hogfheads of cyder. The remarkable places are the two. 
towns of St. Helier and St. Aubin, both (landing on a bay, opening to 
the fouth ; and the caftle of Mont Orgueil. The inhabitants of Jerfey 
are computed at 20,000, of which 3000 are capable of arms. In 
January 178 1, St. Flelier was furprifed by 800 French, under RuUi- 
court, who was killed, while Major Pierfon fell on the fide of the 
Englilli, his valour being commemorated by paintings and prints, and 

A'derney. by a haudfome monument in the church of St. Helier. Alderney is a 
fmall ifle, with a town, and about icoo inhabitants in all. Sark has 
about 300 inhabitants \ 

Eddlftone.. Returning to the Englifli fhore, we firfl: defcry Eddiftone light-houfe, 

beat by all the fury of the weftern waves. This edifice has repeatedly 
been overthrown, but the prefent eredion by Mr. Smeaton, compofed 
of vaft maffes of (lone, grooved into the i-ock, and joined with iron, 
promifes alike to defy acccidental are, and the violence of the ocean, 
though the waves fometimes w-afli over the very fumm.it in one fheet 
of foam. 

About thirty miles to the weft of the Land's' End, appear the Ifles of 
Scilly, which have been idly jleemed the CaflHterides of the ancients, 



Scillv. 



* Guernfey is chiefly remarkable for its fmall breed of cattle. 
^ Cough's Camden, iii, 753.. 



though 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 143 



tliough thefe rocks be too minute to have attraded their notice. This British 
chifter pretends to the name of 145 ifles, covered with grafs or mofs, 
befides innumerable dreary rocks. The largeft ifle is that of St. Mary, 
which is about five miles in circuit, and has a caftle and garrifon : in- 
habitants about 600. That of St. Agnes is rather fertile, inhabirants 
about 300. The whole inhabitants of the Scilly Ifles, are computed at 
about 1000. The cattle and horfes fmall ; but flieep and rabbits 
thrive well. Confulerable quantities of kelp are prepared amid thefe 
rocks . 

On turning to the north, ftrft appears the little ifle of Lundy, fituated Lundj-. 
in the Briftol Channel, about three miles long, but not a mile in 
breadth, with about 500 acres of good land, fome rivulets, and a caftle. 
It was formerly a noted retreat for pirates. 

Some fmall ifles lye oiTthe Welch coafl: of Pembrokefliire and Caer- Angkfea. 
narvon, fuch as Caldy, Skomar, Bardfey, and others * : but the ifle of 
Anglefea deferves more attention, being the Mona of Tacitus, while the 
Ifle of Man is more properly the Monaeda of the ancients. Anglefea 
is about twenty-five miles in length, and eighteen in breadth. The 
chief towns are Newburgh, Beaumaris, and, on the weftern extremity, 
fronting Ireland, Holyhead. This ifle is fo remarkably fertile, that the 
Welch have emphatically ftyled it the mother of Wales ; and of late 
has been alio productive of rich copper, found in the Parrys moun- 
tain, in the N. E. part of the ifland, near Amluch, of which an account 
has been given in treating of the Englifh minerals. This ifle alfo pro- 
duces green ferpentine, with afbeflios. Beaumaris is a large town, with a 
caftle built by Edward I. Newburgh is a corporation of fmaller moment. 
Holyliead, originally a fifliing town, has become of confequence, by the 
Irifh packets which pafs daily, the average time being twelve hours. 

The laft Englifh ifle worth mention, is that of Man ; it is about Man. 
thirty miles in length, and fifteen in its greateft breadth. In the midft 
is a high mountain, called Snafel. The chief mineral produdtions are 
black marble, flate, lime-ftone, lead, copper, and iron. Man is alfo 

•* Cough's Camden, iii. 753. 

* Barry, a fmall ifle, S. W. of Cardiff, is latterly noted for fulpliate of ftrontian, alfo found at 
Old Paffage, fourteen miles N. W. of Brlflol; and near Mcndip hills. 

3 well 



144 . ENGLAND. 

British well ftored with black cattle, and flieep ; and the population has of late 
JsLEs. years greatly increaled. This ifle was feized by the Norwegians, along 
■with the Weftern Ifles of Scotland, in the ninth century ; and remained 
under thefe lords an independent kingdom, till the thirteenth century, 
when it fell with thofe iflands, to Alexander III of Scotland. The Scots 
were expelled in the reign of Edward II, but the title continued dubious, 
for in the 15th and i6th centuries, Alexander and John, Dukes of 
Albany, ftyled themfelves Lords of Man, and interwove the arms in 
their heraldry. In the reign of Henry IV, the kingdom of Man was 
conferred on the Stanleys, afterwards Earls of Derby, and latterly pafled 
to the family of Athol by marriage. This petty fovereignty has been 
Cnce purchafed and an.iexed to the Englifh crown. The chief places 
are Douglas and Caftletown, and there are fome confiderable villages. 
Thanet. There are alfo fome fmall iflands off the eaftern coaft, as Lindisfarn, 

and Coquette ifland, near the mouth of the river of that name, in Nor- 
thumberland. The Ifle of Thanet is now joined to the land of Kent j 
but Sheppey remains a pleafant and interefting ifle. 



SCOT LA N D. 



CHAPTER I. 



Names. — Extent. — Original Population. — Progrejfive Geography. — Uifiorical 

Epochs, — Antiquities. 

QCOTLAND was firft difcovered to the Romans by Agricola ; and the jj^^j 
^ luminous pages of Tacitus dilclofed the fituation and manners ol 
the country. It is not improbable that the Thule of the Phoenicians 
may have been the main Land of Shetland ; or, perhaps, as fome think, 
even the north of Scotland, which the Phoenicians, {landing out to fea, 
and afterwards bending their courfe towards the land, may have mif- 
taken for another ifland, a circumftance not unufual in the annals of - 
navigation. However this be, not even a hint that can be pofitively 
appUed to Scotland, can be found in the ancient writers, till the 
Flavian family held the Roman fceptre. 

Tacitus difcriminates the northern part of Britain from the fouthern 
by the fpecial and repeated appellation of Caledonia, a name faid to be 
derived from a Cumraig word, fignifying woodlands, forefts, or, per- 
haps, rather a mountainous country, for the ancients often blended the 
ideas of foreft and mountain ; the Riphcean mountains, for inftance 
being, in fa£l, only a vaft foreft, as no mountains are to be found In 
that fituation and diredllon. 

The names Caledonia^ and Caledomaris^ continued to be ufed till the 
Roman power expired. Bede, the father of Englifh hillory, calls the 

VOL. I. u inhabitants 



•1 



6 SCOTLAND. 



Names. Inhabitants of the country, by the name of Pi^i, which had alfo 
been iifed by the later Roman writers, as fynonymous with that of 
Caledonii. The country he denominates, in the lax barbaric Latin of 
that age, Provlncia Pi&orum^ the province, or region of the Pidi. 
This new name feems to have been native (Piles, or Pehts) ; and to have 
originated from a country fo flyled, In the fouth of Norway, whence 
this colony had arrived. The Saxon writers, and among them King 
Alfred, call the people Peohts, and the country Peohtlond. 

Thefe diftindions continued till the eleventh century, when the new 
name of Scotia, was taken from Ireland, its former objed, and applied 
to modern Scotland. This confufion feems to have originated from the 
vanity or affe£tation of the Irlfh clergy, who were eftablifhed in Scot- 
land, and were the fole inftru£tors of the people ; no native Caledo- 
nian faint being mentioned in the ecclefiaftic annals, till the twelfth 
century, the Pidli retaining much of the ignorance and ferocity of 
their Scandinavian progenitors. Nor can the new term Scothmd, be 
properly derived from any pretended conqueft of the Pi£ti, by the At- 
tacotti, a colony of Scots or Irlfh, who had fettled in Argylefhire, as 
the Saxon and Irifh authors continued to ufe the former appellations 
for three centuries after that event Is faid to have happened. 
Extent. That part of Great Britain, called Scotland, Is about 260 miles in 

length, by about 160 at its greateft breadth ; it extends from the 55th 
degree of latitude, to more than 58^. The fuperficial contents have 
been computed at 27,793 fquare miles, a little exceeding that of Ire- 
land, and confiderably more than half that of England. The popula- 
tion being eftimated at 1,600,000, there will of courle be only hfty- 
feven inhabitants, for every fquare mile, a proportion of about one 
third to that of Ireland. This defe<il; of population arlfcs folely from 
the mountainous nature of the country, amounting, perhaps, to one 
half, little fufceptlhle of cultivation. 
On'gi'iial Po- So far as hiftorical refearches can difcover, the original population of 
puiatiou. Scotland, confifted of Cimbri, from the Cimbric Cherfonefe. About 

two centuries before the Chriftian cCra, the Cimbri feem to have been 
driven to the fouth of Scotland by the Caledonians or Pidi, a Gothic 
colony from Norway. The Cimbri, a congenerous people with the 

7 Welch, 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. i i/ 

\Velch, continued to hold the country fouth of the two firths of Forth Namf.s,&c. 
and Clyde ; but from the former region they weie foon expelled by 
the Pidi, who, in this corner, became fubjedl for a time to the Anglo- 
Saxon kings of Bernicia. On the weft,- the Cumraig kingdom of Strath 
Clyde continued till the tenth century, when it became fubjetTt to the 
kings of North Britain ; who at the fame time extended their autho- 
rity, by the permi/Tion of the Englifh monarchs, over the counties of 
Cumberland and Weftmoreland, which abounding with hills and for- 
treffes on the fouth and eaft, were little acceffible to the Englifh power ; 
and while the Danes poflefied the country to the north of the Humber, 
could yield little revenue or fupport to the Anglo-Saxon monarchs. 
From the Pidi originates the population of the Lowlands of Scotland, the 
Lowlanders having been in all ages a diftindl people from thole of the 
weftern Highlands, though the Irilh clergy endeavoured to render their 
language, which was the moft fmooth and cultivated of the two, the 
polite dialogue of the court and fuperior clafles. About the year of 
Chrift 258, the Dalriads of Bede, the Attacotti of the Roman writers, 
pafled from Ireland to Argylefliire, and became the germ of the Scottifli 
Highlanders, who fpeak the Irilli or Celtic language, while the Low- 
landers have always ufed the Scandinavian, or Gothic. 

The progreflive geography of Scotland, is little opulent in materials. PiogrefTive 
In the fecond century we find a map of North Britain, by Ptolemy ; ^'^S'^P f- 
but by fome fingular error, it is as inaccurate as his map of Hindoftan; 
for he reprefents the Mull of Galloway as the mod northern promon- 
tory of Scotland, and thence bends the country due eaft, fo that all his 
longitudes and latitudes are fidtitious. This ftriking inftance evidences 
that he often accommodated his longitudes and latitudes, from mathe- 
matical conjedlure, to carelefs fketches which had been taken by the 
Roman engineers, or by navigators. But his diftribution of the tribes 
which then inhabited Scotland, may be regarded as tolerably exaift. 
In the centre of the country he places a vaft foreft, which he calls the 
Sylva Caledonia, chiefly extending over modern Perthfliire, an indica- 
tion that the colonies had fettled on the fhores, and that the interior 
part of the country was little known. The Otadeni were the people 
of modern Northumberland and Lothian ; the Selgovse extended over 

U 2 Dumfriellnre, 



148 SCOTLAND. 

Names, EX. Dumfrleiliire, and Klrkucibright, to the bay of Wlgton, while the No- 
TiNT, c. ^.^j^jg, fjjieJ modern Wigionlhire, and extended upwards to Ayre-bay. 
The fourth fouthevn tribe was that of the Damnii, who poffelTed the 
central region, from near the fource of the Clyde, to thjit of the Erne.. 
On the north-eafl: of the Damnii were the Venicontes, from the Frith 
of Forth to the River Dee, while the Texali held the modern fliires of 
Aberdeen and Bamf. To the weft of them were the Vacomagi, ex- 
tending from Fort William to the Caftra Alata or Iiivernefs. The 
other tribes fcarcely deferve enumeration : the Cornabii pofleired 
the moft northern parts of Scotland, from Dun{by-head to Strath- 
Haver. Four tribes extend along the north-weft, down to Loch Linny ; 
to the fouth of which are placed the Epidii, in Argylefhire, who were 
divided by Loch Fyn from the Gadeni, who held that part to the eaft 
of Argyleftiire, called Cowal, in the county of Dumbarton. 

After the time of Ptolemy little information arifes concerning the 
geography of Scotland, till, after the lapfe of (even or eight centuries, 
we find the dawn of the prefent names and divifions. In the latter 
Roman period, the province of Valentia embraced that part which 
was fouth of the Clyde and Forth ; as for a ftiort fpace, from about 
A. D. 140 to 170, the name of Vefpafiana had been imparted to the 
- region extending from the Forth to Loch Nefs. The remains of 
Roman roads form the chief evidence of the firm pofleflion of the latter 
province. 

In the middle ages, the name of Albany had been applied to that part 
of Scotland which lies on the north of the Firths ; and about the year 
1200, was written \!a.Q Defcriptlo Albanice. In the fourteenth century, 
Fordun produced a larger and more precife idea of Scotifti geography. 
Harding, who wrote his rhyming Chronicle in the reign of Edward 
IV, gives a tolerably exad; defcription of Scotland, which he had 
vifited ; and fome manufcripts of his work contain a rude map of the 
country. It muft be obferved, that the mifapprehenfions of Ptolemy 
concerning the due pofition of North Britain, are redlified, even in old 
Anglo-Saxon drawings. The firft engraved map is that publiflied by 
Bifliop Lefley, with his Hiftory ; but it abounds with portentous errors, 
which have been flowly removed. The Atlas publiflied in the laft 

century, 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 149 

century, does honour to the induftry and abilities of Pont, and the mu- Names, ex- 
nificence of Sir John Scott; and the recent exertions of Dorret, Roy, tent,&c. 
Mackenzie, Huddard, Ainflic, and others, have contributed to eftablifh 
fome exadinefs in the geographical and hydrographical delineation of 
the country. 

The original population of Scotland by the Cimbri, and by the Pidli, Hlftoncal 
forms, as ufual, the firft hiftorical epoch. 

2. The entrance of Agricola into Scotland, and the fubfequent con- 
flidls with the Romans, till the latter abandoned Britain. 

3. The fettlement of the Dalriads, or Attacotti, in Argylefliire, about 
the year 258, and their repulfion to Ireland about the middle of the 
fifth century. 

4. The commencement of what may be called a regular hiflory of 
Scotland, from the reign of Druft, A. D. 414. 

5. The return of the Dalriads, A. D. 503, and the fubfequent events 
of Dalriadic ftory. 

6. The introdudion of CRriftianity among the Caledonians, in the 
reign of Brudi II, A. D. ^6^. 

7. The union of the Pi£ti and Attacotti, under Kenneth, A. D. 843. 

8. The reign of Malcolm HI, A. D. 1056; from which period ' 
greater civilisation began to take place, and the hiftory becomes more 
authentic. 

9. The extindlon of the ancient line of kings, in the perfon of Mar- 
garet of Norway, grand- daughter of Alexander III, A. D. 1290. This 
event occafioned the arbitrary interpofition of Edward I, king of Eng- 
land, which was the fole fource of the enmity which afterwards unhap- 
pily prevailed between the kingdoms. 

10. The acceflion of the Houfe of Stuart to the Scotifh throne ; a 
family which produced mod ingenious and intelligent, but mofl unfor- 
tunate princes. 

11. The eftablifliment of the Proteftant religion, A. D. 1560. 

12.- The union of the tv/o crowns, by the acceflion of James VI to 
the Englifli fceptre, A. D. 1603. 

13. The 



ISO SCOTLAND. 

^E^°^'.'i'^'' ^^" '^^1^ civil wars, and the fubfequent dlfputes between the Prefby- 
terians and Independants ; caufes that exthiguiflied all found literature 
in Scotland, for the fpace of twenty years, A. D. 1640 — 1660. 

14. The revolution of i688, and the firm eftablilhment of the 
Prefbyterian fyftem. 

15. The union of the two kingdoms, in 1707. 

16. The abolition of the hereditary jurifdiftions, 1755, which laid 
the firft foundation of the fubfequent profperity in Scotland. 

An:iquiues. The monuments of antiquity belonging to the more early epochs, 

may be confidered in the following order. Of the firft epoch, no mo- 
numents can exifi:, except thofe of the tumular kind; and it is impof- 
fible to afcertain the period of their formation. The remains of the 
Roman .period in North Britain, chiefly appear in the celebrated wall, 
built in the reign of Antoninus Pius, between the firths of Forth and 
Clyde, in the ruins of which many curious infcriptions have been 
found. Another ftriklng obje£l of this epoch, was a fmall edifice, vul- 
garly called Arthur's Oven, which feems rightly to have been regarded 
by fome antiquaries, as a fmall temple, dedicated to the God Terminus, 
probably after the ere£tion of the wall of Antoninus, for we are not to 
conceive that thefe walls were the abfolute lines, beyond which the 
Romans poffefled no territory ; while, on the contrary, in the pacific 
Intervals, the garrifons along the wall may have claimed the forage of 
the exterior fields ; and the ftream of Carron, beyond which this 
chapel flood, may have been confidered as a neceffary fupply of water. 
The remains of the wall and forts, and other Roman antiquities in 
Scotland, particularly their camps and ftations, many of which are re- 
markably entire, are ably illuflrated in a late publication of General 
Roy, to which this reference muft fuffice, with this fole remark, that 
the ingenious author has too implicitly followed a common antiquarian 
. error, in afcribing all thefe camps, ftations, &c. to Agricola, while they 
may be more juftly afligned to Lollius Urbicus, A. D. 140, or to the 
Emperor Severus, A. D. 207 ; efpecially, indeed, to the latter, for the 
Emperor's appearance in perfon to conduct two campaigns, probably 
as far as Invernefs, mud have occafioneJ the ere(^ion of works more 

eminent 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. jci 



TIES- 



eminent and durable than ufual, the foldlers being excited by the ani- Antique 

mating controul of a military monarch, Conilantius Chlorus alfo, 

A. D. 306, made a long progrefs into Scotland, if we truft the Pane- 

gyrifts. Nay, in the reign of Domitian, Bolanus, as we learn from. 

Statins the poet, erefted feveral works in Britain,, probably in the 

north; fo that it is idle to impute thefe remains to any one author: 

but to a judicious eye, the claims of Lollius Urbicus, and of Severus, 

feem preferable. The moft northerly Roman camp yet difcovered, 

is that near the fource of the River Ythan, Aberdeenlhire ; periphery 

about two Englifh miles. A fnialler ftation has alfo been obferved at 

Old Meldrum, a few miles to the S. E. 

Roman roads have been traced a confiderable way in the eaft of 
Scotland, as far as the county of Angus, affording fome evidence of 
the exiftence of the province Vefpafiana ; but the chief remains are 
■within the wall. A hypocaufl was alfo difcovered near Perth, and 
another near Muflelburgh, fo that there was, probably, fome Roman 
ftation near the Scotiftv. capital, but the name of Alaterva is a ridiculous 
error, arifmg from an infcription, by fome foreign cohort, to obfcure 
goddeffes ot their own country ,^ ftyled Matres ALitervne. The fmaller 
remains of Roman antiq^uity found, in Scotland,, as coins, utenfils, &c. 
are numerous. 

With the fourth epoch may be faid to commence the Pikifli monu- 
ments of antiquity. The tombs it would be difficult to diicriminate 
from thofe of the firft epoch ; but as the Caledonian kings, when con- 
verted to Chriftlanity, held their chief refidence at Invernefs, the 
fmgular hill in its vicinity,, prefenting the form of a boat reverfed, may, 
perhaps, be a monument of regal fepulture. The places of judgment 
among the Gothic nations, or what are now ftyled Druidic temples, 
are numerous ; and there is a remarkable one in the lile of Leuis, 
where,, probably, the monarchs refided in the moft early times j but 
this, perhaps, rather belongs to the Norwegian fettlemenc in the ninth 
century. Some of thefe monuments are of fmall circuit, and fuch are 
fometlmes found at no great diftance from each other ; as they were not 
only fometimes ereded merely as temples to Odin, Thor, Freyga, and 
other gothic deities,, but every chief, or lord of a manor, having 

jurifdidioii 



152 SCOTLAND. 

Anticoji- jurifdldlon over many fervants and flaves, fucli fmall courts became 
'^'^^' places of neceflary awe. 

The houfes feem to have been entirely of wood or turf; but in fome- 
fpots fingular excavations are found rudely lined with ftone : thefe are 
called Weems^ and it is likely that they were always adjacent to the 
wooden refidence of fome chief, and were intended as depofitories of 
ftores, &c. the roofs being too low for comfortable places of refuge. 
The ftations and camps of the natives, are diftinguifhed by their round 
form, while thofe of the Romans belong to the fquare. 

Under the next epoch it would be difficult to difcover any genuine 
remains of the Dalriads. The houfes, and even churches, were con- 
ftrudled in wattle-work ; and the funeral monuments were cairns,' or 
heaps of ftones. It is probable that Chriftianity did not immediately 
diffolve ancient prejudices, and that even the Attacotcic kings were 
buried in this rude manner, for the genuine chronicles do not affirm 
that they were conveyed to Hyona, or Icolmkill ; and the fepul- 
chres there fhewn of Irifh and Norwegian kings, muft be equally 
* fabulous. 

To the fixth epoch may probably belong a chapel or two, ftill 
remaining in Scotland, for Bede informs us, that Nethan III, A. D. 
715, obtained architedls from Ceolfrid, abbot of Jarrow and Were- 
mouth, to build a church in his dominions, probably at Abernethy ; 
but the round tower there remaining, feems of more recent origin. 
About the year 830, Unguft II founded the church of St. Andrews; 
and the chapel called that of St. Regulus, (who feems unknown in the 
Roman calendar,) may, perhaps, claim even this antiquity. It is pro- 
bable that thefe facred edifices in (lone were foon followed by the 
eredion of thofe rude, round piles, without any cement, called Piks 
houfes : yet they may more properly belong to 

The feventh epoch, when the Danes may, if they choofe, fhare in 
the honour of the eredion, for fuch edifices have been traced in Scan- 
dinavia. They feem to have confifted of a vaft hall, open to the fky 
in the centre, while the cavities in the wall prefent incommodious re- 
cefll-s for beds, &c. Thefe buildings are remarkable, as difplaying the 
firft elements of the Gothic caille ; and the caftle of Coningfburg, in 

Yorkfhire, 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. r^j 

Yorkfhlre, forms an eafy tranfitlon. The engraved obellflcs, found at Histoiucal 
Forres, and in other parts of Scotland, have been afcribed to the Danifli Enochs. 
ravagers, who had not time for fuch eredlions. They are, probably, 
monuments of fignal events, raifed by the king or chiefs, and as fome 
are found in Scandinavia, as recent as the fifteenth century, it is pro- 
bable that many of the Scotifh obelilks, are far more modern than is 
generally imagined. 

To enumerate the churches and caftles, erefted fince the reign of 
Malcom III, would be infinite. Some of the moft fplendid churches 
derive their foundation from David I, in the twelfth century. 



VOL. 1, X 



( »54 ) 



CHAPTER II. 

Religion. — Ecclefiajlical Geography. — Government, — Lpsjcs, — V ovulation .—> 

Colonies. 

i.ELiGioN. QINCE the revolution, 1688, the Ecclefiaftical Government of Scot- 
^ land is of the Prefbyterian form ; an eflablifhment attempted in 
the fixteenth century, but uniformly oppofed by the monarchs, as un- 
favourable to the royal influence. Experience has {hewn that the pre- 
judice was unfounded ; but violent commotions happened before the 
Prefbyterian triumph became firm. The number of parifhes in Scot- 
land is 941 ' ; contiguous parifhes unite in what is called a Prefbytery, 
of which denomination there are fixty-nine. The provincial fynods 
amounting to fifteen, are compofed of feveral adjacent prefbyteries : but 
the grand ecclefiaftical court is the General Aflembly, which meets 
every year, in the fpring, the king appointing a commiflioner to repre- 
fent his perfon, while the members nominate their moderator or pre- 
fident. To this ecclefiaftic council laymen are alfo admitted, under the 
name of Ruling Elders, and conftitute about one third of this venerable 
body. This Court difcufles and judges all clerical affairs, and admits 
of no appeal, except to the parliament of Great Britain. In general 
the Scotifh clergy deferve the higheft praife, as men of enlightened 
minds, and moderate condu(£l ; and a fingular proof of the diffufion 
of talents among them, has recently appeared in the Statiftical Account 
of Scotland, publifhed by Sir John Sinclair, in twenty-one volumes ; 
for there are few parifhes of which the account is not ably delineated 
by the clergyman himfelf; a pho:nomenon in the literary world, 
which will hardly be rivalled by 900 philofophers, or rather theorifts 
of the modern fchool. 

As whatever eftablifhment is effeded in a free country, oppofition 
will always arife, the eftablifhment of the Prefbyterian fyftem, was, in 

• Statift. Account. 

the 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. ,55 

the fpace of one generation, followed by the feceffion. In 1732, about RtLicicni. 
forty minifters prefented an addrefs to the general aflembly, fpeclfying 
feveral defedions, which, in their opinion, had taken place, from the 
original conftitution of the church, which, in truth, had too much of 
the rigour of Calvin. Some of the feceders were deprived of their 
livings by a committee of the general aflembly. Perfecution, as ufual, 
produced followers, and the feceders foon formed a numerous party. 
About the year 1747, they were themfelves divided into two denomi- 
nations, called the Burghers and the Anti- burghers, becaufe the divifion 
arofe concerning the legality of the oaths taken by the burgefles of 
fome of the royal boroughs ; the former allowing that the oath is pro- 
per, while the latter objedl ; the former are the more numerous, the 
number of their minifters being computed at about loo, and at a me- 
dium each has a congregation of about 1000. 

Many refpe£lable families in Scotland, embrace the epifcopal form of 
the Church of England. The other defcriptions of religious profef- 
fions, are not numerous. There are but few Roman Catholics, even in 
the remote Highlands, the fcheme of education being excellent, and 
generally fupported with liberality. ' 

To delineate the Ecclefiaftical Geography of Scotland, would be to EcclefiafHc 
enumerate its parifl^ies ; nor are the prefbyteries and fynods of fuch ac- ^'^°S''^P > 
count as to influence the fate of the towns where they aflfemble. 
The ancient eftablifhment comprifed two archbifhoprics, thofe of St. 
Andrews and Glafgow ; and eleven bifhoprics (that of Edinburgh 
having only been eftabliflied by Charles I) which, in the order of 
antiquity, may be thus enumerated ; Galloway (St. Andrews) Dun- 
keld, Moray: five founded by David I, Brechin, Dumblane, x^berdeen, 
Rofs (Glafgow) ; that of Argyle, or Lifmore, w^as founded about 
the year 1200, becaufe the bifhops of Dunkeld did not fpeak the 
Irifh tongue. The bifhops of Orkney, and of the Weftern Iflands, date 
from an early period, while their fees were not fubjedt to the Scotifh 
crown. 

The Government of Scotland, fince the union, has been blended Government 
with that of England. The chief diftindion between the original con- 
ftitution of the two countries, was, that Scotland had no houfe of com- 

X 2 , mons. 



MENT, 



156 SCOTLAND. 

Govern- mons, the parliament, confifting of all defcrlptlons, afTembied in one 
hall. That enlightened prince, James I, of Scotland, endeavoured to 
eftablifh a houfe of commons, in imitation of that of England, 
where he was educated ; but the people moil firmly and vigoroufly 
defended their flavery. The moft fplendid remaining feature of 
government in Scotland, is the General Affembly. Next to which may 
be claflTed the high courts of juftice, efpecially that ftyled the Seffion, 
confifting of a prefident, and fourteen fenators. The Lords of Seffion, 
as thev are ftyled in Scotland, upon their promotion to office, aflume a 
title, generally from the name of an eftate, by which they are known 
and addrelfed, as if peers by creation, while they are only conftituted 
lords by fuperior intereft or talents. This court is the laft-refort in fe- 
veral caufes, and the only appeal is to the parliament of Great Britain. 
It is to be regretted, that the caufes are not determined by jury as in 
England. The jufticlary court confifts of five judges, who are likewife 
lords of feffion, but with a prefident ftyled the Lord Juftice Clerk, as he 
is only underftood to reprefent the formerly great office of Juftice 
General. This is the fupreme court in criminal caufes, which are de- 
termined by the majority of a jury, and not by the unanimity, as in 
England. There is alfo a Court of Exchequer, confifting of a Lord 
Chief Baron, and four Barons ; and a High Comt of Admiralty, in 
which there is only one judge. The keepers of the great and privy 
feals, and the lord regifter, or keeper of the records, may alfo be men- 
tioned under this head. 

The law of Scotland differs effentially from that of England, being 
founded, in a great meafure, upon the civil law. It partly confifts of 
ftatute law ; but many of the ancient ftatutes never having been en- 
forced, the chief rule of this fort arifes from the decifions of the feffion, 
which are carefully preferved and publiftied, and afford precedents, gene- 
rally deemed unexceptionable. Of common 'law there is hardly a trace, 
while the civil and canon laws, may be laid to form the two pillars of 
Scotifh judicature. The modes of procedure have, however, the ad- 
vantage of being free from many of thofe legal fidions, which difgra-ce the 
laws of fome other countries. It may, indeed, be deemed a fidion, that 
a debtor, who refufes or negledts to pay, Oiould be proclaimed a rebel to 

the 



CHAP. II. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



^S1 



GOVERRN- 
MENT, 



the king, and as it is called, put to the honiy before he can be imprifoned. 
The inferior courts are thofe of the fheriffs, magiftrates, and juftices of 
the peace. Under the hereditary jurifdidtions, happily abolifhed, the 
peers, and other great men, maintained a power, almoft abfolute, over 
their tenants and followers, fo that there was no law but the will of the 
mafter, and the cities alone could be deemed feats of freedom. 

The moft exa£t account of the population of Scotland, is that given in Population 
the Statiftical Account °, from which it appears that the amount, in 1798, 
was 1,526,492 ; while, in 1755, it was only 1,265,380; the increafe, 
therefore, is 261,112. The moft populous counties are, in the order 
of numbers, Perth, 133,274; Lanark, 125,254; Aberdeen, 122,921; 
Mid-Lothian, 122,655 > Forfar, 91,001 ; Fife, 87,250 ; Argyle, 76,101. 
There are no Scotifh colonies diftin£t from thofe of England ; that 
of Darien, attempted in the reign of William III, was unfuccefsful. 
Nor is this to be regretted, as it is now perfedly underftood that the 
climate is unhealthy, and unfit for any fettlement, fo that the Spaniards 
themfelves have negledled it. 

The army, navy, revenues, political importance and relations of Scot- 
land, are now infeparably intermingled with thofe of England. 

* Vol. XX. p. 620. 



Colonies. 



( 158 ) 



CHAPTER III. 

MnnHers and Cujloms. — Language. — Literature.'— Education. — Univerftties. — 
Cities and 'Towns. — Edifices. — Inland Navigation. — ManufaHures and 
Commerce. 

Manners 'T^HE Manners and Cuftoms of the Scots, begin to be much aflimi- 
CusTOMS. lated with thofe of Englifl-i. In their religious ceremonies, at- 

tending baptifm and marriage, there are variations, arifmg from the 
Prefbyterian form, which does not admit of godfathers or godmothers, 
but renders the parents alone anfwerable for the education of the child. 
The clergyman does not attend at funerals, nor is there any religious 
fervice ; but generally great decency. The hearfe feems a more ap- 
propriated machine than the clofe waggon fo called in England, being 
a light and lofty carriage, of trellice work, painted with black, and 
fpotted with the refemblance of falling tears, an idea derived from tlie 
ancient French ceremonies, as may be obferved in the collection by 
Montfaucon. Among the lower clafles, the funerals are generally far 
more numeroufly attended than in England ; nor is black an indifpen- 
fable colour of drefs on fuch occafions. 

In the luxuries of the table, the fuperior clafles rival the Englilh, and 
the gentlemen are, perhaps, rather more fond of wine. The abundance 
and beauty of the table-linen are defervedly prailed by ftrangers : fe- 
veral national diflics, formerly ferved up at the beil tables, and originating 
from the French cooking, in the reign of Mary, are now common or 
neglected, fuch as the haggis or hachis ; cock-a-leekie, or a capon boiled 
down with leeks ; crapped heads, or haddocks ftewcJ, the heads being 
fluffed with a kind of forced-meat balls, &c. &c. The diet of tiie 
lower clalTes pafl!es in a gradual tranfition from the north of England. 
The chief food h parich, or thick pottage, formed wnth oatmeal and wa- 
ter, and eaten with milk, ale, or butter ; in a hard lumpy form it is called 
brofe. With this the labourer is generally contented twice or thrice in 

the 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 159 

the day, with a little hit of meat for Sunday ; nor does he repine at the Manners 
bacon of the Englifh poor, as it is a food which he commonly loathes, customs. 
there being an ancient antipathy to fwine, as impure animals, into 
which the daemons paffed, as mentioned in the New Teftament. A 
funilar antipathy prevails againft eels, as they refemble a ferpent, and 
the old ferpent. The lower clafles of Scotland were little given to 
ebriety, till a fucceflion of improvident laws and regulations, reduced 
the wholefome malt liquors to mere water, when they were driven to 
the deftrudive beverage of whifky ; but in general their fobriety is 
exemplary ; and the Scotifli manufadurer or labourer, inRead of 
wafting his weekly gains at an alehoufe, is ambitious to appear with 
his family in decent clothes, on Sundays and other holidays. This 
may be regarded as a ftriking charaderiftic of the Scotilh peafantry, who 
always prefer the lafting decencies of life, to momentary gratifications. 
To this praife of fobriety, may be added that of intelligence, arifmg 
from the diffufion of education, which is fuch, that even the. miners in 
the fouth poflefs a circulating library. 

The houfes of the opulent have been long ereded upon the Englilh 
plan, which can hardly be exceeded for interior elegance and conve- 
nience. Even the habitations of the poor have been greatly improved 
within thefe few years, and inftead of the mud hovel, with ftraw, there 
often appears the neat cottage of ftone, covered with tile or flate. 
Whence the ancient cuftom arofe, of placing the dunghill in the front 
of the houfe, cannot well be imagined ; perhaps it was intended in de- 
fence, and if fo, is ufelefs in pacific times ; perhaps it is meant as a dif- 
play of opulence, in which cafe it is hoped that good fenfe will extin- 
guifh fuch fuperfluous vanity. 

The drefs of the fuperior clafles, is the fame with that of the Englifli, 
and only waits the arrival of the fafhions from London, which are con- 
veyed by the mail-coaches with great fpeed. The gentlemen in the 
Highlands, efpecially in time of war, ufe the peculiar drefs of that coun- 
try. Among the other clalTes, the Scotifh bonet is now rarely perceived, 
except in the Highlands ; it was the ufuai covering for the head all over 
Europe, till towards the end of the i6th century, when the hat, formerly 

4 only 



,6o SCOTLAND. 



Manners only wom 111 ndlng or hunting, came into general ufe. The Scotifli 
Customs, peafantry are now generally cloathed in good broad cloth, worfted 
{lockings, and ftrong fhoes, inftead of the home-fpun habiliment, and 
nudity of the lower extremities. This laft fmgularity, common in 
Wales, and even in England about two centuries ago, is moftly aban- 
doned even by the Scotifli lafles, who may now afpire to the order of 
the garter. In the Highlands, it is to be regretted, that a diftindlion of 
drefs ftill prevails, as any variation in drefs or language only fofters 
prejudices, and proves the moft fatal impediment to the progrefs of ci- 
vilization. Even in thefe enlightened times, if any nation were to return 
to the ftate of nudity, a philofopher could hardly avoid the idea, that 
they were favages ; and the mafs of mankind would certainly confider 
them as fuch, for trifles often lead to the moft ferious evils. 

The amufements of the rich are on a parallel with thofe of the Eng- 
lifh ; but thofe of the peafantry have feveral diverfitles, which the 
reader may, perhaps, heft learn from the poems of Burns. That of 
ciirlhig confifts in rolling large ftones, with iron handles, upon the ice, 
towards a fixed mark, a favourite and healthy diverfion in the winter. 
The Englilh quoits are fupplied by penny-Jia?ies^ round flat ftones, which 
are tofled in the fame manner. Two exquifite poems of Mr. Burns, 
his Halloween and his Cotter s Saturday Night, will convey more in- 
formation concerning the amufements, fuperftltions, and manners, of 
the Scotifli peafantry, than the moft long and animated detail. 
Language. The Scotifti language falls under two dlvifions, that of the Lowlands 

confifting of the ancient Scandinavian dialed:, blended with the Anglo- 
Saxon ; and that of the Plighlands, which is Irifh. A ftridl examination 
of the former, by an unprejudiced enquirer, would evince that it does 
not originate folely from the Anglo-Saxon, as fome conceive, the mode of 
fpelling and pronouncing numerous words, being unknown to the 
fouthern idiom : Of this, among other inftances, may be mentioned the 
qu of the Caledonians, an old Gothic combination, for which Ulphilas 
invented a letter, and for which the Anglo-Saxons ufed the iv ; as 
qiihat for what, &c. But this is not the place for fuch difcuflions ; and 

it 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. i5i 

it will be fufficlcnt to produce the ufual fpcc'imen, which, in the moH: Lasgu.\ge. 
ancient language of the Lowlands, would be as follows : 

Uov fader quiiiik bccft i Hc\ in. 2. Hullovvit wei- d tliyne nam. 3. Cum thyne kiiigrilc. 
4. Be dune tliyne wiill as is i l;t vin fva po verd. ^. Uor dailie breid gif us th'lk day. 6. And 
foileit us uov lliaths, as we foileli tliam quha fl^alh us. 7. And kcd us ua intil temlation. 
8. Butan fre us fra evil. Amen. 

The iflands of Orkney were feizcd by the Norwegians, in the ninth 
century, and the inhabitants retained the Norfe language, till recent 
times, when they began to fpeak remarkably pure Engliih. Chamber- 
layne has given the Lord's Prayer in their ancient dialect : 

Favor ir i cliimre. 2. Hilkur ir i nam lliit,.". ^. Gilla cofdum thitc cumina. 4. Veya thine 
mota vara govt o yurn fmna gort i chimriif. 5. Ga vus da on da dalight broxv vera. 6. Firgive 
^ us finna vera fin vce firgive iindara mutha vus. 7, Lyve us yc i tuntation. 8. Min delivera vus 
fro olt ilt. Amen ; or, On fa meteth vera. 

In the Erfe, or Irifh, of the Highlands, the fame fupplication runs 
thus : - ' 

A n'Athair ata air Neamli. T. Gu naamhaichear t Tinm. 2. Tigeadh do Rioghachd. 
3. Deanthar do Thoil air an T;ilamh mar a nithear air Neamh. 4. Tabliair dliuinn an diu ar 
V .^ran laillitil. 5. Agus maitli dhuiiin ar Fiaclia aniiiuil mar mhailhniid d'ar luehd — fia 
ch.a'bh. 6. Agus na leig am buaireadh fmn. 7. Ach faor finn o Ole. Amen. 

The Literature of- Scotland recompences for its recent origin, by its Literature, 
rapid progrefs, and extenfive fame. The country that produced Bu- 
chanan, in the i6th century, could not, in the twelfth, boaft of one 
native writer ; and only national vanity, or affeded ignorance, would 
claim authors which really belong to other countries. In the 13th 
century, the native literature firft begins to dawn ; when Scotland, 
filled with a barbarous Scandinavian colony, muft not in this refped 
be compared with the fouthern countries of Ireland and England, but 
with Scandinavia itfelf, with Holland,. and the North of Gei-many, 
Poland, Pruflia, Ruffia, and Hungary ; in all which countries Chrif- 
tlanity and literature are comparatively recent. 

Yet, it muft not be forgotten, that in the facred ground of Hyona, 
flourilhed feveral refpedable Irifli writers, who are alio claifed among 
the apoftles of religion and learning in England ; Such were Columba, 
who converted the northern Caledonians, and his biographers, Cumi- 

VOL. I. y nius 



i6z SCOTLAND. 



ruRE. 



LiTERA- nius and Adomnan, the latter the friend of Bede. Among the Strath- 
clyde Welch, may be named Patrick, in Jiis turn the apoille of 
Ireland. ■ 

Independently of tlicfe, the mod ancient fragment remaining of 
Scotifli literature, Is tlie Cbronlcon PiSIortm, written by fome Irifh cler- 
gyman, probably a dignitary of the church of Abernethy, in the be- 
ginning of the eleventh century. Of the twelfth century there are 
ibme fragments, in the Regifler of St. Andrews ; and fome fhort Chro- 
nicles publiihed by Inncs ; the Chronicle of Melrofe, and that of 
Kolyrood. 

One of the earlieft native writers, is Thomas of Erceldon, called the. 
Rimer, who flourifhed about the year 1270, and wrote a metrical ro- 
mance, called Sir Triftram, now unfortunately loft. The next author 
of note is John Barbour, Archdeacon of Aberdeen, who wrote his 
poem on the a£lions of Robert I, in the year 1375, no mean monu- 
ment of induftry and talents for that period. At the fame time flou- 
riflied John Fordun, the father of Scotifh hiftory. James I, of Scotland, 
wrote fome excellent poems, early in the fifteenth century ; and he was 
followed by Holland, and Henry the Rimer. In the end of that century 
arofe Dunbar, the chief of the ancient Scotifh poets ; and, in the begin- 
ning of the next, Gawin Douglas, and David Lindfay. The Scotifh mufe 
continued to warble till the middle of the feventeenth. century, when 
religious fanaticifm extinguifhed all the arts and fciences, but not before 
Drummond had woven his web of Doric delicacy. In more modern 
times, the names of Thomfon, Blair, Armftrong, Beattie, Burns, &c. 
are univerfally known. 

Rude chroniclers continued the chain of events ; but Hiftory was 
mute till Buchanan founded his claffical trumpet. Biihops Lefley and 
Burnet are not without their merit ; but why repeat to the echoes of 
fame, the illuftrious names of Hume and Robertfon ? 

The other departments of fcience are of yet more recent cultivation 
in Scotland ; even theology feems unknown till the beginning of the 
fixteenth century ; and of medicine there is no trace till the feven- 
teenth : while we can now boaft of Blair ; and Edinburgh ranks among 
■the firft medical fchools of Europe. Natural philofophy and hiftory 

were 



CHAP. HI. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 163 



were totally negledted till after the R.e{loration, yet Scotland can now Litera- 
produce able writers in almofl; every branch, and equal progrefs has been ture. 
made in moral philofophy. Among the few departments of literature, 
in which the Scotiili authors have been unfuccefsful, may be named 
epic poetry, comedy, and the critical illullration of the claflics. 

The mode of education purfued in Scotland is highly laudable ; and Education. 
is, perhaps, the bePc pradical fyftem purfued in any country in Europe. 
The plan which is followed in the cities, is nearly fimilar to that of 
England, either by private teachers, or at large public fchools, of which 
that of Edinburgh is the mod eminent, and may be traced from the 
fixtecuth century. But the fuperior advantage of the Scotlfli education 
confifts in every country parifn, poflefling a fchoolmafter, as uniformly 
as a clergyman : at leaft, the rule is general, and the exceptions rare. 
The fchoolmafter has a fmall falary, or rather pittance, which enables 
him to educate the children, at a rate eafy and convenient, even to in- 
digent parents. It may, indeed, be computed, that a fhilling will go as 
far in this parochial education, as a guinea in an Englifli fchool. In 
the Highlands, the poor children will attend to the flocks in the fummer, 
and the fchool in the winter. It is to be wifhed that the falary of that 
mod ufeful body of men, the parochial fchoolmafters, were moderately 
augmented, fo as not to elevate them above their duty, but to fecure 
ihem from WMnt, or .from the necefiity of intermingling other labour 
with their important and falutary office. 

The univerfities of Scotland, or rather colleges (for an Englifli uni- Unlverfities. 
verfity includes many colleges and foundations), am.ount to no lefs than 
four ; three on the eaftern coaft, St. Andrew's, Aberdeen, and Edin- 
burgh ; and one on the weftern, that of Glafgow. It would have been 
far preferable to have founded one on the weftern coaft of Rofshire, in 
the centre of the Highlands and Ifles, that the light of fcience might 
have been dilTufed over thefe negled:ed regions. 

The univerfity of St. Andrew's was founded by Biftiop Wardlaw, in 
the year 141 2 ; but as it is now of fmall importance in the proximity of 
that of Edinburgh, it would be a patriotic meafure to transfer it to the 
Highlands as above mentioned. That of Glafgow was founded by Bilhop 
Turnbull, in the year 1453, and it has produced many illuftrlous pro- 

y 2 feflbrs 



i64 SCO T LAN ET- 



Univer:i- feflbrs and able fluclents. The late Mr. Anderfon, profefror of natural- 
philofophy, founded an inftitution to promote the knowledge of natu-- 
ral philofophy and hiftory ; and more efpecially the application of 
thefe fciences, to the ufeful purpofes of commerce and manufadures ^. 
It is, indeed to be wifhed, that pradical utility^ and the bulinefs of real, 
life, were the chief intentions of a collegiate education. 

The third univerfity, that of Aberdeen, was founded by Bifliop E1-- 
phinflone, in the year 1500, and it has always fupported its high- 
charader and intentions. In the year 1593, George Keith, fifth Earl' 
IVIarflial, founded a college at Aberdeen, being the only Scotifh noble-- 
man who can claim that high honour. The laft, not leaft, is that of- 
Edinburgh, founded by James VI, in 1580 ; and the bare enumeration, 
of its illuftrious profeilbrs and writers, would occupy too much fpace.. 
for the prefent plan. The buildings being mean and confined, the ■ 
foundation of a new edifice was laid in 1789, and, it is hoped, will foon; 
be completed on the magnificent plans adjufted by Adams. 

Cities anJ The chief cities and towns in Scotland raufi: now be confidered.. 

Edinburgh, the capital, is comparatively of modern name and note, 
Maitland, and other antiquaries, have fallen into miferable miftakes and. 
mifquotations, concerning the origins of this city: a pafl^age of an old. 
writer has been adduced for its exiftence in 854, while the original is. 
completely filent. Whatever may be the epoch of its exiflence, the. 
earlieft hint that can be applied to it, occurs in the Chronicoft PiElormn-^. 
about the year 955, where mention is made of a town called Eden, as 
refigned by the Englifli to the Scots, then ruled by Indulf. In the next- 
century, Malcolm III, and Margaret of England, his celebrated queen, 
are faid to have refided in the caftle ; but her life by Turgot, omits this 
circumflance, and Holyrood houfe was the foundation of the firft 
David. But Scotifh antiquities have been treated withfuch inaccuracy, 
that crude notions are perpetually fubftituted, inftead of that exaft. 
knowledge which is to be found in thofe of other countries. 

The population of Edinburgh, including the port of Leith, was, in 
1678, computed at 35,500; in 1755, at 70,430; and in 1791, at 
84,886*. It is probable the prefent population falls little fhort of 

' Garnett's Tour, ii. 193, * Statift. Account, vi. 564. 

90,000 



Towns. 
Edinburcrh 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 165 

50,000. The arrivals and clearances at Lelth Harbour, exceed the Cities and 
number of 1700 veflels of various defcriptions, fliips, brigs, and floops. 
Of thefe 165 belong to the town : the commerce has been ftated at half 
iv million annually. 

The houfes in the old tov>:n of Edinburgh, are fometimes of remark- ■ 
able height, not lefs than thirteen or fourteen floors, a fingularity 
afcribed to the wifii of the ancient inhabitants-, of being under the pro- 
tection of the caftle. This part of the city ftands on the ridge of a hill, 
gradually defcending from the lofty precipice on which the caftle is 
fituated, to a bottom, in which ftands the palace of Holyrood-houfe. 
Adjacent to this edifice, is a park of confiderable extent, replete with 
mountainous fcenery, for the bafaltic heights of Arthur's feat, and Sa- 
lilLury crags, are within its precindtsv The new town of Edinburgh 
is defervedly celebrated for regularity and elegance, the houfes being all • 
of free-ftone, and fome of them ornamented with pillars and pilafters. 
Brick is, indeed, almoft unk-nown in- Scotland ; and is apt to imprefs' 
the- Scotifli traveller with the ideas of flightnefs, and want of dura- 
tion. There are feveral public edifices in Edinburgh, which would do 
honour to any capital ; among fiich maybe named the caftle, the palace, 
the principal church, Heriot's hofpital, - the regifter-office, the' new" 
college, and feveral buildings in the new city '. There is an elegant 
bridge, reaching from the hill on which the ancient city ftands, to the 
elevated -fite of the new town. Another biidge paft^es in a line with- 
the former, towards the fouth, over a ftreet called the Cowgate : and an 
artificial mound extends from the weftern part of the ridge, to the op- 
pofite hill. The environs of Edinburgh are fingularly pleafing and 
pidurefque. On the north is an elevated path, leading to the harbour- 
of Leith: on the eaft are Mufsleburgh and Dalkeith, rural villages, wa-- 
tered by a beautiful ftream. On the fouth,. Pentland-hills ; and towards- 
the weft, the rivulet Leith, with banks of romantic variety. 

The fecond city in Scotland is Glafgow, of ancient note, and eccle- Glafgow, 
fiaftic ftory, but of fmall account in the annals of commerce, till the time 
of Grorawell's ufurpation \ The population of Glafgow, in 1755, was 
computed at 23,546, including the fuburbs: the number, in I79i,was 

' Arnol's Edinburgh. Kincaid's Do. ' Denholme's GLlfgow. 

eftimated 



i65 S C O T L A N D. 

Cities and cflimated 61,945. The ancient city was rather venerable than beautiful, 
Towns. j^^j recent improvements have rendered it one of the neateft cities in the 
empire. Its weftern fituation expofes it to frequent rains, a difadvan- 
tage recompenced by its favourable pofition for commerce with America 
and the Weft Indies. Its commerce has arifen to great extent fmce 
the year 171 8, when the firft fhip that belonged to Glafgow croflcd the 
Atlantic'. The number of ihips belonging to the Clyde, in 1790, was 
476, the tonnage 46,581 ; but, before the American war, it was fup- 
pofed to have amounted to 60,000 tons. Though the manufadures 
fcarcely exceed half a century in antiquity, they are now numerous and 
important \ That of cotton, in 1791, was computed to employ 
15,000 looms ; and the goods produced, were fuppofed to amount to 
the yearly value of 1,500,000/. the manufadures of linens, woollens, 
&c. are far from being of fimilar confequence. The ancient cathedral 
of Glafgow furvived the reformation, when the other Scotiih edifices of 
that denomination funk into ruins. Two convenient bridges are 
thrown over the Clyde. The environs of Glafgow prefent little re- 
markable. 

Perth. Ncixt in eminence are the cities of Perth and Aberdeen, and the town 

of Dundee. Perth is an ancient town, fuppofed to have been the 
Vidloria of the Romans, but the fables concerning Bertha are beneath 
notice '. It is pleafantly fituated on the weftern bank of the river Tay ; 
and has been known in commerce fince the thirtenth century, but at 
prefent the trade is chiefly of the coafting kind, Dundee poifeffing a 
more advantageous fituation for foreign intercourfe. Linen forms the 
ftaple manufa(!iure, to the annual amount of about 160,000/. There 
are alfo manufadlures of leather and paper. Perth difplays few public 
edifices worth notice. Inhabitants about 28,000. There is a noble 
bridge, of recent date, over the Tay, and the environs are fnterefting, 
particularly the hill of Kinnoul, which prefents fingular fcenes, and 
many curiuus mineral produdions '°. 

Dundee. About eighteen miles nearer the mouth of the Tay, ftands Dundee, 

in the county of Angus, a neat modern town. The firth of Tay is here 

^ Statifl. Account, v. 498. * lb, 503, ' lb. xviii. 4S9, &c. 

'° Anderfon's Mufes Thrcnodie. 

between 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. i6f 

between two and three miles broad ; and there is a good road for fliip- Cities and 
ping to the eafl of the town, as far as Broughty-caftle. On the ift of T-''^''^^- 
September, 165 1, Dundee was taken by ftorm by General Monk; and 
Lumifden, the governor perilhed amidft a torrent of bloodflicd. The 
population is, however, now computed at 24,000 j the public edifices 
are neat and commodioas. In 1792, the veflels belonging to the port, 
amounted to 116, tonnage 8550. The ftaple manufadure is linen, to 
the annual value of about 80,000/, canvafs, &c. about 40,000/. Co- 
loured thread alfo forms a confiderable article, computed at 33,000/. and 
the leather tanned at 14,000/. ". 

Aberdeen firft rifes to notice in the eleventh century, and continued Aberdeeir. 
to be chiefly memorable in ecclefiaftic ftory. In the fourteenth century 
it was deftroyed by Edward III, of England. The population in 1795, 
was computed 24,493. Though the harbour be not remarkably com- 
modious, it can boafi: a confiderable trade, the chief exports beino- 
falmon and woollen goods. In 1795, the Britifh fhips, entered at the 
port, were fixty-one, the foreign five ; and the Britifh fhips cleared 
outwards, amounted to twenty-eight. The chief manufadures are 
woollen goods, particularly ftockings, the annual export of which is 
computed at 123,000/. The coarfe linen manufadures are not of much 
account ; but the thread is of efteemed quality. 

The other chief towns of Scotland fhall only be briefly mentioned, 
beginning with the fouth-eail: part of the kingdom. Berwick is a for- Berwick, 
tified town of fome note, and carries on a confiderable trade in falmon. 
The veffels built at this port, are conftruded on excellent principles. 

Jedburgh, on the river Jed, which defcends from the Cheviot-hills, jeatur h, 
is chiefly remarkable for the beautiful ruins of an abbey, founded by 
David I. In the year 1523, it was burnt by the Earl of Surrey, who 
fays that it then contained twice as many houfes as Berwick, many of 
them elegantly built; and it was defended by fix flrong towers. 

Dumfries ftands on a rifing ground, on the eaftern banks of the Nith, Dumfries, 
and contains about 6doo inhabitants. 

Ayr, the chief town in the S. W. of Scotland, is fituated on a fandy Ayr. 
plain, on a river of the fame name. The chief trade is in grain and coals ; 

^' Statin. Account, viii. p. 204, &c. 

, 9 and 



i6S 



SCO T LAND, 



Cities and 
Town;s. 

Lanark. 



Greenock. 



Stirling. 



Dunferm- 
line. 



Dunkeld. 



anid a few veflels are built. luhabUants about 7000. Irwin lias 
about 4000. 

Lanark ftands in a moR: piclurefque country, near the celebrated falls 
of the Clyde. It was only noted for its academy, under the manage- 
ment of Mr. Thomfon, brother-in-law of Thornton the poet, till the 
•recent cotton manufacture, and other eredions by the patriotic Mr« 
Dale, rendered this town ftill more worthy of attention. 

Greenock and Port Glafgow, are confiderable towns, which have 
arifen to celebrity, by fharing in the trade of Glafgow. Greenock is 
iuppufed to contain 15,000 inhabitants ; Port Glafgow about 4000. 
Paifley, in the fame county, is celebrated by its manufidures of muflln, 
lawns, and gauzes, to the annual amount, it is faid, of 660,000/. The 
population amounts to about 20,000. Dumbarton, on the oppofite 
fhore of the Clyde, contains above 2000 fouls, and is alfo fubfervient 
in the manufadures of Glafgow. ■ 

Stirling is rather remarkable for its commanding, and truly royal 
fituation, than for its induftry. The inhabitants are computed at 5000. 
Between Stirling and Edinburgh ftands Bonefs, formerly called Bor- 
rowftownefs, in the midfl of collieries and falt-works : the harbour is 
good, and there are about 2600 inhabitants. 

The county of Fife contains many towns, fome of which were in a 
more flourifliing fituation, when Scotland carried on a confiderable in- 
tercourfe with France. Dunfermline is a pleafant town, containing 
about 5000 inhabitants, and carries on a confiderable manufadure of 
diapers. There are ruins of a palace, the royal refidence in the time of 
Malcolm III. St. Andrew's has about 2,500; it is chiefly remarkable 
for its ruined cathedral. 

F'orfar, in Angus, contains about 34CO fouls, and the linen manufac- 
tures deferve mention. 

Dunkeld is of venerable and pidurefque fame, but its linen manufac- 
tures are inconfiderable. Brechin contains about 5000 people: its 
produds are linen, cotton, and tanned leather. Montrofe has an equal 
population, and a few inanufadures ; the buildings are moftly modern 

and neat. 

The 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. 



169 



Cities and 
Towns. 



The county of Mearns prefents no town worth mention. Peterhead, 
in Aberdeenfhire, contains about 2000 fouls. It has a mineral fpring, 
and carries on fome trade with the Baltic. Frazerburgh, near the 
promontory of Kinnaird Head, has alfo a tolerable harbour. 

Portfoy is a fea-port town, peopled with about 2000 fouls. In the Portroy. 
neighbourhood, are the rocks well known to mineralogifts, containing 
elegant granites, of different kinds, ferpentines, and fleatites, with their 
ufual concomitants, afbeftos and amianthus. 

Elgin, the capital of the county of Moray, boafts of the remains of an Elgin, 
elegant cathedral, and is fuppofed to contain 4000 inhabitants. 

Invernefs is an ancient and flourifhing town, the capital of the invernefs. 
northern Highlands. The population is computed at 10,000. The 
chief manufa(fl:ures are ropes and candles. An academy has lately been 
founded here on an excellent plan. 

The few towns further to the north are of little account. Port Rofc 
has only 800 fouls ; but Cromarty has about 3000, a fmall manufac- 
ture of coarfe cloth, and fome coafting trade in corn, thread, yarn, 
nails, fifli, and fkins. Dingwall contains 700 fouls, and a fmall linen 
manufa(Sture. Tain has about 1000 inhabitants. Dornoch was once 
the refidence of the bifhops of Caithnefs : population only 500. After 
a dreary interval Wick occurs, the laft town on the eaftern coaft ; the 
inhabitants, about 1000, chiefly deal in cod and herrings. 

Thurfo, on the northern fhore, fronting the Orkneys, has manufac- 
tures of woollen and linen. Population about 1600. 

Hence there is a lamentable void along the weftern half of Scotland, inveiary. 
till we arrive at Inverary, in Argylefhire, the foundation of the noble 
houfe of Argyle, after paffing a fpace of about 160 miles, where only 
a few fcattered hamlets can be found. Inverary is a neat and pleafant 
town, of about 1000 fouls ; there are manufactures of linen and woollen, 
and a confiderable iron-work. The ore is brought from the weft of " 
England, and is fmelted with charcoal from the woods of Argylefhire. 

In the fame county is Campbeltown, a royal borough, in the fouthei'n Campbe!- 
part of the peninfula of Cantire. The trade is confiderable, as it is the '°^'"* 
general refort of the fifhing veffels ; and the inhabitants are computed 
at about 5000. The harbour is excellent, in the form of a creicent, 

VOL. I. z opening 



Edifices. 



170 S C O T L A N D. 

Cjties and opening to the eaft, In front of the ifland of Arran. About fifty wea- 
vers are employed in the cotton inanufadure '°. 

Scotland abounds with remarkable edifices, ancient and modern. 
Thofe of the capital have been already mentioned. In its vicinity is 
Hopeton-houfe, the fplendid refidence of the earl of Hopeton ; Dal- 
keith palace, a feat of the Duke of Buccleugh ; Newbottel, the feat of 
the Marquis of Lothian ; Melville caftle, the elegant villa of the 
Right Hon. Henry Dundas ; and the fplendid manfion of the Marquis 
of Abercorn. Nor muft Penniculk, the feat of the family of Clerk, be 
omitted ; but the traveller of tafte would be more interefted in Haw- 
thornden, the ancient feat of Drummond the poet. It would be vain 
to attempt a fimilar enumeration for the other counties, and only a few 
of the moft remarkable (hall be mentioned ; fuch as in the fouth, the 
Duke of Roxburgh's, near Kelfo ; Mount Teviot, a feat of the Mar- 
quis of Lothian ; Minto tower, Lord Minto's ; Lauder caftle, March- 
mont, near Polwarth, both in the Merfe ; the Duke of Queenf- 
berry's at Drumlanrig ; Lord Douglas's villa at Bothwell; and Hamilton 
palace, near Hamilton. The county of Ayr contains many beautiful 
edifices belonging to the nobility and gentry, among which may be 
mentioned Loudon houfe, the feat of the Earls of Loudon ; Dundo- 
nald, that of the Cochrans, Earls of Dundonald, and Colaine caftle, 
the feat of the Earl of Caflils, defigned by A^dams, in 1789. Wigton- 
fhire has Culhorn, the feat of the Earls of Stair, and Caftle Kennedy ; 
Galloway houfe, Merton, &c. In the vicinity of the flourifliing city 
of Glafgow, it may be imagined that the villas muft be numerous and 
elegant ; and, even the fmall ifland of Bute can boaft of Mount Stuart. 
The caftle, of Dumbarton is another remarkable edifice in this region. 

On pafllng the Forth, the rich county of Fife prefents many In- 
terefting edifices, fuch as Leflie caftle, the feat of the Earls of Rothes ; 
Wemyfs, Kelly, and Balcarras, the feat of the earls of thofe titles ; 
the houfe of Kinrofs, built by Sir William Bruce, &c. &c. Perth- 
iliire contains Tullibardin and Blair, the feats of the Duke of 
Athol ; Dupplin, that of the Earl of Kinnoul ; Drummond, the 
refidence of Lord Perth ; Taymouth, the fplendid manfion of the 

'" Sutlfl. Account, X. 552. 

Earl 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. i^t 

Earl of Braidalban ; Scone, a royal palace, &c. &c. In Angus we Edifices. 

find Panmure, the ancient refidence of the Earls of Panmure ; Athie, 

that of the Earls of Northefk ; and Kinnaird, of the Earls of Southefk ; 

Glammis, the venerable feat of the Earls of Strathmore. The fhire of 

Mearns, or Kincardine, contains Dunotter caftle, the elevated manfion 

of the Earls Marlhall, &c. Aberdeenfliire prefents Caftle Forbes, Phi- 

lorth, and Haddo : in Bamfshire we find Cullen houfe, the interefting 

feat of the Earl of Finlater ; Duff houfe, that of the Earl of Fife ; 

Gordon caftle, a beautiful manfion of the Duke of Gordon ; in the 

county of Moray, Tarnaway caftle, the feat of the Earl of Moray ; 

Invernefs prefents Fort George, a military eredlion of fome note, about 

twelve miles to the eaft of Invernefs. The line of forts is continued 

through the centre of the county, by fort Auguftus, at the further end 

of Loch Nefs, and fort William, at the northern extremity of Loch 

Linny, at the bottom of the lofty Bennevis. In the county of Rofs, ou 

the north of Dingwall, is Caftle Leod, a feat of the Earls of Cromarty : 

New Tarbet, and Balnagowan, command the Firth of Cromarty. 

At Dornock and Dunrobin, are feats of the Earls of Sutherland. The 

fhore of Caithnefs difplays many ancient caftles, but the modern edifices 

are few : the patriotic Sir John Sinclair has a pleafing refidence near 

Thurfo J and in the N. W. extremity of Scotland, Lord Reay has two 

manfions, one near Tong, and another at Durnefs, with an extenfive 

wild of rocks, interfperfed with morafl'es, called Lord Reay's toreft. 

The weftern coafts of Scotland prefent an enormous void, till Inverary, 

the fplendid manfion of the Dukes of Argyle, rifes like fome oriental 

vifion in the wildernefs. 

The moft remarkable inland navigation in Scotland, Is the excellent 
and extenfive canal from the Forth to the Clyde. Mr. Smeaton's firft 
furvey was prefentcd in 1764; but four years elapfed before the adl of 
parliament was pafled for its execution, and the canal was begun in 
the fame year with the adl ' '. 

" The dimenfions of this canal, though greatly contraded from the 
original defign, are much fuperior to any work of the fame nature in 
South Britain '\ The Englifti canals are generally from three to five 
" Phillips, 276. ■ " Ibid. 316. 

z 2 ' feet 



Inland Navi* 
gation. 



172 SCOTLAND. 

iN'LANnNA- feet deep, and from twenty to forty feet wide, and the lock gates from 
ricATioN. j.gj^ ^Q twelve feet ; but they anfwer the purpofe of inland carriage 
from one town to another, for which alone they were defigned. The 
depth of the canal between the Forth and Clyde, is feven feet ; its 
breadth at the furface fifty-fix feet ; the locks are feventy-five feet long, 
and their gates twenty feet wide. It is raifed from the Carron by 
twenty locks, in a tra£t of ten miles, to the amazing height of 155 
feet above the medium full fea-mark. At the twentieth lock begins 
the canal of partition on the fummit, between the Eaft and Weft Seas ; 
%vhich canal of partition continues eighteen miles, on a level, termi- 
nating at Hamilton-hill, a mile N. W. of the Clyde, at Glafgow. In 
fome places the canal is carried through mofly ground, and in others 
through folid rock. In the fourth mile of the canal there are ten 
locks, and a fine aquedud: bridge, which crofles the great road leading 
from Edinburgh to Glafgow. The expence of this mile amounted to 
18000/. At Kirkintulloch, the canal is carried over the water of 
Logic, on an aqueduct bridge, the arch of which is ninety feet broad, 
and was built at three different operations, of thirty feet each, having 
only one centre of thirty feet broad, which was fliifted on fmall 
rollers, from one ftretch to another. Though this was a new thing, 
and never attempted before with an arch of this fize, yet the joinings 
are as fairly equal as any other part of the arch. The whole is thought 
to be a capital piece of mafonry. There are in the whole eighteen 
draw bridges, and fifteen aquedudl bridges, of confiderable fize, befides 
^ fmall ones and tunnels." 

The fupplying the canal with water, was of itfelf a very great work. 
One refervoir is above twenty-four feet deep, and covers a furface of 
fifty acres, near Kilfyth. Another, about feven miles north of Glaf- 
gow, confifts of feventy acres, and is banked up at the fluice, twenty- 
two feet. 

The diftance between the firths of Clyde and Forth, by the neareft 
paflage, that of the Pentland Frith, is 600 miles, by this canal fcarcely 
100. On the 28th of July, 1790, the canal was completely open from 
fea to fea, when a hogfhead of the water of Forth was poured into the 
Clyde, as a fymbol of their junction. The length of the canal is 

3 precifely 



merce. 



CHAP. III. CIVIL GEOGRAPHY. i;3 

preclfely thirty-five miles, and no worlv of the kind can be more Inland Na- 
ably hnilhed. 

Another laudable plan was to conduft a canal from Fort William to 
Invernefs, than which nothing could contribute more to improve the 
Highlands. The fpace to be cut would not be confiderable, but the 
times are unfavourable to fuch a defign. The canal of Crinan, which 
will fave a troublefome navigation around Cantire, is a£lually begun, 
and is hoped will fpeedily be completed, when veffels could pafs at once 
from the Clyde to the north of Jura. Could a canal be opened from 
the Firth of Dornoch, and Loch Shin, into the bay of Calval, in Aflynt, 
perhaps every thing of this kind would be accomplilhed, that can be 
executed in the Highlands. 

The general commerce of Scotland, though on a fmaller fcale, and Manufaaure? 
with fmaller capitals, is in mod refpefts fimilar to that of England, and 
(hares in the national profperity. That of the capital, through Leith, 
Its port, has been eftimated, as we have feen, at half a million yearly *. 
The chief exports are linen, grain, iron, glafs, lead, woollen fluffs, 
foap, &c. &c. The imports are wines, brandy ; and from the Weft 
Indies and America, rum, fugar, rice, indigo. Glafgow exports cot- 
tons of all kinds, muflins, lawns, gauzes, &c. glafs, ftockings, earthen- 
ware, cordage, &c. candles, foap, iron, leather, &c. &c. The chief 
imports are tobacco, fugar, rum, and cotton from the Weft Indies ; 
Irifh beef, butter, and linen ; wines from Portugal, and other countries. 
The fifheries of Scotland, if carried to a proper extent, would furnifh a 
very confiderable ftore of merchandize. 

The chief manufadures of Scotland are linen of various kinds, to 
the amount, it is faid, of about 750,000/. annually. Of woollens, the 
Scotifh carpets feems to form the chief branch. The iron manufac- 
tures, particularly that at Carron, deferve alfo to be enumerated among 
the chief national advantages. 

As the neceflary progrefs of manufadlures and commerce, is from 
the fouth to the north, owing, among other caufes, to this, that the 
prices of food and labour are fmaller in the north than in the fouth, it 

• In 1793, the Scotifh exports were computed at 1,024,742/, Chalmers's Eftimate, p. Ixxv. 
edit. 1794. The fhips employed were 2,234. lb. 

is 



174 SCOTLAND. 

Manufac- is to be expeded, and indeed wifli'ed, for the general benefit of the 
Commerce? Britifh empire, that the trade which has pafled from Briftol to Liver- 
pool and Glafgow, may gradually enliven and invigorate, even the 
Weftern Highlands and Iflands of Scotland. Some few of the gentle- 
men in the Highlands, feem to objedt to the propagation of induftry, 
as tending to deprive them of their ancient refpedt, and the remi- 
nifcence of feudal power ; but this infatuation cannot continue, as it 
muft foon be perceived, that to diffufe a fpirit of induftry among theiy 
tenants, is the only infallible mode of increafmg their own revenues^ 



( 1/5 ) 



CHAPTER IV. 

Climate and Seafons. — Face of the Country. — Soil and Agriculture. — River ^.-^ 
Lakes. — Mountains. — Forefis. — Botany. —Zoology. — Mineralogy. — Mineral 
Waters. — Natural Curiofities. 

'npHE climate of Scotland is fuch as might be expeded la a latitude Climate 
fo remote, and a country fo mountainous. la the eaftern parts, SeTs^o^ns. 
there is not fo much humidity as in England, as the mountains on the 
weft arrcft the vapours from the Atlantic. On the other hand, the 
weftern countries are deluged v/ith rain, an additional obftacle to the 
progrefs of agriculture ; indeed, the chief obftacle, for the example of 
the Swifs evinces, that induftry can overcome even mountains ; but the 
climate' of Swiflerland is dry and pleafant, and no toil can guard 
againft the excefs of falling moifture. Even the winter is more dif- 
tinguilhable by the abundance of fnow, than by the intenfity of the 
froft ; but in fummer tlie heat of the fun is refle>fl:ed with great power 
in the narrow vales between the mountains, fo as fometimes to occafion 
a phjenomenon of glittering particles, that feem to fwim before the '• 

eye. Thefe obfervations chiefly apply to the north and weft. In the 
eaft and fouth the climate differs but little from that of Yorkfliire • 
and corn fometimes ripens in the vales of Moray, as early as in 
Lothian. 

The face of the country is in general mountainous, to the extent. Face of the 
perhaps, of two thirds ; whence the population is of necelhty {lender, Country. 
in comparifon with the admeafurement. But the name of Highlands 
is more ftiitilly conlined to Argylefhire, the weft of Perthfhire, and of 
Invernefs ; and the entire counties of Rofs, Sutherland, and Caithnefs. 
In proceeding from the fouth eaft, the entrance into the Highlands near 
DunkeUl, is very impreffive, there being a confiderable trad: of plain, 
juft before what may be termed the gates of the mountains. Even the 
eaftern parts have little of uniform flatnefs, but are fwectly diverfified 
with hill and dale. What in England is called a hill, would often in 

Scotland 



1^6 S C O T L A N D. 

Face OF Scotland be regarded as a mere flight rife in the road. The rivers in 
Country, general are remarkably pure and tranfparent, and their courfe rapid. 
The rich roughnefs of an Englifh profpedt, dlverfif:ed with an abundance 
of wood, even in the hedge-rows, is in Scotland rarely vifible ; whence 
the nudity of the country makes a ftrong impreflion on the flranger. 
But the laudable exertions of many of the nobility and gentry, who 
plant trees by millions, will foon remove this reproach. The mari- 
time gales are noxious to fuch plantations, but It has been recently dif- 
covered in France, that there is a common tree (the name is unfortu- 
nately forgotten) which will remain unhurt, even on the beach j. and if 
a thick fkreen be firft formed of this tree, and fuffered to attaia fome 
maturity, other denominations will profper under its protection '. 

Soil and jTqj. ^ mlnute account of the various foils that prevail in Scotland, 

and the different modes of agriculture, the reader muft be referred to 
the Statlftical Accounts, pubUflied by Sir John Sinclair.. The excel- 
lence of the Englifh agriculture, has juftly entitled it to an imitation, 
almoft unlverfal. But this advantage is of recent date ; and, for a long 
period of time, Scotland was remarkable for producing the beft gar- 
deners, and the worft farmers in Europe. The fuperior advantages of 
great, or of fmall farms, have been recently dlfcuffed with much care, 
as the importance of the fubjedl demands. It would feem, that for the 
• firfl: great improvement of a country, the farms fhould be large, that the 
farmer may have a fufficient capital to make experiments, and difcover 
the moft produdllve crops, or thofe moft fulted to the nature of the 
foil. When lafting examples have thus been inftituted, it is certainly 
more advantageous for the community, that the farm fiiould be re- 
ftrldled to a fmall or moderate iize. 

Rivers. The three chief rivers of Scotland, are the Forth, the Clyde, and the 

Tav. The chief fource of the Forth is from Ben Lomond, or rather 
from the two lakes, Con and Ard : the ftream of Goudie foon joins it 
from the lake of Menteith ; and the river Telth, fed by the lakes 
Kettcrin, Lubnaig, and others, fwells the Forth to a noble ftream, about 
four miles above Stirling. 

' Another ufeful plun is to fow or plant the feeJs and trees vei-y thick, or to fow them with 
heath, as in Mecklenburg. The fycamore will bear the fea-fprav. 

The 



Forth, 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. »;; 

The Clyde is faid to iflue frcim a hill in the S. E. corner of Tweeddale, Rivers. 
called Arrik Stane, which is undoubtedjy the chief fourcc of the 
Tweed, and one fource of the Annan : but t.'ie Clydi. I\as a more remote 
fcurce in Kirfliop, or Dair water, riling ahout fix miles further to the 
fouth, in the very extremity of I.anarklhire ; and the true fource of 
the Annan feems to be Loch Skeen, in the county of Selkirk. How- 
ever this be, the Clyde palTes through Craufoi-d Moor, leaving the 
range of Leadhills on the left, and winding under the lofty hill of 
Tinto, near Symington, purfues a northerly courfe, till about two 
miles to the fouth of Carnwath, when it afTumes its chief wefl;erly 
diredion. 

The principal fource of the Tay, is the lake of the fame name, or Tay. 
the river may be traced to tlie more wefterly fources of the Attrick 
and the Dochart, and the fmaller ftream of Lochy; which fall into the 
weftern extremity of Loch Tay. Scon after this noble river iffues 
from the lake, it is joined by the river Lyon ; and, at no great interval, 
by the united ftreams of the Tarf, the Garry, and the Tumel, the laft 
a rapid and romantic river. The ftreams of Ericht and Hay, fwell 
the Tay, about nine miles to the north of Perth ; after paffing which 
city, it receives the venerable ftream of the Ern, and fpreads into a 
wide eftuary. 

Next in confequence and In fame, is the Tweed, a beautiful and TwecJ. 
paftoral ftream, which, receiving the Teviot from the fouth, near 
Kelfo, falls into the fea at Berwick. 

The Scotifla Tyne is an inconfiderable river, which runs by Had- 
dington. 

In the fouth weft, the Annan contributes largely to the Frith of Annaji. 
Solway, but no town worth mentioning adorns its banks. Dum- 
fries ftands upon the Nith, a river of longer courfe than the Annan, NIth. 
and marked at its eftuary by the ruins of Carlaveroc caftle, an important 
fortrefs in ancient times. The river Ore, and that recently ftyled 
Kirkudbright, anciently and properly called the Ken, (whence is de- 
rived the title of Kenmure,) and the Fleet, are furpafled by the river 
Cree, or Grief; which formerly fplit Galloway into two divifions, and 
which opens into the noted bay of Wigton. 

VOL. I. A A The 



,73 SCOTLAND. 

RivtRs. The rivers of Ayrfliire, flowing into the grand eRuary of the Clyde^ 

are of inconfiderable fize. 
luleix, To the north of the eftuary of Forth, occurs the Eden, which, after 

watering the royal park of Falkland, and Coupar, the county town, 
meets the Ocean, about two miles to the north of St. Andrews. 

To the north of Tay are the South Eflc, which pafles by Brechin 
and Montrofe ; and the North Efk, a lefs conliderable ftream, but both 
impart titles to Earls. 
X)ee, In the county of Kincardine there is no river of confequence. But 

the Dec is a confiderable and placid ftream, ifluing from the mountains 
of Scairfoch, and purfulng a due eafterly courfe to Aberdeen. The Don 
runs almoft parallel, a few miles to the north, joining the fea about two 
miles from Aberdeen, after pafTmg Old Aberdeen, or rather, in the old 
orthography, Aberdon. 

A few miles to the north of the Don, the river Ythan fldls into the 
German ocean, a ftream formerly celebrated for its pearl fifheries, of 
which fome relics remain. The Uggie is the laft ftream of any confe- 
quence in Aberdeenfhire. 

The following rivers diredl their courfe to the north. The Devon 
Spey. joins the fea at Bamf. The Spey is a grand and impetuous river, rifing 

from a fmall lake, caHed Loch Spey, in the vicinity of the high mountain 
of Corriarok, near Fort Auguftus, whence it rolls to the fouth-eaft, 
amid mountainous wilds, till it fuddenly turns to its fixed diredion, the 
north-eaft, being, perhaps, upon the whole, the moft confiderable Alpine 
river in Scotland. 

The water of Loftie is only remarkable, as it waflies the venerable 
remains of Elgin ; but Findorn, which runs by the Forres of Macbetli 
and Shakefpeare, is a confiderable tori-ent. 
j^-^f^ The Nefs, iffuing from the lake fo called, and the Beuly, confpire to 

form the large eftuary, called Murray Firth ; while that of Cromarty is 
formed by the Grady, the Conon, and other ftreams. 

The eftuary of Dornoch is formed by a river which iffues from 
Loch Shin, by the Caran, and by the intermediate ftream, called Okel. 
The other ftreams in the the furtheft north of Scotland, are unhap- 
pily of fmall confequence. The water of Thurfo, and that of Naver, 

are 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 179 

are the chief. In the north-weft extremity are the Strathraore, the Rivrrs. 
Strathheg, and the Durnefs, which enter •, the Tea to tlie eaft of the 
ftupendous promontory of Cape Wharf, now modernized Wrath. 

On the weft of Scotland there is no river of any moment ; but the Wcftom lu- 
defcd: is compenfated by numerous hikes, or ratlier creeks, of which the 
moft confiderable are Laxford, Calva, Knnard, and that of Broome, 
Vvhich forms a noble bay, ftudded with illands, nearly parallel with the 
bay of Dornoch. On its fliore is the projeded fetllement of 
Ullapool, to which every patriot muft with fuccefs •'•, Next are the 
En and the Gare, the Torridon, the Keftern, and others of fmaller note. 
Argylefliire exhibits tlie Sunart, a long inlet, which terminates at 
Strontian ; and the Linny, extending to Fort William. The Etif is 
impeded by a fingular cataracl, at its entrance into the fea. The fmall 
inlet of Crinan attrads obfervation, by tlie promlled canal ; and the lift 
is clofed by Loch Fyne, and Loch Long, forming vaft inlets from the 
eftuary of Clyde. 

Among, the lakes of Scotland, the chief in extent and heauty is that Lakes. 
of Lomond, ftudded with romantic iflands, and adorned with ihores of Lomond, 
the greateft diverfity. The ifles are fuppofed to form part of the 
Grampian chain, which here terminates on the weft. The depth of 
this lake in the fouth, is not above twenty fathoms ; but the northern 
creek, near the bottom of Ben Lomond, is from fixty to eighty fathoms. 
At the time of the earthquake in Lifbon, 1755, the waters were agi- 
tated in a lingular manner. 

On the eaft of Lomond is an aflemblage of curious lakes, the Ket- Kettenn,3cc 
terin, or Cathein, the Con, or Chroin, the Ard, the Achray, or Achvary, 
the Vanachor, the Lubnaig ; exhibiting fingular and pidurefque fcenes, 
called by the Highlanders the Trofachs, a word fignifying rough, or 
uneven grounds \ This denomination is ftridly applicable to the fur- 
rounding hills, and rocks, of diftorted forms, as if fome convulfion had 
taken place; but often covered with heath, and ornamented, even to 
the fummits, with the weeping birch. The hills are of argillaceous 

* I^och Broome extends about twc've miles into the conntry, and is fitrrouiided with moim- 
(tains of marble and lime-llone. Knox, ii. 465. 

• .Gar;, eit's Tour, ii. 1 73. 

A A 2 fchiftus. 



i8o S C O T L A N D. 

L4KE3v^ khiftus ; In other words, in ftrata of coarfe flate, mofti}'- vertical, and 
interfperfed with veins of quartz. Ketterin, or Cathein, is a lake of 
confiderable extent and beauty, with fome rocky ifles, and crowned by 
the mountain of Ben Veney : the fifh are trout and char. Vanachor 
has falmon and trout ; but Achray only pike, tyrants without fubjedls. 
The Con, the Ard, and Lubnaig, have not been celebrated by tourifts. 
Mcnteith. In the vicinity is the lake of Menteith, a beautiful fmall lake, about 

five miles in circumference, with two woody ifles, one prefenting the 
ruins of a monaflery, the other thofe of a cdftle of the old Earls 
of Menteith. 

Having thus briefly defcribed the principal lake, and fome others in 
its vicinity, it may be proper to obferve, before proceeding to others ia 
a more northerly fituation, that the S. W. region of Scotland, anciently 
called Galloway, contains feveral pidturefque lakes, (which, in Great 
Britain and Ireland, feem always to accompany groupes of mountains,) 
though not of equal extent and celebrity with thofe of the north. The 
moft confiderable is the lake of Ken, in the county of Kirkudbright, 
oil which ftands a village, called New Galloway. This lake is deco- 
rated with three fmall ifles. Next is that of Crey, on the borders of 
Wigtonfhire. In the county of Ayr there is a fmall lake, called 
Loch Dolen. 

Returning towards the north. Loch Leven, In Fifefhire, attrads ob- 
fervation from its hiftorical fiime. The lakes in the fouth of Perth- 
fliire, have been already mentioned, and to the eaft muft be added 
Loch Ern, Loch Tay, and thofe of Rannoch, Lydoch, and Ericht. 
That of Tay, in particular, is a grand and beautiful expanfe of water, 
of fuch length, as rather to refemble a noble river ; and at its eaflera 
extremity, are placed the capital manfion and plantations of the Earl of 
Braidalbln. Thofe more to the north of this county, may prefent many 
yet unfecn and unknown beauties. 
Loch Nefs. Loch Nefs rivals Loch Tay in extent and reputation. This lake was 

alio afi'edled at the time of the earthquake at Lifbon. T'he depth is 
from fixty to 135 fathoms : the fifh, excellent trout \ Its great depth 
is the caufe why it never freezes. It is remarkable that the bed of this 

' Pennant's Tourc 

lake. 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. i8i 

lake, and in general cf the watery chain which extends to Loch Lakes. 

Linney, is filled v.ith farcilite, or pudding-ftone, hills of which occur 

near Dunolla and Dunftaflhage, on the weftern fhores of Argyle. 

71ie counties of Sutherland and Caithnefs, contain many fmall lakes. 

The chief are Loch Loil, which fends a ftreana into the hay of Far ; Locli LoiK 

and Loch Shin, a confiderable lake, in a country little known or vifited. 

According to the defcription of Mr. Cordiner *, it is a charming piece 

of water, of great extent, winding among the hills, with woods, often 

ftretching down to the fhores. It is faid to be twenty miles in length, 

but the eye can only command a few miles at a time. From its fouth- 

eaft extremity iifues the river Shin, in two broad cafcades, from the 

fides of a fmall ifland, Mr. Cordiner adds, that by a fingular error ia 

Dorret's map, the diftance -from Larg church, on the S. E. of Loch 

Shin, to Moaidale, fouth of Loch Naver, meafures only five miles, 

while by computation in travelling, there are at leaft eighteen. But 

Dorret's map, though valuable for the time, is ftained with numerous 

and grofs errors ; and Loch Naver lies almofl due north of Shin, inftead 

cf due eafl. 

Many of the lakes in the weftern divifion of Scotland, have been 
already mentioned under their proper defcription, as creeks or bays, 
Among a few others which deferve notice, may be named Loch Fainilli,- 
a confiderable lake in Rofshire ; the lakes Lochy and Laggen, in the 
county of Invernefs. Loch Awe, in Argylefhire, is the moft confider- 
able lake in the weft of the Highlands ; it is about thirty miles in 
length, and from one to two in breadth ; and is ftudded with many 
fmall, vyoody ifles, one of which bears the ruins of a monaftery, and 
another thofe of an ancient fortrefs, the refidence of the Campbells of 
Lochawe, afterwards Dukes of Argyle. This lake empties itfelf, by 
a confiderable ftream, near its northern end, into the creek, called Loch 
Etif. 

But the chief diftinilive feature of Scotland, confifts in its numerous Mountains, 
mountains, which interfedt the country in various diredlions. In the 
fouth-weft, the ancient province of Galloway prefents an extenfive 
affemblage of hills, which feldom defcribe any uniform chain, from the 

* Letters to Mr, Pennant, London, jySo. Qiiarto, p. 117. 

bay 



1^2 SCOTLAND, 

MOUNTAINS, bay of Gleiiluce, which extends towards Loch Ryan, and thence, hi 
a N. E. dirciStion to Loch Doon, the fource of the river Doon, which 
joins the fea near Ayr. Other ridges run in various diredions, ge- 
nerally north and fouth, accordinr^ to the courfe of the rivers, till we 
arrive at the Nith, near which is Cruffel, a detached fummit, of con- 
fiderable height. According to General Roy, than whom there cannot 
be a better authority, the mountains of Galloway form a connedcd 
chain with thofe of Cheviot, on the N. E. 

But the chief elevation of this part of Scotland, is that metalliferous 
ridge in its very centre, called the Lead Hills, &c. whence many rivers 
tlefcend in all diredions to the fea. The fmall ftream of Elvan con- 
veys particles of gold to the Clyde, and German miners are faid to 
have difcovered confiderable quantities of that precious metal. The 
chief fummit of that ridge is Hartfell, which, according to feme ac- 
counts, is 3300 feet above the level of the fea ; but by others 2582. 
Crufi'el is only 2044. Not far to the north is Tinto. a remarkable fo- 
litary mountain ; and Queenfberry-hill is about the fame elevation. 
Loudon-hill, in Ayrfliire, is little memorable ; but on returning to the 
eaft, we find the uniform ridge of Lamermoor, terminating in Str 
Abb's-head. The hills of Pentland, on the fouth of Edinburgh, are 
rather pidurefque than important. Berwick Law, and the romantic 
fummits in the vicinity of Edinburgh, clofe the lift of the fouthern 
hills. The Lead hills chiefly confift of argillaceous fchiftus ; but the 
grey granite abounds in the mountains of Galloway. In all, however, 
the chief portion feems to be calcareous ; the fummits are round, 
fome verdant, othei's covered with heath. The red granite, and other 
grand Alpine rocks feem here unknown. In the Lothians, the calca- 
reous ftrata fupport vaft mafles of whin, trap, and bafalt, vv^hich extend 
to the northern Ibore of the firth of Forth. On the eaft and weft of 
Inverkeithing, are whin and columnar bafalt ' ; the latter alfo occur- 
ring at Dichmont-hlU, near Rutherglen, in Lanarkfliire, and at 
Dumbarton. 
Ochm. ^^ paffing the Forth, appears the- range of Ochill-hills, more re- 

markable for their fingular agates and calcedonies, than for their height ; 

5 Mr. Aikiii's Note's. 

II and 



-CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 183 

and to finifh the account of the Lowland hills, muft be added thofe of Mountains. 
Kinnoul and Duniinnan, in the eaft of Perthfhire, and a fmall range in 
Angus. In the county of Kincardin, the great chain of the Grampians 
terminates. On the north-cafl; of Aberdeenlhire, is Mormond, a re- 
markable lolitary fummit ; from whence no mountains of note occur 
till Invernefs, on the weft, opens the path to the Highlands. Yet, it 
mud not be forgotten, that from the lofty promontory of Trouphead, 
to Portlby, extend vaft maifes of beautiful red granite, interfperfed with 
fchorl ; and of ferpentine with fteatites, and other valuable ftones. The 
cape called Kinnaird-head, near Frazerburgh, prefents curious mica- 
ceous fchiftus ; but the eaftern fhore offers nothing worthy of remark. 
Before leaving the Lowland hills, it may be obferved that tlie fmall 
ridge in Fifeihire, between the Eden and Leven, called Loman-hills, 
confifts moftly of hard free-ftone, with fuperincumbent ftrata of whin 
and bafalt : while that feparating the plain of Kinrofs from Strathern, 
is on the fouth fide whin, and on the north toad ftone, with calcareous 
fpar, and fteatites. Soon after occur the Alpine I'ocks of filiceous and 
micaceous fchdlus \ In general, the obfervation of Sauffure is appli- 
cable, that mountains gradually rife from the calcareous to the mica- 
ceous, and thent-e to the granite. 

The Grampian hills may be confidered as a grand frontier chain, Grampian 
extending Irom Loch Lomond to Stonehaven, and forming the fouthern 
boundary of the Flighlands, though four or five counties on the north- 
eaft of that chain, have, in their eaftern and northern parts, the name 
and advantage of Lowlands. The tranfition to the Grampians is gra- 
dual, the hrft chain, according to General Roy, confifting of the 
Sadley- hills on the eaft, the Ochils in the middle, and Campfy-hills oa 
the weft. To the Grampian chain belongs Ben Lomond (3262) ; 
Ben Ledy (3009) ; Ben More (3903) ; Ben Lawres, the chief fummit 
(4015); Shihaliion (3564) ; Ben Verlich (3300) ; and other lefs im- 
portant elevations on the eaft. Mount Battock in Kincardinlhire, is 
3465 feet. Ben Cruachan, in Argyleihire, is a folitary mountain, of 
j 300 feet above the fea. 

" Aikin's Notes.. 

Bea 



i84 S C O T L A N D. 

Mountains. Ben Nevls IS the higlieft mountain in Great Britain, being efllniated 
JBen Ncvis. ^^ 4350 feet above the level of the fea, not much above a quarter of the 
height of Mont Blanc. This mountain has not hitherto been explored 
by any mineralogift. On the N. E. fide it prefents a precipice, nearly 
perpendicular, and of prodigious height, by fome accounts 1500 feet. 
The view from tbe fummit is grand ', exhibiting moft of the wcflern 
Highlands, from the paps of Jura, to the hilis of Cullen in Skcy ; on 
the eaft it extends to Ben Lawres, in Perthfhire, and the river Nefs ; 
extent of view about eighty miles. The fuperior half of the moun- 
tain is almoft deftitute of vegetation. The fummit is flat, with a 
gentle acclivity, and forms an eafy pavement, probably of granite. 
Snow remains in the crevices throughout the year ; but here are no 
glaciers, nor other magnificent alpine features *. 

It would be difficult to divide the remaining mountains of the High- 
lands into diftinft lines or groupes : they fliall, therefore, be briefly 
mentioned in the order of proximity. To the N. W. of Ben Nevis is 
Cornarck. the long mountain of Corriarok, near Fort Auguftus, over which a mi- 
litary road has been direded, in a zig-zag diredion. From the foot of 
this mountain arifes the rapid river Spey ; and other ftreams run to 
the weft, circumftances which indicate great elevation. About thirty 
miles to the eaft, rifes the mountain Cairngorm {4060 feet), or the blue 
mountain, clothed with almoft perpetual fncw, and remarkable for 
quartz of difi"erent colours, chiefly the fmoaky kind, well known to 
lapidaries. The other chief mountains In this region, are thofe of 
Braemar, or Scairfoch, at the fource of the Dee ; Ben Awn, and many 
of fmaller height, fuch as Benibourd f, Benachie, &c. 

In the fecond divifion of the Highlands, which lies beyond Loch 
Linny and Loch Nefs, the mountains are yet more numerous, but not 
fo memorable. The weftern fhore, in particular, is crowded with hills, 
from the ifland of Skey to cape Wrath, while a branch, fpreading 

' ' Statift. Ace. vili. 414. 

* Dmmalbaii, the Dor/nm Brllamiia of tlie old writers, fccms to be Bcii Nevis, with the high 
<lefert Moor of Ranael, extending twenty miles to the eaft of that mountain. 

■\ Always covered with fncw, and. perhaps, as Mn Aikln conceives, higher than Cairngorm. 
About the height of 4000 feet, fnow remains all the year in Scotland. 

eaftward, 



Calr 



ngorm. 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 185 

eaftward towards Ocd-head (1250 feet) forms, what are termed by fea- Mountains. 
men, tlie Paps of Caithnefs (1929 feet). The chief mountains on the 
weft of Rofsfliire, are Ben C!iat, Ben Chafker, Ben Golich, on the fouth 
of Locia Broom ; Ben Nore, on the north of that comniodiout, haven ; 
and the hills of Cuinak, on the fouth of Calva bay, or in the native lan- 
guage Kylis-Cuin. More inland, are Ben Folkaig ; and the chief 
mountain in this diftrid, Ben Wevis (3720 feet). 

On proceeding to the moft northern parts of Scotland, the counties 
of Sutherland and Caithnefs, firft occurs Ben Ormoid; then Ben Cliberg, 
on the weft of Loch Naver ; and Ben Grim, to the north of which 
extends the chain, called the Paps, confifting of the mountains Morben, 
Scuraben, &c. from which run in a northerly diredion, according to 
the courfe of the rivers, inferior chains, as that of Ben Maddy, on the 
eaft of the river Naver, &c. The N. W. extremity of Scotland prefents 
fome pleafant vales toward the fea, and inland that of Dornadilla, and 
an elevated plain on the weft of Loch Loial, called Dirrymore foreft ' ; 
that diftridl called Rae's Foreft, confifts of a bed of rock, interfperfed 
with patches of morafs. The chief mountains are Ben Hop, and Ben 
Lugal : further to the weft no names occur, except that of Cape Wrath, 
and the region is defcribed by an intelligent traveller in the following 
terms ' : ' 

" But a wide extent of deflirt country lay before iK, and exhibited a Cape Wrath, 
moft auguft pidlure of forlorn nature. The profpedt was altogether 
immenfe, but wild and defolate beyond conception. The mountains 
prefented nothing to view but heath and rock ; between them form- 
lefs lakes and pools, dark with the fliades thrown from prodigious pre- 
cipices, gave grandeur to the wildernefs in its moft gloomy forms." 
Curiofity has been appalled, and no traveller has penetrated into the 
wilds of Aftiir, for fuch is the name of this diftrid, which is by our 
feamen corrupted into Old Shores ; but from the vaft caverns in the 
vicinity of Cape Wrath, it is probable that the environs are chiefly 
calcareous '". 

' CovJinor's Letter to Pennant, p. III. " Ibid. 104. 

'° Statift. Account, vi. 279. (Pari(h of Edrachills,) The account of the interefting parini 
of Durnefs, in which Cape Wrath flands, vol. iii. 576, is very lame and defeiftive ; if we tniil 
the Author, p. 579, the whole pari(h is lime-done, and Cape Wrath afloids excclltnt paJhirage 
for fheep. 

VOL. u B B Having 



i86 SCO T LAND. 

MouMTAixs, Having thus explained at fome length, the dire.'Tiions and pofitions 
of Scotllh mountains, becaufe they conftitute the moft remarkable 
feature of the country, and yet have never received due illuftration, 
their conftltuent parts remain to be briefly examined". On entering 
the Highlands, near Dunkeld, the firft ridges are alluvial hills of gra- 
vel, containing pebbles of micaceous fchirtus, quartz, and granite, fome- 
times furmounted by Hate, and argillaceous fchiftus. The rocks 
immediately to the north of Dunkeld, are compofed of micaceous 
fchiftus, penetrated in every direclion by veins of quartz. From the 
junction of the Tay and Tumel, wcftward to Loch Tay, the nonhern 
bound of the vale is of the fame fubftances, fometimes interfperfed with 
garnets. The whole fummit of the higher chain is covered with large 
rounded maffes of granite. The fouthern fliores of Loch Tay, confift 
of micaceous fchiftus, with a few garnets, interrupted about the middle 
with banks of compad bluifh grey lime-ftone. The northern iliores 
fimilar, but the lime-ftdne is micaceous. The mountains in Glenlochy 
are moftly of micaceous fchiftus, interfperfed with garnet : Glen Lyon 
prefents imall veins of lead. The vale of Tumel, between Loch 
Tumel and Loch Rannoch, is ovcrfpread with rounded fragments of 
.granite and micaceous fchiftus, but contains granitoid, and fome gra- 
nite. The lower part of Glen Tilt chiefly exhibits micaceous fchiftus ; 
the upper principally granite and lime-ftone. 

Such are the more fouthern parts of the Highlands. In the weft, 
towards Ben Lomond, micaceous fchiftus alio abounds; but that 
mountain is chiefly of gneifs, and the like features are found in the pe- 
ninfula of Cantire. In the north of Argyleflure *, appears the beau- 
tiful red granite, which chiefly conftitutes the central chain, already 
indicated ; to the north of which firft appears micaceous fchiftus, and 
afterwards a remarkable courfe of pudding-ftone, extending from Loch 
Nefs to Oban f. The mountains in the north have been little explored,, 

but 

" Mr. Aikin's Notes. 

* Cruachan, according to Mr. Jamefon, confifts, at tTie bottom, cf Hate and micaceous fchiftus 
which is followed by granite to the top. Near Strcntian are red granite and gneifs. Glen Co 
prefents curious porphyries. 

•}■ According to Williams, II. 159- a like range e"xtends through Perthfiiire, into Monteith 
and Dumbarton (hire, crofling the Clyde, near Dumbarton, and reaching the weft fide of Ayr- 

fhire. 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 187 

but Mr. Jamefon tells us, that the coaft is chiefly a coarfe arglllaceou'3 Mountains. 
-fand-ftone, often appearing in the form of flags, while in feme places 
are maiTes of breccia, being pebbles of reel granite, micaceous fchiflus 
and (juartz, in arenaceous baies. Mount Scuraben is at tlie bottom 
fand-flone, and fand-ilone flag, then the breccia, fucceedcd by a rock of 
white quartz to the fummit, and probably forming the root and centre 
of the whole. Morben, and other mountains in this diib'icl, from their 
white colour, fcem to be of the fame compofition. About the Ord of 
Caithnefs appear granite and micaceous fchiftus, and that mountain 
confifts of mingled quartz and felfpar. Near Dornoch, the rivers roll 
pebbles of micaceous fchifl.us and granite, evincing the materials of the 
mountains, but their lower ftrata confift of argillaceous fand-ftone, till 
near Tain, where are granite, micaceous fchiftus, and hornblende. 
The fand-ftone and breccia reappear at Cromarty, and at Murray Firth, 
but at Fort George the primitive rocks begin. About two or three 
miles S. of Aberdeen, the red-coloured argillaceous fand-ftone and 
breccia again occur ; and the caftle of Dunotter ftands on a rock of the 
latter fubftance. 

The central and weftern parts of Sutherland and Rofsftiire, have not 
been explored ; but it would feem that the weft of Sutherland is chiefly 
primitive lime-ftone, which is well known to form a great part of Aflynt, 
and fometimes contains maftes of white marble. The mountains feem 
to be of granite and micaceous fchiftus, but often prefent the fmgular 
feature of vaft fummits formed of white quartz. According to Wil- 
liams, this quartz is ftratified, and tinged with blue, or bluifh grey ; 
and bears no vegetation, fo that at a diftance it refembles fnow. Near 
Loch Broom is found that fort of granite which is beft adapted for 
mill-ftones. 

Upon the whole it would appear, that the chief, or granitic chain of 
the Scotifh mountains, extends in a S. \V. and N. E. diredion, from 
Ben Nevis to Portfoy. In many parts it has funk or fubfided, as not 
unufual, but the line is marked by the gradual tranfitions from lime- 
ftone and fand-ftone, to micaceous fchiftus, and thence to granite. 

fliire, where it enters the Firth of Clyde ; it hence feems to follow, in the fame direftion, the 
grand granitic chain of Scotifli mountains. 

B B 2 Ben 



,88 SCO T L A N D. 

MouNTAi.xf. Ben N'evis, Cairngorm, and other lofty fiimmlts, mark this primitive 
chain. The Grampians, which form the outer fkirt of this chain, con- 
lift, according to a German mineralogifl: "', of micaceous Umeftone, 
gnelfs, porphyry, Hate, and granite, alternating with each other ; and 
another German fays, that the fundamental rock of the country confirts 
of granitic aggregates. The mountains in the S. W. are chiefly fchiftofe, 
and the granite is grey, and of an inferior kind ; hut Mr. "Williams 
informs us, that Ben Nevis, and other mountains in that quarter, are 
compofed of elegant red granite, in v^'hich the pale rofe, the blufh, 
and the yellovvrifli colours, are finely mixed and iLaded ''. The like 
granite is found at Portfoy and Trouphcad, and is probably continued 
through the whole chain, the fuperior height of the region being 
marked by the extreme rapidity of the river Spey. This tendency of 
the leading chain, is not only marked out by the Grampians, but by 
that of the iflands, and of the grand chain in Norway, which, indeed, 
feems a continuation of the Scotifh chain, and the lall, probably con- 
tains filver as well as the Scandinavian, The mountains on the N. W. 
of the lakes Nefs and Linny, are probably only exterior fkirts of the 
lame chain, and prefent the ufual declenfion of micaceous fchiftus, ter- 
minating in Umeftone, and fandftone, in the northern parts of 
Sutherland and Caithnefs. The iflands of Shetland chiefly prefent 
micaceous fchiftus, interfperfed with a few mafles of granite ; and the 
Orkneys, &c. coniift moftly of fand-ftone. The weftcrn iflands may be 
fuppofed to be chiefly calcareous. It is remarkable that the fpace from 
Invernefs to Dunolla, on the weft, abounds with farcihre (pudding- 
ftone) compofed of pebbles of quartz, probably waftied down from the 
granitic chain, and afterwards cemented by Ibme unknown proceis of 
nature, either by iron or filiceous earth. 

General Roy mentions two remarkable features of the Highlands^ 
firft the moor of Rannoch, a high defert of twenty miles fquare, on the 
S. E. of Ben Nevis, a flat uninhabited morafs. The fecond. is part of the 
N. \V. coaft, extending from Loch Inchard, twenty-four miles to the 
Ibuth, breadth about ten miles, which, prefents a moft fmgular appear- 
ance, as if mountains had been broken into fragments, interfperfed with 

'» Kirwan's Geol. EfTays, 481. "^ Mineral King. II. 13. 

pooliS-; 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 189 

pools of water. The northern extremities of Caithnefs, are low and Forests. 
morally, and feem calcareous, as well as thofe of Sutherland. 

The forefts of Scotland are very rare in the proper acceptation of 
the term ; and the Sylva Caledonia has long fince vanilhed. The whole 
county of Selkirk was formerly denominated Ettric foreft. There was 
alfo a confiderable foreft, that of Mar, in the weft of Aberdeenfliire, where 
now remains the foreft of Abernethy '\ extending to Cairngorm, In the 
county of Sutherland was the foreft of Slctadale, on the north of Dunro- 
bin, the feat of the earls of Sutherland ; and in the north of the fame 
county, are marked Parff'-foreft, between Aftiir and Dunan (probably ori- 
ginally Wharf foreft, by the fame name as the cape) ; to the fouth of which- 
were Reay foreft, or that of Dirrymone ; with thofe of Dirrymore, and 
Dirrymena, on the north and fouth of Loch Shin. No other foreft: 
occurs till we reach the county of Argyle, which contains Boachiltive 
foreft on the north. Mention is made by late travellers of a royal 
foreft near Loch Ketterin, called Finglas ; but for this there feems no 
authority. The foreft of Athol, in the fame county, does not appear 
liable to the fame objedion. 

Having given a general account of the indigenous plants of England, Botany^, 
it will iuflice, for the botany of Scotland, to point out the particu- 
lars in which the two floras differ, together with the caufes of the 
difference. 

The northern part of Britain differs from the fouthern as to climate,, 
in being colder and more rainy ; and as to foil, in confifting chiefly of 
mountainous, granitic, or micaceous diftrids, the higheft peaks of which 
are buried in perpetual fnow. There are no chalk-hills in Scotland ;. 
nor any of that foil v/hich charaderifes the fouth-caftern part of the 
ifland, and is compofed, for the moft part, of land and calcareous marl.. 
We might, therefore, a priori, exped to meet with more alpine plants 
in Scotland, than of thoie which flourlfti beft in a light, chalky foil, and. 
in a mild climate ; this is found to be in fad the cafe. The greater 
number of vegetable Ipecies is the fame in both countries ; but the 
warm, moift region ot Cornwall, Devonftiire, and Dorfet ; the range of 
ehalk-hills, on each fide of the valley of the Thames ; the dry, fandy 

'■* ?rov. of.Mora)-, Aber. 1798. Sv-o. p. 267. 

txada 



190 SCOTLAND. 

Botany. tra£ls of Norfolk, SufFolk, and Cambridge, and the fens of Lincoln- 
fhire, contain many plants that are unknown to Scotland ; as, on the 
other hand, the fnowy fummits of the Grampians, the extenfive forefts 
of Badenoch and Braemar, and the bleak, Ihelterlefs rocks of the He- 
budes, poffefs many hardy vegetables, wliich are not to be found in 
England. South Britain contains a greater number of fpecies peculiar 
to itfelf ; but thofe that are fimllarly circumftanced in the northern 
part of the ifland, are of more frequent occurrence, and therefore more 
chara£leriftic ; to the Englifli botanift, Scotland will have more the air 
of a foreign country, than England will to a Scotifh naturalift. Amidft 
the grand romantic fcenery of the Highlands, the fearch of the Englifh 
botanifl is continually folicited and repaid, by the appearance of plants, 
either altogether new to him, or which he has been accuflomed to 
confider as the rare reward of minute inveftigation. In traverfing the 
vaft natural forefts of birch and pine, although his notice will be firft at- 
tradled by the tree^ themfelves, in every flage of growth, from the 
limber fapling, to the bare and weather beaten trunks, that have 
endured the ftorms of live or fix hundred winters, yet the new forms 
of the humbler vegetables will foon divide his attention ; the red and 
white blofToms of the trailing Lhrncea^ the Pyrolafecimda, and imiforay 
Satyr'ium repens^ Ophfys corallorbiza^ and Convallaria vcrticillata^ will 
each attradt their (hare of regard. If he be winding along the rocky 
margin of Loch Tay, or Loch Nefs, the JLriocaiilori decaiigulare, the 
alpine C'ltma, the minute Stibularia aqiwtica, will reward his labour ; 
the moift and fhady recefles of the flate mountains, are carpeted by the 
three Veronicas, the Alpbia, the Jhxafzlis, and Jf'uiiculofa ; by the Saxi- 
fraga umbrofa, the ThaUEfrum alpimn?!, and Er'ige^-on Alp'winn. In the 
thin peat moors that overfpread the rocks, are found the Schoentis ri/fiis, 
Scifpus iniilticaulis, Jitciis trijidns, bighmiis, a.ndjp!caf!is, all of them be- 
longing to the natural clafs of rufhes ; with the Alpine cotton-grafs, the 
l^ofieldia palujlris, a few carexes, and fome of the dwarf fpecies o{ ivillow. 
The mountainous diftrids of granite are peculiarly rich in alpine plants ; 
the ledges and crevices of the rocks are adorned by tufts of the 
golden cinquefoil (Poteiitilla aurea) ; and luxuriant feftoons of the 
Arbutus alpina, and Arbutus uva urjt, glowing with their fcarlet and deep 

2 blue 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. igi 

blue berries, among their glofTy leaves ; the lefs precipitous parts, and Botany. 
the borders of the torrents, are overfpread with alpine grafTes, ,with the 
viviparous Polygonum, the Azalea and Sibbaldia procumbens, the yellow 

faxifragc, (Saxifr. aizoides cernua and rivularis,) tl e Dry as oBopetala^ 
(mountain avens,) Rhodiola rofea^ Rubits orcliciis^ and the alpine A'lche- 
milla, Epllobitim, and Serratiila. The cloudberry [Rubus chamcemo- 
rns), and fome of the lichens flourlfli amid ft the fnow and folltude of the 
moft elevated fummits ; and afford at the fame time flielter and food 
for the Ptarmigan, almoft the only one of our native birds that can 
inhabit fo cold a fituation. The Lowlands of Scotland feem to con- 
tain no plants which are not found in fimilar foils in England ; the 
fea-coaft, however, exhibits two umbelliferous vegetables, the Liguf- 
t'lcum Scoticu7n, and hnperatoria OJlruthium^ which cannot be met with 
on the fouthern fliore. 

Of the plants that are peculiar to South Britain, the number of fpe- 
cies, and, indeed, of entire genera, are fo confiderable, that to enumerate 
the whole would be an endlefs tafk j the following are fome of the 
principal. 

The proper bulbous rooted, are almoft entire ftrangers to Scotland ; 
of the genera Crocus^ Galanthus, Leucojum^ Narcijfus^ Fr'itillar'm, and 
Tidipa, this country does not poffefs a fingle fpecies. Several kinds of 
the Orch'idaa^ which grow on chalk and lime-ftone, as well as the 
whole genera of /S'£/7fr/(2 (blue moor grafs) ; Polemo7ihim (Jacob's lad- 
.der) ; Rubia (Madder) ; Impatlens Cleviatis (Virgin's bower) ; Hedy" 

/arum (Saintfoin) ; Athamanta (ftone parfley) ; Poterium (burnet) ;. 
and Buxus (box- tree), are equally unknown. The trads of fand in 
England, abound with plants that do not occur in Scotland ; fuch are 
the genera Exacum, Tillaa^ Hcrniaria, Delphinium (larkfpur), and Vella.. 
The fea-coaft and falt-marfhes of Scotland, are deficient in many- 
genera that are by no means uncommon in the iouthern part of the 
ifland ; of which the principal are Rotbollia (lea hard grafs) ; Polycar- 
pno, Tamarix (Tamariflc) ; Corrlgiola, Frankenia, Plfum (Pea), and 
Santclina (fea cotton). Laftly, a few of the more fucculent aquatics, as- 
the Acorus^ Stratioles^ and Sagittarla, are rarely, if ever, obferved north 
of the Tweed* 

The 



192 SCOTLAND. 

* 
ZooLOGv. The Zoology of Scotland prefents little remarkable, as dinin£t from 

that of England. The fmall horfes of Galloway feem to have been 
a 'primitive breed, and, in diminutive fize, are exceeded by thofe of 
Shetland. The cattle in Galloway are often without horns, a defed 
which is fuppofed to be recompenfed by the fupcrior quantity and qua- 
lity of the milk. The kylies, as already mentioned, are a middle-fized 
breed from the province of Kyle, and other diftrids of Ayrfhire and 
Galloway. On the eaft are found large cattle, of various breeds. The 
fheep are fmaller and Ihorter than thofe of England, but are now croffed 
in various diredions; thofe of Shetland are remarkable for the linenefs of 
the woo!, which is, however, interfperfcd with coarfer piles. Goats are 
not fo numerous in the Highlands and Ifles, as might be expeded : 
this animal not only enlivens the Alpine landfcape, but yields ufeful 
leather and milk, and might occallonally fupply the want of other pro- 
vifion. Of dogs, no breed is remembered peculiar to Scotland ; but 
the fhepherd-dogs in the province of Galloway, are endowed with re- 
markable fagacity, fo as to underfland and execute even complicated 
commands. 

Of wild animals, the wolf has been extirpated in Scotland, only fmce 
the year 1680. The wild cat is ftill occafionally found ; the other 
claflfes correfpond with thofe of England, except that the Roe is ftill 
not unfrequent. Among the birds, eagles are not unknown, nor ele- 
gant falcons. The fhores and iflands prefent numerous kinds of fea- 
fowl. In the progrefs of cultivation, fome new birds have appeared 
from England ; for inftance, the golden-crefted wren, which even vifits 
Shetland, after a flight of fixty miles, which is furprifmg for fo dimi- 
nutive a bird " : but the nightingale, who would be a moft welcome 
gueft, ftill refufes the journey. 

Scotland abounds with fifh of all kinds, and contributes great fup- 
plies to the Englifli market, particularly in lobllers and falmon. By 
fome fmgular chance, the holibut, a coarfe dry fifh, is in Scotland ftyled 
the Turbot, which in Scotland is called Roddcii-Jietik^ the Lift word being 
a general denomination for flounders and other flat fifti. The tranfpa- 
rent lakes, rivers, and rivulets of Scotland, prefent a beautiful variety 

*' Pennant's A. Z. vol. i. 39. 

of 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 



193 



'of fifh : on the northern and weftcrn coafts are numerous feals ; and It Zoology. 
appears from the life of St. Columba, that the ancients had a mode of 
rendering them tame, and obedient to the call. The whale fometimcs 
appears, and the baflcing fhark frequently plays in the weftern inlets. 
Pearls are found in the rivers Teith and Ythan," in a large kind of 
mya, cr mufcle. Some large ones are in the fhape of a pear, others are 
pink on one fide. Many beautiful zocphites, on the northern fliores, 
have been found and introduced to public notice, by Mr. Cordiner. 

In confidering the mineralogy of Scotland, it may be premifed, that I.Iineralogy. 
a country fo mountainous muft be naturally expeded to abound with 
metals, and fome fortunate accident may, perhaps, difcover in fome of 
the fkirts of the granitic chain, filver mines, equal to thofe of Norway ; 
for fuch difcoveries arife not from a fedulous cr fkilful enquiry, but 
from the trifling accidents of a fhower of rain, of a fliepherd running 
after a goat, or the like. Mr. Kirwan has given an excellent account 
of the various fubftances in which metals are generally found '°. In 
granitic mountains, tin, lead, iron, zinc, bifmuth, cobalt ; and in gneifs, 
or fchiftofe granite, filver, copper, lead, tin, and zinc. In micaceous 
fchlftus are found copper, tin, lead, antimony ; In hornblende flate, 
copper ore ; under argilllte, or common flate, filver, copper, lead, zinc. ' 
In fteatite, fulphureous pyrites, and magnet. In primitive lime-ftone, 
appear copper, lead, zinc ; and even in ftrata of coal, have been found 
native filver, galena, and manganefe. The fmall quantity of gold 
found in Scotland, has'been procured from the Lead-hills, which are 
moftly compofed of coarfe flate. This precious metal firft appeared, as 
already mentioned, in the fands of Elvan, a rivulet v/hich joins the 
Clyde, near its fource ; and a place ftill exifts, called Gold-fcour, where 
the Germans ufed to waiTi the fand. None worth mentioning has 
been found recently. The filver generally accompanies lead j and in 
the rich mines of Saxony, the bafer metals were found near the furface, 
but the richer at a great depth. The filver found in Scotland, has hi- 
therto been of little account ; the chief mine was that at Alva, which 
has fince only afforded cobalt. Nor can Scotland boaft of copper, 
though a fmall quantity was found in the Ochills, near Alva,: with filver 

"> Geol. EfT. 428. 

VOL. I. c c and 



194 SCOTLAND. 

MiN R=.i.o and cobalt; and it is faiJ that the iflands of Shetland ofier fome indlca- 
^^' lions of that metal. Copper has alfo been found at Colvend in Gallo- 

way, at Curry in Lothian, at OkKvick in Caithnefs, and Kiflern in 
RoGdiire. 

The chief minerals of Scotland are lead, iron, and coal. The lead 
mines in the fouth of Lanarkfliire, where the gold was alfo found, have 
been long known. Thofe of Wanlock-head, are in the immediate 
neighbourhood, but in the county of Dumfries, and belong to ano- 
ther proprietor. Some flight veins of lead-have alfo been found in the 
wcRern Highlands, particularly Arran. Iron is found in various parts 
of Scotland ; the Carron ore is the moft known, which Mr. Kirwan de- 
fcribes as being an argillaceous iron-ftone, of a blueith grey, internally 
of a dark ochre yellow ". It is found in flaty mafles, and in nodules, 
in an adjacent coal mine, of which it fometimes forms the roof. At the 
Carron-works, this ore is ofteh fmelted with the red greafy iron ore 
from Ulvernon, in Tancafliire, which imparts ealier fufion, and fuperior 
value. Calamine, or zinc, is alfo found at Wanlock-head ; and it is 
faid, that plumbago and antimony may be traced in Scotland. 

But the chief mineral is coal, which has been worked for a fuccefllon 
of ages. Pope Pius II, in his defcription of Europe, written about 
1450, mentions that he beheld with wonder, black ftones given as alms 
to the poor of Scotland. But this mineral may be traced to the twelfth 
century. The earlieft account given of the Scotlfh coal mines is con- 
tained in a book, publifhed by one George Sinclair, who calls himfelf 
ProfefTor of Philofophy at Glafgow, but I cannot trace him in the 
univerfity lift '. He explains, with fome exadtnefs, the manner of 
working coal ; and mentions the fubterraneous walls of whin which 
interfe£t the ftrata, particularly a remarkable one, vinble from the river 
Tyne, where it forms a cataract, and paifrng by Prefton-pans, to the 
Ihore of Fife. Mr. Williams has recently given his obfervations on 
this fubjed, with much pradical fkill. The Lothians, and Fifefliire, par- 
ticularly abound with this ufeful mineral, which alfo extends into 

" Min. vol, ii. T74. 

'* Mat. PhiL Improven by new Exp. Edinb. 1683. Quarto, p. 258—302. 

Ayrlhire j 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 195 



Ayrfliire ; and near Irwin is found a curious variety, called ribbon MiNtRALo- 
coal. A fingular coal, in veins of mineral, has been found at Caflle 
Leod, in the eaft of Rofsniire. 

In paffing to the lefs important minerals of Scotland, the new 
carth found at Strontian, in the diftriift of Srmart, and parifh of 
Ardnamurchan, Argyleflilrc, is now coufecrated in numerous fyftems 
of mineralogy and chymiftry. Ben Nevis affords beautiful granite. 
Fine flatuary marble is found in Affynt, and at Blair Cowrie, in Perth- 
fhire. A black marble, fretted with white like lace-work, occms near 
Fort William ; dark brown with white at Cambuflang, Clydefdale. 
Jafper is found in various parts ; Arthur's feat offers a curious variety; 
and on the weftern fliore of Icolmkill, are many curious pebbles, of 
various defcriptions '°. Fuller's earth is found near Campbeltown, in 
Cantire ; and, it is fuppofed, that there muff be a vaft mafs of talc, 
equal to that of Mufcovy, in the mountains which give rife to the river 
Findorn, as large pebbles of it are fometimes found in that flream. 
The pearls have been already mentioned : but that any of the gems 
are found in Scotland, feems dubious. Quartz and fluor affume various 
hues ; and what are called falfe fapphires, rubies, emeralds, &c. fall 
under one or other of thefe defcriptions, while the real gems belong to 
the argillaceous clafs, and when examined with a microfcope, are found 
to confift of minute layers, a form common to the argillaceous 
defcription. 

The mineral waters of Scotland are numerous, but none of eaual n/r- tttt 

/ '-^uai Mineral \\ a- 

fame with thofe of England. The chief are Moffat wells in the fouth, tf's- 
and thofe of Peterhead in the north. 

Scotland, like other mountainous countries, abounds with fmgular Natural 
fcenes, and natural curiofitles. The caves on the {hore near Colvend, Cuntiincs. 
in Dumfriesfhire, are worth notice ; and the beautiful falls of the Clyde, 
near Lanark, have defervedly excited much attention. In proceeding 
up the river from Lanark, firft occurs a fmall catarad, called Dundaft' 
Linn, then that of Corra, the moft pidurefque ; and little more than 
half a mile further, that of Bonnington appears, a fmgle cafcadc, of 
about twenty feven feet. To the weft of Lanark is found the cataradt • 

'» Garnetl's Tour. 

C C 2 of 



196 . SCOTLAND. 

p'""'*<f'' of Stone Byres, beyond which falmon cannot pafs up the ftream. On 
111-3. the eafl: of this part of Scotland, are the paftoral vales of the Tweed and 
Teviot, celebrated in fong; the deep pals of the Peaths ; and the romantic 
rock of Bafs, the haunt of the folan goofe ; and a well near Edinburgh 
abounds with petrol. The bafaltic columns of Arthur's i'eat, deferve in- 
fpedion. On the northern fliore of the Forth, near Dyfart, a coal 
mine has for ages been on fire, probably from decompofed pyrites, and 
has fupplied Buchanan with a curious defcription. The beauties of 
Loch Lomond have been fo often defcribed, that it is unneceflary to 
repeat fo trivial a theme ; but the Trofacs, or fingular hills around 
Lake Ketterin, &c. form a new acquifition to the traveller. The hill of 
Kinnoul near Perth, is a great curiofity, prefenting a mafs of uncom- 
mon minerals. The numerous lakes and mountains need not be again 
mentioned. The rocks off the coaft of Aberdeenfliire, often affume 
fingular forms of arches and pillars, &c. and the fpace from Trouphead 
to Portfoy, abounds in uncommon rocks, and fingular marine produc- 
tions. The cav^es of Nigg, in Rofsfhire, may be worth vifiting ; and 
the more northern fliores prefent innumerable wild fcenes of favage 
nature. Near Lathron, in Caithnefs, is a large cave, into which the in- 
habitants fail to kill feals. Nofs-head prefents a fingular quarry of 
flate, marked with various metallic figures. The ifles Stroma, near 
the northern fhore, perferve dead bodies for a long time without cor- 
ruption ". It may, perhaps, be efteemed a natural curiofity, that the 
river of Thurfo was fo abundant in falmon, that 2500 have been 
caught in one morning. Near Tong is the cave Frafgill, about fifty- 
feet high, and twenty wide, variegated with a thoufand colours, which 
are loft in each other with a delicacy and foftnefs that no art can imi- 
tate ". On the eaft of Durnefs, is the cave of Smo, within which is 
^ the refemblance of a gate, fucceeded by a fmall lake of frefh water, con-> 
taining trout ; the extent of this fubterraneous lake, has never been ex- 
plored t and near Sandwit is faid to be a fmall grove of hazels, about 
four inches high, bearing nuts. The fingulai^ity of the coaft of Edra- 
chills, fouth of Loch Inchard, has already been mentioned. But the 
verdant paftures of Faiouthead and Cape Wrath, may well be efteemed 

" Bryce's Map, direfled by MacLaurin., *' S. A. III. 519. 

9 a natural 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 197 

a natural curiofity in that diftant region, where the want of roads and Naturai. 
bridges remains a difgrace to the country. The weftern coaft of Rofs- \,zs. ' 
flilre does not feem to contain any objedl worth mentioning, and that 
diftrid: remains to be explored by the curious traveller. We only 
know the grand cataradt of Kirkag river, and the cave of Gandeman, 
near AiTynt point. The cafcade of Glamma, in the heights of Glen 
Elchaig, is truly fublime, amidft the conftant darknefs of hills and 
woods. Ben Nevis will, of courfe, attradl notice from its. fmgular 
form and elevation According to Mr. Williams "*, it confifts of one 
folid mafs of red granite, which he traced at the bafe for four miles 
along the courfe of a rivulet on the eaft ; the height of this mafs he 
computes at 3600 feet, and above it are ftratificd rocks, the nature of 
which he does not explain ; but, he fays, that thofe on the fummit are 
fo hard and tough, that wrought iron falls fhort of them. The flupen- 
dous precipice, on the north-eaft fide, exhibits almoft an entire fedion 
of the mountain. In Argylefhire, the marine catarad of Loch Etif, 
the beautiful lake of Awe, and environs of Inverary, prefent the chief 
objeds of curiofity. 



SCOTISH ISLES. 

The Iflands that belong to Scotland are numerous and Important, Scotifh Ifles. 
and fall naturally into three gtand divifions ; the Hebudes *, or Weftern 
Iflands ; the Orkneys ; and the iflands of Shetland. 

On pafliing the conic rock, called Ailfa, towards the north, two 
beautiful Iflands adorn the Firth of Clyde, thofe of Arran and Bute'. Anan, 
The firft is about twenty-three miles in length, by nine in breadth, and 
has 7000 inhabitants. The chief place is the village of Ranza ; and 

" Vol. ii. 63. 

» This name was corrupted by Heftor Boyce, into Hebrides, a name ftill retained by thofe who 
prefer the old mumpfimus. to the new fumpfimus. Boyce was mifled by an edition of Solinus, 
Venice, 149 1 • 4to. in *hichj among many errors of the prefs, Ebrjdes is put for Ebudes. 

' Pennant's Voyage, 168. 

Brodic 



198 SCOTLAND. 

ScoT-sH Brodic caflle Is memorable in hiftory. The exports, are black, cattle 
and barley *. Mr. Jamefon has recently publlllied an account of this 
ifland, particularly its mineralogy, from which it appears that it is a 
mountainous region : and Goatfell is near 3000 feet in height. The 
fouthern parts of the ifland prefent low and cultivated grounds ; the 
bafe is chiefly fand-ftone and granite, the former traverfcd by veins of 
bafalt. Near Lamlafh, is an extenfive vein of pitch-fl:one, of a greenifli 
colour, and the black alfo occurs. There is alfo granitlne, compofed of 
■quartz, felfpar, and hornblende ; micaceous fchiftus likewife abounds ; 
there is little coal. 

Bute. Bute is about twelve miles in length, by four in breadth; inhabitants 

about 4000 ; the chief town is Rothfay, and in the vicinity is Mount 
Stuart, the ornamented refidence of the Marquis of Bute, and worthy of 
the diftinguifhed tafte of the noble proprietor. 

Hebiides. To the wefl: of the Cherfonefe of Cantire, begin the Hebudes, or 

Iky. Wefl;ern Iflands, properly fo called. The firfl: is Hay, about the fame 

, " length as Arran, but nearly eighteen miles in breadth. Hay produces 
many black cattle, which are exported, and fometimes pafs as far as 
England \ But the Iheep are rare ; fmall horfes are much ufed, as the 
country is not very mountainous. This ifle belongs to Mr. Campbell of 
Shawfield. Inhabitants about 7000. Lead mines were here difcovered 
in the fand-ftone, 1763; this lead is, as ufual, mingled with filver. 
Copper has alfo been found, and there are appearances of emery, and 
even of plumbago. At Saneg-mor is an intricate cave. 

, j^. Jill'''- is divided from the laft by a narrow found : it is about twenty 

miles in length, but the breadth feldom more than five. It is one of 
the moft rugged of the Hebudes, which, in general, are mountainous 
regions. The paps of Jura, a line of conic hills, prefent a fingular ap- 
pearance : they are on the wefl:ern fide of the ifland, and almofl: bare of 
vegetation *. The befl:, crops are potatoes and barley ; and the ifle con- 
tains abundance of peat. The cattle are fmall, but the fheep excellent. 
Minerals, iron-ore and manganefe ; and there is a quarry of flate. 
The noted gulph or whirlpool of Brecan, or Corryvrekan, is on the 
northern extremity of Jura \ 
»^tat. Account, vol. ix. p. 169. ' S. A. xi. 278. * S. A. xii. 318- ' Knox's View, ii. ^^1. 

To 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 199 

To the weft of Jura are the ifles of Oranfa and Colonfa ; and the Scotish 
ftrait between them being dry at low water, they may be confidered as 
one ifland, about ten miles in length. Soil generally light and arable, 
producing barley and potatoes. The venerable ruins of the ancient 
monaftery of Canons regular, in Colonni now exift no longer ; but 
thofe of a curious priory in Oranfa ftill remain*. 

The next ifle of any confequence is that of Mull, one of the largeft Mull. 
of the Hebudes, and furrounded with fmaller interefting iflands. Mull 
is about twenty-eight miles in length, by a medial breadth of about 
eighteen. An intelligent traveller informs us, that the population is 
about 7000 \ The climate cloudy and rainy. Chief diet of the peo- 
ple, potatoes or barley-meal, with a little fifh; drink pure water, fome- 
times a little whiflcy. Hovels conftrudted of whin ; and the thatch 
guarded againft the wind with large ftones, the fmoke afcending by a 
a hole in the roof The ingenious author obferves, that the Efquimaux, 
and Laplanders, prepare better refidences. On the N. E. is the new 
village of Tobermory, which it is hoped will be profperous. Accord- 
ing to St. Fond, this ifland contains a large portion of bafaltes ; and the 
mountain of Ben More prefents to his eye appearances of lava. On 
the north of Afhnacregs he difcovered a curious wall of bafalt, forming 
a kind of ancient circus. It is, indeed, not a little remarkable, that 
while the oppofite fhores of Argyle prefent the fame red granite which 
here pervades Scotland, in a line from the N. W. to the S. E. as already 
mentioned, yet Mull, which is diredly in that line, feems to difplay no 
appearance of it, a circumftance which adds to the credibility, that in 
this neighbourhood may have been an ancient volcano, which deranged 
the courfe o,f nature. For though the volcanic fyftem have been 
pufhed by fome French writers to a ludicrous excefs, yet, when we 
confider the numerous volcanoes exifting in Kamfchatka, and particu- 
larly along the Andes, in South America, by many believed to have 
been a continent of later formation than thofe of the other hemifphere, 
it may feem mere prejudice, not to allow the exiftence of volcanoes, in 
certain inftances ; though fire be in general too potent an agent for the 
mild progrefs of nature, and, indeed, nearly accidental, while water is 

' Stat. Ace, xil. 327. ' St. Fond) tome ii. p. 89. 

her 



200 SCOTLAND. 

ScoTisH her mand and unlverfal engine : but, on die other hand, when we 

Tc LE S 

refiedl that bafalt is ftrongly impregnated with iron, and that the 
bafakic columns are alio found at Edinburgh, at Dichmont, Clydefdale, 
and in Skey, and extend over great part of the county of Antrim, we 
muft allow a circle of about 600 miles for this eruption, far too vaft 
for any volcano or volcanoes, and probably ariiing from the ferrnenta- 
tion of iron in the interior of the globe. Mull (lands in the centre of 
feveral fmall but interefting ifles. On the eaft is Lifmore, fertile in 
oats, bigee, or beer, often called by the vague name of barley, though 
it be a very dillincl fpecies from the Englifii barley. This ifle was 
anciently the chief feat of the bifhops of Argyle, who were thence de- 
nominated Bifhops of Lifmore, and fome ruins of their refidence 
remain : it was in confequence well replenifhed with deer, and fables 
have arifen that it was once a foreft. To the fcuth of Lifmore occurs 
Kerrara, remarkable for the death of Alexander II, in 1249 "' To the 
vulcanift St. Fond', Kerrara feems partly volcanic, as it produces bafalt; 
but it has alfo flate, and a fibrous micaceous fchiflus, compofed of 
quartz, fteatite, and mica. 
Icolm-kill. But the moft curious objedts in the vicinity of Mull, are Icolm-kill, 

and StafFa. Hyona, or Icolm-kill, is about three miles long, by one 
broad, and is venerable as the primitive feat of Scotifli literature and 
religion, founded by St. Columba in the fixth century. Its hiftory and 
ruins have been often defcribed ; but, it may be added, from a recent 
traveller, that the ifle produces beautiful white marble, and large blocks 
of jafper, or rather indurated fteatites ■°. The facred edifices are partly 
couftruded of red granite, refembling the Egyptian, which forms 
Icolm kill, and the ifle of Nuns adjacent, fragments of the great granitic 
chain, formerly mentioned. Some parts of the ifle are faid to prefent 
green and red jafper, elegantly veined, and fome fpecimens of zeolite ; 
in the bay of Martyrs, on the E. fide, is found hornblende ; and in the 
fmall haven, on the oppofite part of the ifle, are immenfe numbers of 
beautiful pebbles, chiefly ferpentine, jafper, granite, marble, lapis ne- 

* Pennant, 357. 9 Tomeii. 170. 

'° Garnett, I. 266, correfted by Jaraefon, in his Mineralogy, and by the ocular obfervations 
of a friend. 

phriticus 



CHAP, IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. aoi 

phrltlcus, nephritic afbeftos, violet coloured quartz, and porphyry. Scotish 
Thefe pebbles are rounded, and finely polilhed by the tide, which rolls "Les. 
immenfe quantities of them backwards and forwards, with a noife like 
thunder". In botany this ifle produces the beautiful fea buglofs, and 
the fea holly; the Lapland willow, a fcarce fhrub, grows not far from the 
marble quarry : navel wort, marfli trefoil, and dwarf juniper, are alfo 
found. 

Staffa, about fix miles to the N. of Hyona, was firft introduced to stafia. 
public notice by Sir Jofeph Banks. Buchanan has mentioned the ifle, 
but not its grand fingularities, its beautiful bafaltic columns, and one of 
the moft furprifing objects of nature, the vaft bafaltic cavern, called 
Au-ua-vine, or the harmonious grotto, a name now conneded, as every 
thing is, with Fingal ; but which may arife, either from a melodious 
found, produced by the percuffion of the waves at the furtheft extre- 
mity, or from the exa<3: order in which the columns are difpofed ". 
Height of the entrance fifty-fix feet, breadth thirty-five, thicknefs of 
the exterior vault twenty. The depth, or length of the cavern is no 
lefs than 140 feet ; and when St. Fond has reprefented the exterior 
. light as penetrating the whole, he has committed a great error in 
perfpedtive. 

To the N. W. of Mull, are the ifles of Tirey and Col, the former Tirey. 
producing a moft beautiful marble, of a rofe-colour, penetrated with 
finall irregular cryftals of green hornblende, and which the French na- 
turalifts have from the name of the ille called Tirite, no fimilar marble 
being any where found. Tirey is generally plain and fertile. Col, on 
the contrary, is rocky, but has feveral fmall lakes, replenlfhed with fifti. 
Dr. Johnfon has paid a deferved tribute to its lord'\ 

Another groupe confifts of Skey, in the Scandinavian ftyled Skua, and Skey, 
the furrounding ifles. Skey is the largeft of the Hebudes, being about 
forty-five Englifh miles in length, and about twenty-two in breadth. 
Inhabitants about 15,000 ; chief exports black cattle and fmall horfes : 
the land, as ufual in the Hebudes, rough and hilly. Muggaftot is the 
refidence of the Lord Macdonald, Dunvegan that of Mr. Macleod. At 
Struan is a Danifh fort, fixty feet diameter, and eighteen high '\ A 
high hill, near Talyfkir, prefents a feries of bafaltic columns, the moft 

" Garnett, ib. " St. Fond, tome ii. p. 59. '^ Journey, p. 295. '♦ Pennant, pi. 36. 

VOL. I. D D northern 



coa SCOTLAND. 

ScoTisH northern of this clafs : pillars pentagonal, and about twenty feet high *, 
Dr. Johnfon, and his attendant Mr. Bofwell, have well defcribed the 
ftate of life and manners in Skey. The houfes are chiefly turf, co- 
vered with grafs. The face of the country wild, heathy, and deluged 
with continual rains. To the fouth of Skey are the ifles Rhuin 
and Eig : the firft ftill produces red deer, an animal now rare in the 
ifles; and in Eig is a curious cave, Vv'ith forty fkeletons, remains of the 
people here flain by a Macleod. To the N. E. of Skey are Raza and 
Scalpa ; the harbour of Portree is protected by the former ifle, and has 
a village of the fame name, the only one in the country. The other 
ifles in this groupe offer little memorable. Canna and Eig contain 
bafaltic pillars, and in the former is Compafs Hill, which ft:rongly 
affedls the needle. 

It now remains to give fome Idea of the exterior chain of the 
Weftern Ifles, forming, as it were, a barrier againft the Atlantic. 
Rona. Two fmall and remote ifles have attraded confiderable notice. The 

firfl; is that of Rona, about twelve leagues to the N. W. of Cape 
Wrath, and about thirty leagues W. from the Orkneys. This little 
ifle, with its companion Sulifka, or Bara, has almofl; efcaped from the 
Scotifli maps, being little known and rarely vifited. In the laft century. 
Sir George M'Kenzie, of Tarbat, afterwards Earl of Cromarty, drew 
up a fhort account of Rona, from the oral information of inhabitants, at 
that time confift^ing only of five families "'. As the ifle could only fup- 
port thirty inhabitants, any fupernumeraries were fent to Leuis, to 
their lord, the Earl of Seaforth, to whom they paid yearly a fmall 
tribute of meal and feathers. Drift timber fupplied their only fuel : 
he adds, that the wool of their fheep was bluilh, and afcribes the fame 
colour to thofe of Hirta, or St. Kilda. 

The fmall ifle of Hirta, or St. Kilda, mufl; have attraded much notice, 
even in Leiley's time, for in his map he has reprefented it as about fix 
times the fize of Skey, while in truth it is only two miles and a half 
long, by one mile in breadth. St. Kilda is about twelve leagued- to the 
weft of North Vift ; and has been repeatedly defcribed, the fingular 

• On the oppofite fide of the ifie, near Port Rce, is aiiotlier bafaltic rock, of great )ieight. 
Stat. Ace. xvi. 140. In Portree parifli is a large cave, full of curious ftalaaites. lb. 147. 

'5 Monro's Dcrfcript. of the W. Ifles, in 1 549. Edin. 1774. Duodecimo, p. 63. The 
Stat. Ace. xix. 271, adds iiothing. 

1 1 manners 



Hirta. 



CHAP.IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 203 

manners of its inhabitants havinjr excited confiderable attention, and Scotish 

. Isles. 

for a minute account, the reader muft be referred to Martin and Macavi- 
ley. Sheep abound here, and in the little ifles adjacent, probably of the 
fame kind with thofe of Shetland ; but the late accounts fay nothing of 
the colour, and only fpeak of the fecundity. 

Having thus briefly mentioned thefe remote and little vifited iflcs, Leuls. 
the plan here followed muft be refumed by fome account of Leuis, 
the principal ifland of the Weftern chain. It is about fifty miles in 
length, by tw^enty in breadth. The face of the country confifts of a 
heathv elevated ride;e full of morafles S. W. to N. E. ; but near the 
fhores are feveral verdant vales capable of cultivation. The Harris, or 
fouth end of this ifle, is ftill more mountainous, and prefents what is 
called a foreft, becaufe fome deer are there found. James VI attempted 
to introduce induftry into the Hebudes by planting a Dutch colony at 
Stornaway in Leuis; but it was foon extirpated by the inhabitants.* 
Stornaway is hovv'ever now a confiderable and flourifhing town, with 
an excellent harbour; the view from which, far to the eaft, prefents 
the rugged mountains of Sutherland and Rofs; and near it is the feat of 
the Earls of Seaforth, formerly proprietors of the ifland." Befides cot- 
tages, there are about feventy houfes covered with flate. The feafons 
in Leuis are oppreflTed with rain, as ufual in the Wefl;ern highlands 
and ifles ; but there is a confiderable fifhery. The crops are oats, bigg, 
and potatoes; no trees will thrive except alder, and mountain afh ; and 
hardly a fhrub appears : but there are many black catdc and fheep ; nor 
is there any want of fmall horfes. But the chief refource of Leuis muft 
be the fifhery, till induftry fhall have found the means of draining the 
upland marfties, and fpreading an exuberance of lime as manure. At 
Clafl'ernes is a remarkable judicial circle, confifting of an avenue of thirty- 

• Mr. Marlhall, in his Travels in Holland, &c. vol. i. p. 1-5, obferres that, in tlie opinion of 
the Dutch, the onlimean of eftablifting a fifhery in the well of Scotland, would be to build a city, 
and make it the feat of the whole undertaking, as he there explains at length. But fuch a city 
would be far better fituated on the weftern coaft of Scotlan<l, as the example of Stornaway proves'. 
There is no town between Campbletown and Thuifo, a fpace of 300 miles, though there feems 
to have been one on Loch Tong. Knox, ii. 473. 

"5 Stat. Acc. xix. 241. 

D D 2 nine 



204 SCOTLAND. 

ScoTisH nine ftones about feven feet high, clofing in a circle of twelve ftones 
Isles. y/'ith. one in the centre thirteen feet in height. 
Noith Vill. To the fouth of Leuis is North Vift, about twenty-two miles in 

length from E. to W. and about feventeen in breadth N. to S., for 
recent difcoveries have reftored this iile to its proper form, among 
many other Improvements which have taken place within thefe few 
years in Scotifh geography. The face of the country correfponds in 
general with that of Leuis ; and trees are equally unknown. Potatoes 
are generally cultivated. Wefterly winds, with rain or fog, ufurp two 
thirds of the yean Lord Macdonald is the proprietor." 

Souih Vlft. The fmall ifle of Benbecula, and fome others, lie betwixt North and 

South Vift ; the latter is about twenty-three miles in length N. to S. by 
about ten in breadth W. to E. The morafsy central chain extends alfo 
through this ifle ; but to the eaft are dry hills covered with heath and 
verdure. The produdlions alfo refemble thofe of Leuis ; and there are 
many fmall lakes full of excellent trout. Chief exports black cattle and 
kelp. This ifle is alfo naked of wood. 

Orkneys. The iflands of Orkney and Shetland remain to be defcribed. The 

Orkneys form a numerous groupe, around the Main Land, or what, 
by fome new and fabulous term, is called Pomona.'^ The Main Land 
is about twenty-five miles in length E. to \V. by about thirteen in 
breadth N. to S. Kirkwall, the chief town of the Orkneys, contains 
about three hundred houfes ; and has a ftately cathedral dedicated to St. 
Magnus, length 226 feet, height of the roof 71, of the fteeple 133. It 
isbuilt of freeftone, and by the good fenfe and tafte of the Orcadians is 
preferved more entire than even the Cathedral at Glargow\" Oppofite 
ftands the bifliop's palace, now called a caftle. The chief exports of 
Kirkwall are beef, pork, butter, tallow, hides, calf fkins, rabbit fkins, 
failed fifh, oil, feathers, linen yarn, and coarfe linen cloth, kelp,* and 
in fruitful years corn. The chief imports are wood, flax, coal, fugar, 
- foirits, wines, tobacco, and fnuff, flour and bifcuit, foap, leather, hard- 

" Stat. Ace. xiii. 300. 

•' The old accounts are Wallace's 1693, and Brand's 1701 ; tlie modern, the Statiftic 
Survey. 

'» Stat. Ace. vii. 531. 

* Sanba produces gi eat quantities of kelp; when the Orkneys in general may yield 2,Joo 
lona; 500 and 600 are drawn from that ifle only. S. A. vii, 455. 

wares, 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. a&S 

wares, broadcloth, printed linens and cottons. In 1790 tlie exports Scotish 
were valued at 26,5981. ; and the imports at 20,8031. Manufadurcs ^^''''^• 
are linen yarn, and coarfe linens, and kelp : this lafl; was intro- 
duced about fixty years ago, and has been fince diffufed over the 
Highlands and ifles. In moft parts of the Main Land the foil is good, 
though {hallow, with a calcareous bottom. The horfes are fmall but 
fpirited ; and the cows, though alfo fmall, yield excellent milk. The 
flieep in the illands of Orkney are computed at 50,000. Swine alfo 
abound of a dirty white colour, and diminutive fize. The numbers of 
fea fowl may be eafily imagined. The Norfe language '.has yielded 
to the Engliih, and the manners of the people are fingularly civilized 
for fo remote a region. The Main Land contains feveral of thofe 
edifices called Piks houfes, and on its weftern fide at Yeftnaby, near 
the houfe of Skeil is a fmgular natural pavement, confifting of flones 
figured in various forms, refting on a bed of red clay reclining on a 
high rock : the length of this fingular pavement is about a quarter of 
a mile, breadth about twenty feet.""" The Ward Hill of Hoy, the 
higheft in this region, (1620 feet,) (lands in the illand of the fame name, 
the S. E. promontory of which is erroneoufly called Walls in the Eng- 
liih maps, inftead of the native name Waes : near its bottom is the 
noted dwarfy ftone, about 34 feet long by 17 broad, and 8 high, 
hollowed out by art, probably-for the refidence of fome hermit. 

The inhabited illands of Orkney are computed at twenty-fix, and the 
people at 23,053 ;*' the bafes are chiefly fandftone, and fandflone 
breccia, as appears from Mr. Jamefon's recent Mineralogy of the Scotilli 
Ifles. Iron is found, and perhaps fome lead ; but the mention of filver 
and tin feems fabulous. Hazles are feen, and fometimes willow, and 
fome afh trees ; thorn bufhes, and plumb trees, flill exift in the 
Bifliop's garden. But in the moralTes, trunks of ancient trees are found, 
fometimes thirty feet in length. It is furprifing that in the prefent pro- 
grefs of every art, numerous experiments have not been made to dif- 
cover fome tall tree, which can endure the fpray of the ocean ; for if 
a fence of fuch were firft reared, many other kinds might flourilL un- 
der its protedion. The mountain alli, or the birch, which in Lapland 
*» Wallace, p. 24. Brand, p. 43. " S. A. xx. 612. 

Is 



2o6 SCOTLAND. 

ScoTisH Is the laft offspring of expiring vegetation, may perhaps be found to 
anfwcr this defcription. 
Shetland. The iflands of Shetland prefent another groupe fimilar to thofe of 

Orkney ; with a Main Land or chief ifland in its centre. The Main 
Land is much interfedled by the fea : and is about fifty-feven miles in 
length, by about ten or twelve miles of medial breadth.* The other 
ifles are generally fmall, yet twenty-fix are faid to be inhabited. " On 
viewing thefe iflands in general, a wonderful fcene of rugged, bleak, 
and barren rocks prefents itfelf to our view. No tree or fhrub is to be 
feen, to relieve the eye in wandering over thefe dreary fcenes. Some- 
times however a few fcanty portions of cultivated ground catch the eye 
of the traveller, exciting emotions of pleafure, and forming a ftriking 
contraft to the barren heath-covered mountains, which fkirt them. The 
w^eftern part prefents many fcenes as wild and flerile as can well be 
conceived ; grey rocks rifmg from the midft of marflies or pools, and 
fhores bounded by awful fea-beat precipices, do not fail to raife in the 
mind ideas of defolation and danger. 

*' The coafts are in general rugged and precipitous, prefenting in 
many places fcenes truly grand and magnificent ; vaft rocks of various 
heights, dreadfully rugged and broken, oppofing their rude fronts to 
all the fury of a tempeftuous ocean ; which in fome places has formed 
great detached pillars, in others has excavated grand natural arches and 
caverns that mock all human magnificence ; and ftrike the beholder 
with that awe and wonder, which muft affecS every one on viewing 
thefe amazing wrecks of nature."" 

Such is the animated defcription of a late writer ; who adds that the 
caft fide of the Main Land, and other ifles, is comparatively low, but 
the weft lofty and rugged. This is well known to be the cafe with moft 

* We have better charts of the coafts of New Holland, than of the ifles of Orkney and Shet- 
land. Captain Donnelly's ch;irt of the Shetland ifles, feems the moll accurate, in which the 
Main land correlponds in length with Leiiis, while Ainfley's would give a length of almoft ninety 
miles. Yell and Unft, feem alfo more properly difpofed in Captain Donnelly's map. The 
Danifti Captain Von Lowenorn (Zach's Geographical Journal, May, I7g9) found that the 
Shetland ifles were about one third fliorter than reprefented in the Englifli map (Preftcn's) ; 
which alfo puts the northern extremity half a degree further north, than it was found by minute 
obfervations. Lowenorn publillied a map of thefe ifles, in 1787. 

** Jamefon's Min. p. 2, 3. 8vo. 

mountains 



CHAP. IV. NATURAL CEOGRAPHY. 207 

mountains and iflands, becaufe the winds and tempefts from the wcfl; Scons h 
have more power than thofe from the oppofite quarter. The hills in ^^'''^^" 
the Main Land run in three ridges from N. toS.; they are generally 
round and of little height. Ronas, the higheft, ftands detached in the 
N. W. corner of the Main Land ; and is about 1500 feet above the level 
of the fea. When the fame writer attempts to eftablifli that all chains 
of mountains run according to the length of the country, he efpoufes 
a mere theory m oppofition to ftubborn fads. The mountains of 
North America, the Uralian and fome other chains in Siberia ; the 
tranfverfe chain through the centre of Africa E. to W. all eftablifh the 
contrary pofitlon. In Europe the mountains of Spain, the Alps, the 
Carpathian mountains ; and, not to crowd examples, thofe of Ireland, 
Scotland, and even of England, have no connexion with the length of 
the country, nor can a ftronger proof be produced of the boldnefs of 
theory than thus to remove even mountains from their feats ; which 
proceed in every direftion, bend and terminate without any vifible 
caufe, and have feldom any connedion with the form of a country, as 
the deftrudive powers of nature external and internal affail mountains 
even more than plains. 

The hills in Shetland are chiefly compofed of fand-ftone, breccia, &c. 
The bafis feems gneifs, and micaceous Ichiftus, which are fometimes 
expofed to the air. Limeftone is alfo found and fome granite ; but on 
the whole the mafs is arenaceous. A kind of brown wacken is found in 
PapaStour; where may alio be traced fteatite, calcedony, red jafper, 
and fluate of lime. In Unft, the moll northern of thefe ifles, appear 
hills of ferpentine, containing actinote, labrador hornblende, tremolite, 
and talc : and the Shaw, the mofl: northern point of this ifle, and of 
the Britifli dominions, confifts chiefly of gneifs. Unft alfo produces 
iron-ftone, jafper or rather ferpentine, pure rock cryftals, and garnets 
of an elegant form. This remote ifle fupplies black oats, bigg, pota- 
toes, cabbages, and various garden roots and plants, particularly de- 
licate artichokes."^ In general the granite, and. micaceous fchiftus, 
appear furtheft to the north and weft. Sappare is found in the S. W. 
cliifs of the Main Land ; and it is faid there are appearances of copper 

»3 Stat. Ace. V. i8j. 

la 



2oS SCOTLAND. 

ScoTisH ill the fame quarter. It was in the form of pyrites, and was worked 
Isles. for fome time, till the vein gradually decreafed and was abandoned.'* 
What is called the bog ore of iron feems to abound in Fetlar, and of 
excellent quality.^' 

The climate of the Shetland ifles is variable, and difturbed with 
rains and thick fogs. The frofts are feldom fevere, and fnovv rarely 
continues long on the ground. The inhabitants are indeed fufficiently 
wretched, without additional evils; and a benevolent government 
ought to pay a particular attention to thofe diftant prifoners. The cor- 
rufcatlons of the Aurora Borealis illuminate the long gloom of winter, 
and delight the inhabitants, who call them merry dancers. The arable 
land is moflly near the coaft, and produces a coarfe kind of oats and 
bigg. Potatoes have lately formed an addition of fingular advantage ; 
but turnips, parfnips, and carrots, are confined to the gardens of gen- 
tlemen. The chief food of the inhabitants confifts of fifh, and various 
kinds of fea fowl, which cover the rocks : the captors of the laft fliew 
fmgular fkill and intrepidity, and often meet with a violent fate amidft 
the flupendous precipices. The cattle rather larger than thofe of Ork^ 
ney, and the butter excellent if properly prepared. Sheep are not un- 
common, and have been recently praifed for the finenefs of their fleece. 

'♦ Jamefon, p. 21. 

'5 S. A. xiii. 283. From Mr. Jamefon's Mineralogy of the Scolidi Ifles [z vols. 410.) it appears 
that Ailfa confifts chiefly of mingled hornblende and fejfpar : Arran of reddifh fand-ftone, h'ke 
Shetland, with veins of bafalt and pitch-ftone ; bnt Goatfell prefents micaceous fchiftus and 
granite, with yellow cryftals, or mock topazes, commonly fold as Cairngorm ftones. Bute, 
fimilar. Hay, limeftone, with granular quartz. Jura, granular quartz, with veins of bafalt : this 
gi'anular quartz is by Kirwan called arenaceous quartz, or primitive filiceous fand-ftone. Seil, 
flate ; Lifmore, limeilone, with bafalt. Mull has much bafalt, with fand-ftone, limeftone, &c. 
in the S. W. beautiful granite. Icolm-kill, nioftly granite, and hornblende rock, with one 
quarry of mai'ble. Coll, gneifs, with granite. Tirey, hornblende rock, gneifs, and bafalt, with 
a quarry of beautiful marble. Eig, bafalt, with limeftone. Sec. Rhum, red fand-ftone, with veins of 
bafalt ; mountains, hornblende, and felfpar. Canna bafaltic ; that at Compafs-hill affefts the 
needle. Skey, bafalt, with hornblende, limeftone, &c. Rafa, fand-ftone, and beautiful porphyr) , 
with a blue bafis. 

The exterior chain of the weftern Ifles, was not viCted by Mr. Jamefon ; but Leuis feems ta 
abound in lime-ftone, while Bernera is faid to confift of amianthus. 

The Orkneys confift almoft entirely of fand-ftone, maffy and fchiftofe : at Skeil, on the W. 
of the Main Land, the fand-ftone, which looks rufty, as if flightly impregnated with iron, is worn 
(as already mentioned) into many Angular forms, by the aclion of the weather, a circumftance 
which has greatly imprefled the old defcribers of the Orkneys. A few miles around Stromnefs 
are granite, gneifs, micaceous fchiftus, and hornblende. 

The 



CHAT. IV. NATURAL GEOGRAPHY. 205 

The horfes have mettle and beauty, and on account of the fniguiar S.otish 
minutenefs of then* fize have become objeds of luxury and curiofity in ^'■''^' 

England. The fwinc are fmall, and little propagated becaufe they 
'injure the paftures ; an evil eafily obviated by the fimple pradtice of put- 
ting a ring through the nofe. 

Lerwick, the chief town or rather village, flands on an excellent har- Lerwick, 
hour called Braffa Sound, formed by .the little ifle of Brafla on the eaft 
of the Main land, and formerly greatly frequented by the Dutch fifhers. 
Lerwick is an irregular village, perched on rocks ; and contains about 
150 families. Near it is one of thofe rude edifices called Piks houfes ; 
and feveral others appear in the ifles of Shetland, particularly in Fetlar : 
there is alfo a rock abounding with iron ore which affe£ts the compafs. 

The herrings appear oft' Shetland in vaft columns, in the month of 
June,, altering the very appearance of the ocean, which ripples like a 
current. Thefe columns have been computed to extend five or fix 
miles in length by three or four in breadth, and in bright weather re- 
fled: a variety of fplendid colours. They afterwards divide to the 
E. and W. of Great Britain, furnifhing a providential fupply of food to 
many barren diftridls. The chief exports of Shetland are filL of various 
kinds, chiefly herrings, cod, ling, and torfk, or tufk. The inhabitants 
of the Shetland iflands in 1798 were computed at 20,186,^° more than 
tne country can well fupport, efpecially in the prefent deficiency of in- 
tercourfe with the Dutch. They have of late become addided to the 
ufe of tea and fpirituous liquors, which will infallibly contribute to 
leflen the population. In this diftant region there are neither roads 
nor bridges, which may be pronounced the firft fteps in any country 
towards the progrefs of induftry. The fame deficiency occurs in the 
Orkneys, and even in the Northern extremity of Scotland ; where 
however a road has been recently opened between Ullapool and Dor- 
noch. The Swifs form roads even in the Alps ; and certainly the 
Scotifh Highlands do not offer more infuperable barriers to this mod 
eflential of all improvements. 

*5 Stat. Ace. XX. 612. 
VOL. I. " E E 



IRELAND. 



CHAPTER I. 



Naims. — Extent, — Original Population. — ProgreJJive Geography. — Hiftorical 

Epochs. — Antiquities, 

Names. 'TpHE large and fertile Ifland of Ireland, being fituated to the weft of 
•^ Great Britain, was probably difcovered by the Phoenicians as early 
as the fifter ifland. On the firft dawn of hiftory, and when the North- 
weft of Europe was as obfcure to the Greeks, as the iflands on the 
North Eaft of Siberia were recently to us, it would feem that Ireland 
conftituted one of the Cafliterides. The poems afcribed to Orpheus de- 
ferve no credit, but it appears that the ifland was known to the Greeks 
by the name of Juverna, about two centuries before the birth of Chrift. 
When C^efar made his expedition into Britain, he defcribes Hibernia 
as being about half the fize of the ifland which he had explored ; and 
while the Romans maintained their conquefts in the latter region, Ireland 
continued of courfe to be well known to them, and Ptolemy has given 
a map of the ifland which is fupcrior in accuracy to that which repre- 
fents Scotland. Towards the decline of the Weftern Empire, as the 
Qountry had become more and more known, and had been peopled 
with various tribes, the Romans difcovered that the ruling people in 
Ireland were the Scoti ; and thenceforth the country began to be 
termed Scotia, an appellation retained by the monaftic writers till the 

eleventh 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL CEOGRAPHY. 211 

eleventh century, when the name Scotia having pafix-d to modern Scot- Names, es- 
land, the ancient name of Kibernia began to rcafiume its honours. It 
is fuppofed that this name, and the Gothic denomination Ireland, are 
mere modifications of the native term Erin, implying the country of 
the weft. 

The extent of this noble ifland is about 300 miles in length, and E^^teiit. 
about 160 at the greateft breadth. The contents in fquare miles may 
be computed at 27,457;'* and the population being about three, mil- 
lions, there will be about 1 14 inhabitants to each fquare mile. 

It is probable that the original population of Ireland pafied from Oiigmal Po- 
Gaul, and was afterwards increafed by their brethren the Guydil from P"^'"^"' 
England. About the time that the BelgK feized on the fouth of Eng- 
land, it appears that kindred Gothic tribes pafled to the fouth of Ireland. 
Thefe are the Firbolg of the Irifh traditions; and appear to have been 
the fame people whom the Romans denominated Scoti, after they had 
emerged to their notice by not only extending their conquefts to the 
north and eaft in Ireland, but had begun to make maritime excurfions 
againft the Roman provinces in Britain. But Ireland had been fo much 
crowded with Celtic tribes, expelled from the continent and Britain, by 
the progrefs of the German Goths, that the Belgce almoft loft their 
native fpeech and dlftinsft charaQer ; and from intermarriages, &c. be- 
came little diftingulfliable from the original population except by fu- 
perior ferocity, for which the Scoti, or thofe who aiTedled a defcent 
from the Gothic colonies were remarkable ; while the original Gael 
feem to have been an innocuous people. 

The map of Ireland by Ptolemy, above-mentioned, is the firft gee- Piofrreffive 
graphical document of- the ifland. The general Ihape, rivers, and pro- Geogrspiir* 
montories, are delineated with as much accuracy as could have been - , 
expected. Nay as we advance into the middle ages, the geogi:aphy of 
Ireland becomes more obfcure. The chief tribes mentioned by Ptolemy 
are the Darni upon the North eaft, the Venicni and Robogdii on the 
North weft. Beneath them are the Nagnati, Auteri, and CJangani, on 
the Weft ; the Erdini in the centre ; and the Yoluntii, Eblani, and 
CaucI, on the Eaft ; fucceeded by the Southern tribes of the Menapii, 

• Beaufort, p. 14, fays 30,370 Englifh miks^ ■ 

E E 2 Brigantes, 



212 IRELAND. 

Names, ex- Brlgantes, VocUi, Ivelni, Velabrl, and Luceni. Ptolemy alio mentions 
TENT, &c. ^^^ towns ; of which the chief is Eblana now Dublin. In the middle 
ages we find the Dalriadi on the north-eaft ; and the Crutheni on the 
north-weft. The large tribe of Nelli occupy much of the centre. The 
Voluntii feem transformed into the people of UUagh ; the Erdlni of 
Ptolemy yield the name to Argialla ; and the Nagnati to Maigh Nais. 
The Gangani of Ptolemy feem the Galeng of the middle ages j the 
Me- apii, &c. muft be traced in Muman, or prefent Munfter. The 
towns mentioned by Ptolemy might alfo be traced with fome degree 
of accuracy. 

The ravages of the Danes, in the ninth and following centuries-, 
cannot be fuppofed to throw much light on the progreffive geography 
of Ireland : but the fettlements of the Englifh under Henry II certainly 
contributed to that end, for Giraldus Cambrenfis at that period compofed 
his defcription of Ireland, which amidft numerous fables contains fome 
curious fads : and the geography of Ireland was little better known till 
the reign of Elizabeth, when Stanihurft publifhed his delcription, which 
was foon followed by that of Spenfer the poet. The moft remarkable 
diftindion introduced by the new invaders into Ireland was that of the 
'Englifh Pale, or circuit of a few counties around Dublin, within which 
the Englifli language was chiefly fpoken. So inconfiderable indeed were 
the EngliQi poffeffions in Ireland, that the monarchs only aflumed the 
ftyle of Lords of Ireland, till the reign of Henry VIII, when king of 
Ireland became a part of the fovereign's ftyle. Nor was Ireland com- 
pletely fubjugated till the reign of the firft James, who adds this merit 
to that of founding the American colonies ; but mankind will ever be 
infatuated by the triumphs of war, and prefer a meteor to the pure light 
of a pacific reign. 
HisTORicAi, The firft hiftorical epoch of Ireland i.s its original population by the 
Celtic Gauls, and the fubfequent colonization by the Belg:E. 

2. The maritime excurfions of the Scoti againft the Roman provinces 
in Britain. 

3. The converfion of Ireland to Chriftianity in the fifth century, 
which W..S followed by a fingular efTed: ; for while the mafs of the 
people retained all the ferDcity of favage manners, the monafteries pro- 

7 duced 



Epochs. 



CHAP. I. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 213 

duced many men of fuch piety, and learning, that Scotia or Ireland Hi.'^torical 
became celebrated all .over Chriftendom. Epochs. 

4. This luftre was diminiflied by the ravages of the Scandinavians, 
which began with the ninth century, and can hardly be faid to have 
ceafed when the Englifli fettlement commenced. The ifland had been 
fplit into numerous principalities, or kingdoms as they were ftyled ; 
and though a Chief Monarch was acknowledged, yet his power ^vas 
feldom efficient, and the conftant diflentions of fo many fmall tribes 
rendered the ifland an eafy prey. 

5. In the year 1 170, Henry II permitted Richard Strongbow Earl of 
Pembroke to eftedl a fettlement in Ireland, which laid the foundation 
of the Englifh pofleffions in that country. There are however coins 
of Canute king of England, flruck at Dublin, perhaps in acknowledg- 
ment of his power by the Danifh fettlers. 

6. Ireland began to produce feme manufa£tures abont the fourteenth 
century, and her fayes or thin woollen cloths were exported to Italy. 
It is probable that thefe were produced by the Briftolian colony, which 
had pafled to Dublin, as mentioned in the defcription of England. 

y. Richard 11 king of England attempted in perfon the conqueft of 
Ireland, but being iniprudent and ill ferved, nothing of moment was 
effefted. The fubfequent attempts of the Englifh monarchs to ac- 
compli ill this purpofe need not be enumerated. 

8. In the reign of James I, Ireland became entirely fubjugated ; and 
colonies of Engllih and Scots were eftabliihed in the North. 

9. The chief mean of the affimilation of the countries having been 
completely negledled, namely, the nniverla! inftitution of parochial 
fchools, for the education of children in the proteftant religion and 
Englifh language, the Irifh continued a diftindl people ; and bein"- in- 
Aigated by their fanatic prlcfts executed their dreadful mafTacre of the; 
Englifh fettlers in 1641. This infurredlion was not totally cruflied till. 
Cromwell led his veterans into Ireland. 

10. The appearance of James li in Ireland to reclaim his- crown, • 
may alfo deferve a place. 

11. The amazing progrefs of Ireland in manufadures and com- 
merce, within thefe twenty years, may be clafled as the moil illuRrious 
of its hiflorical epochs, 12. The 



314 IRELAND. 

Historical 12. The deplorable events which have recently happened In Ireland, 

have led the way to its union v\rir,h Great Britain, a meafure which it is 

eagerly to be hoped will be productive of great reciprocal advantages. 

Aniqmties, Upon a rcvIew of the more ancient of thefe hiftorical epochs, and of 

the monuments which may be confidered as belonging to each, It mufl: 

be confidered that the edifices having been conftruded -of wood till the 

eleventh or tv\'elfih century, it cannot be expedled that any remains of 

them fhould exift. Stone was chiefly employed in the conftruftion of 

funeral erections of various kinds ; nor are barrows wanting In Ireland, 

being hillocks of earth, thrown up in commemoration of the IHuftrious 

dead. Other monuments commonly ftyled Druldic may alfo be found 

in Ireland ; fuch as fmgle ftories ered, circular temples or ratlier places 

of judgment, and the like, which may more properly be afcribed to 

the Belgic colony.* 

The converfion of Ireland to Chrlftianity was followed by the 
ereQion of a vaft number of churches and monafleries, the latter being 
computed to exceed one thoufimd In number ; but all thefe edifices were 
originally fmall, and conflrufted of interwoven withes, 'or hev^n 
•wood ; for St. Bernard, in the twelfth century, mentions a ftone church 
as a fincrular noveltv in Ireland. 

But the Scandinavian chiefs mufc before this period have Introduced 
the ufe of ftone Into the caftles, neceffiiry for their own defence agalnfl: 
a nation whom they oppreiled ; and fometimes even fubterraneous re- 
treats were deemed expedient, of which Ware and others have engraved 
fpecimens. To the Scandinavian period alfo belong what are called 
the Danes Raths, or circular Intrenchments ; and fome chapels, fuch 
as thofe of Glendaloch, Portaferry, Killaloe, Saul Abbey, St, Doulach, 
•and Cafliel, If we m.ay judge from the fingularlty of the ornaments, 
which however only afford vague conjecture. But of the round caftles, 
called Duns m Scotland, and of the obellflcs engraven with figures